Important Resource (important + resource)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Indirect Perceptual Realism and Multiple Reference

DIALECTICA, Issue 3 2008
Derek Brown
Indirect realists maintain that our perceptions of the external world are mediated by our ,perceptions' of subjective intermediaries such as sensations. Multiple reference occurs when a word or an instance of it has more than one reference. I argue that, because indirect realists hold that speakers typically and unknowingly directly perceive something subjective and indirectly perceive something objective, the phenomenon of multiple reference is an important resource for their view. In particular, a challenge that A. D. Smith has recently put forward for indirect realists can be overcome by appreciating how multiple reference is likely to arise when a projectivist variety of indirect realism is interpreted by speakers adhering to a naïve direct realism. [source]

From clergymen to computers,the advent of virtual palaeontology

GEOLOGY TODAY, Issue 3 2010
Russell J. Garwood
Palaeontology was established as a science in the Victorian era, yet has roots that stretch deeper into the recesses of history. More than 2000 years ago, the Greek philosopher Aristotle deduced that fossil sea shells were once living organisms, and around 500 ad Xenophanes used fossils to argue that many areas of land must have previously been submarine. In 1027, the Persian scholar Avicenna suggested that organisms were fossilized by petrifying fluids; this theory was accepted by most natural philosophers up until the eighteenth century Enlightenment, and even beyond. The late 1700s were notable for the work of Georges Cuvier who established the reality of extinction. This, coupled with advances in the recognition of faunal successions made by the canal engineer William Smith, laid the framework for the discipline that would become known as palaeontology. As the nineteenth century progressed, the scientific community became increasingly well organized. Most fossil workers were gentleman scientists and members of the clergy, who self-funded their studies in a new and exciting field. Many of the techniques used to study fossils today were developed during this ,classical' period. Perhaps the most fundamental of these is to expose a fossil by splitting the rock housing it, and then conduct investigations based upon the exposed surface (Fig. 1). This approach has served the science well in the last two centuries, having been pivotal to innumerable advances in our understanding of the history of life. Nevertheless, there are many cases where splitting a rock in this way results in incomplete data recovery; those where the fossils are not flattened, but are preserved in three-dimensions. Even the ephemeral soft-tissues of organisms are occasionally preserved in a three-dimensional state, for example in the Herefordshire, La Voulte Sûr Rhone and Orsten ,Fossil Lagerstätten' (sites of exceptional fossil preservation). These rare and precious deposits provide a wealth of information about the history of life on Earth, and are perhaps our most important resource in the quest to understand the palaeobiology of extinct organisms. With the aid of twenty-first century technology, we can now make the most of these opportunities through the field of ,virtual palaeontology',computer-aided visualization of fossils. Figure 1. A split nodule showing the fossil within, in this case a cockroachoid insect. Fossil 4 cm long (From Garwood & Sutton, in press). [source]

Safety and efficacy of solvent/detergent-treated antihaemophilic factor with an added 80 °C terminal dry heat treatment in patients with haemophilia A

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 3 2000
J. S. Powell
Plasma-derived factor VIII concentrates remain an important resource for haemophilia A patients. To improve the safety of these preparations, various methods of viral removal and inactivation have been used that are designed to eliminate both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. There have been rare reports that some viral inactivation processes altered the immunogenicity of some concentrates, leading to the development of factor VIII inhibitors in previously treated haemophilia A patients. This study evaluated the safety, efficacy and lack of neo-antigenicity of a highly purified factor VIII preparation which undergoes both solvent/detergent treatment and final dry heat treatment at 80 °C for 72 h. The study included: (i) a single blind, single-dose crossover pharmacokinetic study in 18 previously treated patients, comparing sibling lots of the unheated preparation (Koate® -HP) and the heat-treated preparation (Koate® -DVI), and (ii) an extended home treatment programme for 36 patients at two haemophilia treatment centres primarily to assess immunogenicity. Clinical parameters were assessed at regular intervals. The results confirm that Koate® -HP and Koate® -DVI are bioequivalent, and that Koate® -DVI is safe and efficacious for treatment of acute bleeding episodes and for surgery. Furthermore, the heat-treated preparation is not associated with the development of inhibitors in previously treated patients. [source]

Water resources in mountain regions: a methodological approach to assess the water balance in a highland-lowland-system

Rolf Weingartner
Abstract Mountains and highlands are typically areas that provide considerable quantities of water, the latter being an important resource for the lowlands. These run-off quantities remain discernible in the superior-scale river systems and significantly contribute to the global water resources. Therefore, mountain regions ought to be given specific consideration with regard to management endeavours. Although well known in principle, details of water resources originating from mountains remain under discussion. A new approach has been introduced, which depicts the water balance of Switzerland in a spatially distributed manner, based on catchments of about 150 km2. The main feature of this approach is the areal precipitation, which is calculated using run-off, evaporation and storage change of glaciers, instead of being derived from gauged precipitation values. This methodology was selected because measurement and regionalization of precipitation remain subject to large uncertainties in mountainous areas. Subsequently, the view is widened to the European Alps, which, as compared with the surrounding lowlands, contribute considerably higher annual discharge, especially in the summer months. Finally, the focus is put on the hydrological significance of mountains in general. In dry regions, mountains, in particular, are indispensable contributors to the water resources downstream. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Religious Diversity, Christian Doctrine and Karl Barth

In this article J.A. DiNoia's proposals for the recognition of subordinate and non-oppositional truths in the other religions, and his more recent defence of Barth's account of the religions in Church Dogmatics§17, are brought into dialogue with Karl Barth's account of truth extra muros ecclesiae in CD§69. It is argued that the latter raises a number of crucial doctrinal questions for DiNoia's own proposal for the recognition of subordinate and non-oppositional truth, and that it is a more important resource for contemporary discussions than is the controversial CD§17. [source]

Global Religious Transformations, Political Vision and Christian Witness,

Vinoth Ramachandra
From the nineteenth-century onwards religion has been, and continues to be, an important resource for nationalist, modernizing movements. What was true of Protestant Christianity in the world of Victorian Britain also holds for the nationalist transformations of Hindu Neo-Vedanta, Theravada Buddhism, Shintoism and Shi'ite Islam in the non-Western world. Globalizing practises both corrode inherited cultural and personal identities and, at the same time, stimulate the revitalisation of particular identities as a way of gaining more influence in the new global order. However, it would be a gross distortion to identify the global transformations of Islam, and indeed of other world religions, with their more violent and fanatical forms. The globalization of local conflicts serves powerful propaganda purposes on all sides. If global Christian witness in the political arena is to carry integrity, this essay argues for the following responses, wherever we may happen to live: (a) Learning the history behind the stories of ,religious violence' reported in the secular media; (b) Identifying and building relationships with the more self-critical voices within the other religious traditions and communities, so avoiding simplistic generalizations and stereotyping of others; (c) Actively engaging in the political quest for truly participatory democracies that honour cultural and religious differences. In a hegemonic secular culture, as in the liberal democracies of the West, authentic cross-cultural engagement is circumvented. There is a militant secularist ,orthodoxy' that is as destructive of authentic pluralism as its fundamentalist religious counterpart. The credibility of the global Church will depend on whether Christians can resist the totalising identities imposed on them by their nation-states and/or their ethnic communities, and grasp that their primary allegiance is to Jesus Christ and his universal reign. [source]

Overview and Summary: School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

Laura Kann PhD
ABSTRACT Background:, The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006 is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health programs in the United States ever conducted. Methods:, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts SHPPS every 6 years. In 2006, computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were completed by state education agency personnel in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia and among a nationally representative sample of districts (n = 538). Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with personnel in a nationally representative sample of elementary, middle, and high schools (n = 1103) and with a nationally representative sample of teachers of classes covering required health instruction in elementary schools and required health education courses in middle and high schools (n = 912) and teachers of required physical education classes and courses (n = 1194). Results:, SHPPS 2006 describes key school health policies and programs across all 8 school health program components: health education, physical education and activity, health services, mental health and social services, nutrition services, healthy and safe school environment, faculty and staff health promotion, and family and community involvement. SHPPS 2006 also provides data to monitor 6 Healthy People 2010 objectives. Conclusions:, SHPPS 2006 is a new and important resource for school and public health practitioners, scientists, advocates, policymakers, and all those who care about the health and safety of youth and their ability to succeed academically and socially. [source]

Too hot to handle?

Synchrotron X-ray damage of lipid membranes, mesophases
The call for brighter synchrotron X-radiation sources for use in structural biology research is barely audible as we enter the new millennium. Our brightest sources are already creating havoc when used at design specifications because of radiation damage. The time is long overdue to take stock of where we are and where we wish to go with regards to using existing sources and to designing new ones. The problem of radiation damage is particularly acute in studies involving kinetics and mechanisms where cryo-techniques are not always viable. Accordingly, we need to understand the very nature of radiation damage and to devise means of minimizing it. This is the thrust of the current report as applied to lipid membranes and mesophases. The experiments were performed at the most brilliant beamlines at CHESS, the APS and the ESRF. Two very different types of radiation damage are reported here. One involves a dramatic phase transformation and the other a disordering of lamellar stacking. How beam energy and dose rate affect damage is also discussed. The work highlights the free-radical-mediated nature of the damage process and the need for additional studies if the most efficient use is to be made of an important resource, synchrotron radiation. [source]

Changes in inhibitory activity and secondary conformation of soybean trypsin inhibitors induced by tea polyphenol complexation

Huihua Huang
Abstract BACKGROUND: Tea polyphenol (TP) is a new food additive for antioxidant application, while soybean is an important resource for food and feed processing. It is therefore of rational and practical significance to investigate the influence of TP on soybean trypsin inhibitors (TIs). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of TP on the inhibitory activity of Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman,Birk (BBTI) TIs and to reveal the relationship between the inhibitory activity and conformation of KTI and BBTI by measurement of circular dichroism (CD) spectra. RESULTS: KTI and BBTI were found to be partially deactivated by TP. BBTI exhibited stronger resistance than KTI to TP deactivation. The unchanged KM value of trypsin for benzoyl- DL -arginine- p -nitroanilide hydrolysis indicated that KTI and BBTI inhibited trypsin in a non-competitive pattern when complexed with TP. As the TP/TI ratio was increased and the inhibitory activity of KTI and BBTI decreased, the conformation of KTI and BBTI showed relevant changes and the major CD negative bands shifted progressively towards the near-UV region. CONCLUSION: These results show the deactivation effects of TP on KTI and BBTI and reveal preliminarily the relationship between the inhibitory activity and secondary structure of KTI and BBTI. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Committed to share: commitment and CMC use as antecedents of knowledge sharing

Bart van den Hooff
Knowledge sharing is an important process in modern organizations, as successful knowledge sharing can result in shared intellectual capital, an increasingly important resource. In this paper, we study the influence of organizational commitment and the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on knowledge sharing. In knowledge sharing, an important distinction is made between knowledge donating and knowledge collecting. Based on relevant literature, we hypothesize that commitment and CMC use are both positively related to both knowledge donating and knowledge collecting. We also hypothesize that CMC use positively influences commitment. On the basis of two case studies our conclusion is that CMC use is an antecedent of organizational commitment, and that such commitment, in turn, influences the willingness to both donate and collect knowledge. Further analyses lead to the conclusion that it is important to distinguish different processes of knowledge sharing (donating and collecting), different levels of commitment and knowledge sharing (organizational and departmental), and different modes of CMC use in order to get a full grasp of the relationship between commitment, knowledge sharing and CMC use. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Do farmers reduce genetic diversity when they domesticate tropical trees?

A case study from Amazonia
Abstract Agroforestry ecosystems may be an important resource for conservation and sustainable use of tropical trees, but little is known of the genetic diversity they contain. Inga edulis, a widespread indigenous fruit tree in South America, is used as a model to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity in five planted vs. five natural stands in the Peruvian Amazon. Analysis of five SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci indicated lower allelic variation in planted stands [mean corrected allelic richness 31.3 (planted) and 39.3 (natural), P = 0.009]. Concerns regarding genetic erosion in planted Amazonian tree stands appear valid, although allelic variation on-farm is still relatively high. [source]

Molecular characterization of novel resynthesized rapeseed (Brassica napus) lines and analysis of their genetic diversity in comparison with spring rapeseed cultivars,

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 6 2003
F. Seyis
Abstract Resynthesized (RS) rapeseed generated from interspecific hybridization between suitable forms of Brassica rapa L. (syn. campestris; genome AA, 2n = 20) and B. oleracea L. (CC, 2n = 18) represents a potentially important resource to expand genetic diversity in the narrow gene pool of oilseed rape (B. napus L., AACC, 2n = 38). In this study 165 RS rapeseed lines originating from crosses between an Indian Yellow Sarson (B. rapa ssp. trilocularis) and five different cauliflower (B. oleracea convar. botrytis) cultivars were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and their genetic diversity was compared in relationship to an assortment of 40 diverse spring oilseed and fodder rape varieties. Using three AFLP primer combinations, a total of 467 polymorphic bands were scored. Cluster analysis allowed differentiation among the different RS lines, which, as expected, were genetically highly divergent from the cultivars. The genetic diversity of the material is discussed in relation to its morphological variability with a view to the implementation of RS lines in oilseed rape breeding. [source]

Nested core collections maximizing genetic diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana

Heather I. McKhann
Summary The successful exploitation of natural genetic diversity requires a basic knowledge of the extent of the variation present in a species. To study natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana, we defined nested core collections maximizing the diversity present among a worldwide set of 265 accessions. The core collections were generated based on DNA sequence data from a limited number of fragments evenly distributed in the genome and were shown to successfully capture the molecular diversity in other loci as well as the morphological diversity. The core collections are available to the scientific community and thus provide an important resource for the study of genetic variation and its functional consequences in Arabidopsis. Moreover, this strategy can be used in other species to provide a rational framework for undertaking diversity surveys, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and phenotyping, allowing the utilization of genetic variation for the study of complex traits. [source]

Growth and survival of the Calafia mother-of-pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Hanley 1856) under different sequences of nursery culture,late culture at Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México

Mario Monteforte
The Calafia mother-of-pearl oyster, Pinctada mazatlanica (Hanley), and the Rainbow nacre shell, Pteria sterna (Gould), represent an important resource for México because of their potential in pearl production. The present work deals with the effect of different sequences of nursery culture-late culture on growth and survival of P. mazatlanica, from September 1993 to October 1994. The collected spat presented two main size groups: small (mean shell height of 7 mm), and large (13 mm). They were arranged into four experimental batches for each size group at a constant stocking density of 40,45 juvenile pearl oysters per Nestier cage. Three batches remained in nursery culture for 2, 4 and 6 months respectively, after which they were transferred to late culture in rail cages. A control group remained in nursery culture for 12 months. Growth was evaluated monthly and compared through anova and HSD Tukey tests. In addition to the shell height, width, depth (mm) and weight (g), data of shell volume (height × width × depth, in mm3) was also introduced to estimate and compare growth among the experimental groups. Mortality was estimated by counting the dead specimens every month and obtaining the percentage from a 100% initial survival at the start of the experiment. The juveniles showed different responses to the change from nursery culture to late culture; the level of each response varied significantly among the experimental groups at the end of the study. It seemed that a 6-month period for nursery culture was propitious for P. mazatlanica. [source]

Proteomic analysis of the venom from the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

Jia-Ying Zhu
Abstract Parasitoid venom is a complex mixture of active substances with diversified biological functions. Because of its range of activities, venom is an important resource with respect to potential application in agriculture and medicine. Only a limited number of peptides, proteins, and enzymes have been identified and characterized from parasitoid venom. Here we describe a proteomic analysis of the venom from the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Venom resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis yielded 56 protein spots with major proteins in the pI range 4,7 and molecular mass range of 25,66.2,kDa. The amino acid sequences of the proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Several venom proteins such as calreticulin, venom acid phosphatase, serine protease, arginine kinase, serine protease homolog, aminotransferase-like venom protein, and heat shock protein 70, were identified in silico based on their amino acid sequences. The full-length cDNAs of calreticulin and arginine kinase were cloned. Calreticulin showed 62% identity with calreticulin in the venom of Cotesia rubecula. Arginine kinase showed a high level of sequence identity (92%) with its counterpart in the venom of Cyphononyx dorsalis. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of calreticulin and arginine kinase were developmentally changed, suggesting a possible correlation with the oviposition process. This study contributes to our appreciation of a parasitoid wasp venom composition. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Bird Assemblage and Visitation Pattern at Fruiting Elmerrillia tsiampaca (Magnoliaceae) Trees in Papua New Guinea

BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2010
Steffen Oppel
ABSTRACT Most tropical trees produce fleshy fruits that attract frugivores that disperse their seeds. Early demography and distribution for these tree species depend on the effects of frugivores and their behavior. Anthropogenic changes that affect frugivore communities could ultimately result in changes in tree distribution and population demography. We studied the frugivore assemblage at 38 fruiting Elmerrillia tsiampaca, a rain forest canopy tree species in Papua New Guinea. Elmerrillia tsiampaca is an important resource for frugivorous birds at our study site because it produces abundant lipid-rich fruits at a time of low fruit availability. We classified avian frugivores into functional disperser groups and quantified visitation rates and behavior at trees during 56 canopy and 35 ground observation periods. We tested predictions derived from other studies of plant,frugivore interactions with this little-studied frugivore assemblage in an undisturbed rain forest. Elmerrillia tsiampaca fruits were consumed by 26 bird species, but most seeds were removed by eight species. The most important visitors (Columbidae, Paradisaeidae and Rhyticeros plicatus) were of a larger size than predicted based on diaspore size. Columbidae efficiently exploited the structurally protected fruit, which was inconsistent with other studies in New Guinea where structurally protected fruits were predominantly consumed by Paradisaeidae. Birds vulnerable to predation foraged for short time periods, consistent with the hypothesis that predator avoidance enhances seed dispersal. We identified seven functional disperser groups, indicating there is little redundancy in disperser groups among the regular and frequent visitors to this tropical rain forest tree species. [source]

Verbal,Behavioral Dissociations in Development

Jacqueline D. Woolley
Verbal and behavioral measures of children's knowledge are frequently dissociated. These situations represent a largely untapped but important resource for furthering an understanding of human cognition. In this paper, verbal,behavioral dissociations in children are discussed and analyzed, drawing from a wide range of domains. The article explores what might lead to different responses in different modalities, and it is proposed that children's goals may be an important factor. It is concluded that a variety of factors are involved in producing these dissociations, and that a richer picture of development will result from attention to these factors. [source]

A retrospective review of the associations between amblyopia type, patient age, treatment compliance and referral patterns

Brian E-G Chua BSc MB BS MPH
Abstract Aim:,To review presenting ages, referral sources, amblyopia type and treatment compliance in children attending a typical public hospital ophthalmology clinic with no formal amblyopia screening program in place. Methods:,One hundred and twenty-seven children attending the outpatients clinics of The Children's Hospital at Westmead for amblyopia management between January 2001 and May 2003 were reviewed. Presenting age, amblyopia type, referral source, treatment prescribed and compliance achieved were analysed using means, 95% confidence intervals (CI), and Mantel,Haenszel ,2 statistic. Results:,General practitioners and paediatricians provided most referrals. The mean presenting age was 32.9 (95% CI 29.0,36.9) months. There was no significant association between presenting age and amblyopia type (,2 = 6.00, P = 0.11, d.f. = 3), but a trend was found with deprivation amblyopia identified earliest, and pure anisometropic amblyopia identified latest (,2 = 5.65, P = 0.02, d.f. = 1). Compliance to patching did not differ significantly between sexes, with calculated aggregate compliance of 67.3% (95% CI: 59,75%) for boys and 66.3% (95% CI: 60,73%) for girls. Compliance to patching also did not differ significantly between amblyopia types (,2 = 3.61, P = 0.3, d.f. = 3). Compliance was best among younger and older children, and worst among those aged 15,30 months. There was no association between patching compliance and treatment duration. Conclusion:,Amblyopia is a preventable form of blindness. A multidisciplinary approach must be taken. Resources and education should be targeted at general practitioners and paediatricians who have the greatest opportunities to perform amblyopia screening. Teachers are an important resource in identifying cases missed at previous informal screening opportunities. Amblyopia treatment must be intensified and individualized between the ages of 15,30 months when compliance is poorest. [source]


Kathy Hytten
Drawing primarily on the work of John Dewey, Kathy Hytten argues that rethinking democracy can help us to respond more productively to the challenges of globalization. Dewey maintained that democracy is much more than a political system; instead it is a personal way of life, a mode of associated living, and a moral ideal. Yet this is not the vision of democracy prevalent today, especially within the rhetoric of globalization. Hytten begins by describing some of the challenges of globalization. She then shows how Dewey faced similar challenges, discussing why Dewey's ideas are still relevant. Hytten goes on to trace how Dewey's conception of democracy can help us to think differently about these challenges. She concludes by arguing that Dewey offers us some valuable democratic habits, dispositions, and visions that remain important resources in building a pluralistic, socially just, inclusive, and enriching community within our globalized world. [source]

An evaluation of logistic regression models for predicting amphipod toxicity from sediment chemistry

Jeffrey D. Wetherington
Abstract An empirical screening level approach was developed to assess the probability of toxicity to benthic organisms associated with contaminated sediment exposure. The study was based on simple logistic regression models (LRMs) of matching sediment chemistry and toxicity data retrieved from a large database of field-collected sediment samples contaminated with multiple chemicals. Three decisions were made to simplify the application of LRMs to sediment samples contaminated with multiple chemicals. First, percent mortality information associated with each sediment sample was condensed into a dichotomous response (i.e., toxic or nontoxic). Second, each LRM assumed that toxicity was attributable to a single contaminant. Third, individual contaminants present at low concentrations were excluded from toxic sediment samples. Based on an analysis of the National Sediment Inventory database, the LRM approach classified 55% of nontoxic sediments as toxic (i.e., false-positives). Because this approach has been used to assess the probability of benthic toxicity as reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), the resultant estimates of potential toxicity convey a misleading impression of the increased hazard that sediments pose to the health of aquatic organisms at many sites in the United States. This could result in important resources needlessly being diverted from truly contaminated sites to evaluate and possibly remediate sediments at uncontaminated sites. [source]

Experiences and support needs of siblings of children with cancer

BA MA PhD CPsychol Patricia Sloper
Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer places considerable demands on family life. Siblings have been shown to be at risk for development of emotional and behavioural problems. However, most studies have relied on parents' reports, and less is known about siblings' own views of their experiences. This paper presents findings from interviews with 94 siblings of children with cancer, at 6 and 18 months after diagnosis of the illness. Results show that, six months after diagnosis, siblings reported a number of problems: loss of attention and status; loss of their own and their families' usual activities and routines; loss of certainty and security; and loss of companionship of the ill child. For many, problems had resolved 18 months after diagnosis, but problems remained or had arisen for some. These were not confined to those whose brothers or sisters had relapsed or continued to have treatment. Supportive relationships were reported to be important resources, providing an opportunity for siblings to express their own feelings and needs, and information about the illness and treatment helped them to understand why family life was disrupted. Positive effects were also apparent: gains in maturity, understanding and compassion, and closer family relationships. The findings point to the need for support for siblings to provide information to help them make sense of the situation; opportunities to express their own feelings and reassurance to avoid fear and guilt; attention to feel valued and maintain self-esteem; and help to keep up their own interests and activities. Attention of parents and professionals in contact with the families was generally paid to the ill child. There is a need for health professionals, particularly those in the family's home community, to take a holistic approach to family support, to ensure that information and support is available to siblings. [source]

Measuring the value and impact of health library and information services: past reflections, future possibilities

Joanne Gard Marshall
Objectives:, To summarize the context, history and results of research studies conducted on the value and impact of health library and information services by the author since 1975 and to use this as a basis for examining ongoing developments related to evaluation research. To provide a comprehensive bibliography of library value and impact studies. Methods:, Literature review and background based on personal involvement in the studies under discussion. Results:, The author's studies demonstrate an ongoing evolution of value and impact studies since the mid-1970s. In health sciences libraries, the approach taken to measuring value and impact has been strongly influenced by the type of research being conducted in the health sciences field as a whole. As a result, health sciences library researchers have become early adopters of methods that incorporate outcome and impact measures and rigorous research designs, and the concept of evidence-based library and information practice. The paper recommends that a range of research approaches from various disciplines be used to guide future evaluation research. Conclusions:, Value and impact studies will continue to be important resources for evidence-based practice as health information professionals deal with evolving user needs and new ways of delivering information to a variety of audiences. [source]

Constitutional Privilege and Constituting Pluralism: Religious Freedom in National, Global, and Legal Context

Peter Beyer
Lori Beaman argues that religious freedom in Canada and the United States is well established in theory (or myth) but limited in practice, privileging Protestantism in particular and varieties of Christianity in general. Focusing on the treatment of other religions in the courts of the two countries, she defends the hypothesis that these legal systems tend to reinforce the hegemony of Christianity, using this as an implicit model of what constitutes a religion, and thereby maintaining the marginalization and restricting the freedom of other religions. The present article sets Beaman's arguments in a wider global context, exploring the extent to which Christianity does and does not serve as a global standard for religion; and addressing the question of why issues of religious freedom so frequently end up being the subject of legal judgment and political decision. The main conclusions drawn from this global contextualization are that maintenance of some kind of religious hegemony is the rule all across global society, not just in Canada and the United States, and that unfettered freedom of religion or genuine religious pluralization is correspondingly rare, if it exists anywhere. Moreover, it is argued that such limitations, frequently expressed in legal judgments and political decisions, are more or less to be expected because they flow from the peculiar way that religion has been constructed in the modern and global era as both a privileged and privatized, as both an encompassing and marginalized social domain. The article thereby simultaneously reinforces and takes issue with Beaman's position: the modern and global reconstruction of religion invites its infinite pluralization at the same time as it encourages its politicization and practical restriction. Religions act as important resources both for claims to inclusion and for strategies of relative exclusion. [source]

Sources of knowledge in clinical practice in postgraduate medical students and faculty members: a conceptual map

Reza Yousefi-Nooraie MD
Abstract Objectives, To determine the most important knowledge sources that can influence clinical practice and to cluster them in conceptual groups based on their relative importance. Methods, Faculty members, fellows and residents of a large teaching tertiary care hospital were asked to rate the importance of different resources in their daily clinical practice and their understanding of some common terms from evidence-based medicine. The knowledge sources were distributed in a two-dimensional map using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results, A total of 250 of 320 recruited hospital staff returned the questionnaires. The most important resources in daily practice were English journals, text books and literature searching for faculty members, experience, text books and English journals for fellows and text books, experience and peers for residents. Regional journals were the least important resources for all study groups. About 62.7% of residents did not know the meaning of ,number needed to treat', 36.8%,confidence interval', 54.9%,confounding factor' and 44.6%,meta-analysis'. The percentages for faculty members were 41.3%, 37%, 42.2% and 39.1%. The knowledge sources were placed in four clusters in a point map derived from the multidimensional scaling process. Conclusion, The dominance of the traditional information resources and experience-based medicine debate which is the consequence of traditional approaches to medical education may be one of the considerable barriers to the dissemination of evidence-based medicine in developing countries. The evidence-based clinical practice guidelines could be used as a useful passive-predigested source for busy clinicians to make informed decisions. A considerable Western bias may undermine the local research in developing world. [source]

Verticase: a Fibrinolytic Enzyme Produced by Verticillium sp.

an Endophyte of Trachelospermum jasminoides
Abstract Plant endophytes are among the most important resources of biologically active metabolites. Twenty-three endophyte strains residing in Trachelospermum jasminoides were cultivated in vitro with the cultures assayed for the fibrinolytic substance production. As a result, the culture of Verticillium sp. Tj33 was shown to be the most active. A fibrinolytic enzyme designated as verticase was subsequently purified from the supernatant of Verticillium sp. culture broth by a combination of DEAE-52, Sephadex G-75 and hydrophobic column chromatographies. Verticase, with its molecular mass of 31 kDa and pI of 8.5, was demonstrated to be homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Verticase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes fibrin directly without activation of plaminogen. It was stable in a broad pH range from 4 through to 11 with the optimal reaction pH value and temperature shown to be around 9,10 and 50,60 °C, respectively. The fibrinolytic activity of verticase was severely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfony fluoride, indicating that verticase was a serine protease. [source]


T. Alwyn
Marine phytoplankton and macroalgae acquire important resources, such as inorganic nitrogen, from the surrounding seawater by uptake across their entire surface area. Rates of ammonium and nitrate uptake per unit surface area were remarkably similar for both marine phytoplankton and macroalgae at low external concentrations. At an external concentration of 1 ,M, the mean rate of nitrogen uptake was 10±2 nmol·cm,2·h,1 (n=36). There was a strong negative relationship between log surface area:volume (SA:V) quotient and log nitrogen content per cm2 of surface (slope=,0.77), but a positive relationship between log SA:V and log maximum specific growth rate (,max; slope=0.46). There was a strong negative relationship between log SA:V and log measured rate of ammonium assimilation per cm2 of surface, but the slope (,0.49) was steeper than that required to sustain ,max (,0.31). Calculated rates of ammonium assimilation required to sustain growth rates measured in natural populations were similar for both marine phytoplankton and macroalgae with an overall mean of 6.2±1.4 nmol·cm,2·h,1 (n=15). These values were similar to maximum rates of ammonium assimilation in phytoplankton with high SA:V, but the values for algae with low SA:V were substantially less than the maximum rate of ammonium assimilation. This suggests that the growth rates of both marine phytoplankton and macroalgae in nature are often constrained by rates of uptake and assimilation of nutrients per cm2 surface area. [source]

Identification of Two Blast Resistance Genes in a Rice Variety, Digu

X. W. Chen
Abstract Blast, caused by Magnaporthe grisea is one of most serious diseases of rice worldwide. A Chinese local rice variety, Digu, with durable blast resistance, is one of the important resources for rice breeding for resistance to blast (M. grisea) in China. The objectives of the current study were to assess the identity of the resistance genes in Digu and to determine the chromosomal location by molecular marker tagging. Two susceptible varieties to blast, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) and Jiangnanxiangnuo (JNXN), a number of different varieties, each containing one blast resistance gene, Piks, Pia, Pik, Pi - b, Pi - kp, Pi - ta2, Pi - ta, Pi - z, Pi - i, Pi - km, Pi - zt, Pi - t and Pi-11, and the progeny populations from the crosses between Digu and each of these varieties were analysed with Chinese blast isolates. We found that the resistance of Digu to each of the two Chinese blast isolates, ZB13 and ZB15, were controlled by two single dominant genes, separately. The two genes are different from the known blast resistance genes and, therefore, designated as Pi-d(t)1 and Pi-d(t)2. By using bulked segregation method and molecular marker analysis in corresponding F2 populations, Pi-d(t)1 was located on chromosome 2 with a distance of 1.2 and 10.6 cM to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers G1314A and G45, respectively. And Pi-d(t)2 was located on chromosome 6 with a distance of 3.2 and 3.4 cM to simple sequence repeat markers RM527 and RM3, respectively. We also developed a novel strategy of resistance gene analogue (RGA) assay with uneven polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to further tag the two genes and successfully identified two RGA markers, SPO01 and SPO03, which were co-segregated toPi-d(t)1 and Pi-d(t)2, respectively, in their corresponding F2 populations. These results provide essential information for further utilization of the Digu's blast resistance genes in rice disease resistance breeding and positional cloning of these genes. [source]

Australian occupational therapy practice in acute care settings

Dr Susan D. Griffin Lecturer, Faculty of Health Sciences
Abstract A national sample of occupational therapists was surveyed to explore the nature of Australian occupational therapy practice in acute care settings. Self-care was the major client need that therapists reported they addressed, with an initial interview being the most common assessment procedure. Client education was the most frequently used intervention. The most important skills therapists reported for effective practice in acute care were time management, quick clinical reasoning and lateral thinking. Important workplace characteristics included a cooperative health-care team and early referral. Therapists reported that their most important resources were supportive senior therapists and a well-resourced equipment pool. Three attitudinal factors emerged. Therapists in interdisciplinary teams and those with more experience had more positive attitudes. Younger therapists experienced more concern about not being able to do more for their patients. Results suggest a need for graduates to be better prepared in some skill areas and to have more realistic expectations of practice in this area. Department managers need to ensure younger therapists receive adequate support from senior therapists. Further research is needed to determine how best to provide this support and to further examine the influence of the education experience on practice expectations. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

God in Recent French Phenomenology

J. Aaron Simmons
In this essay, I provide an introduction to the so-called ,theological turn' in recent French, ,new' phenomenology. I begin by articulating the stakes of excluding God from phenomenology (as advocated by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger) and then move on to a brief consideration of why Dominique Janicaud contends that, by inquiring into the ,inapparent', new phenomenology is no longer phenomenological. I then consider the general trajectories of this recent movement and argue that there are five main themes that unite the work of such varied thinkers as Levinas, Derrida, Marion, Henry, Chrétien, Lacoste, and Ric,ur. I conclude by outlining points of overlap between new phenomenology and contemporary analytic philosophy of religion and suggest that the two stand as important resources for each other. [source]

Mining expressed sequences for single nucleotide polymorphisms in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

Haigang Qi
Abstract Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are important resources for population genetics, pedigree analysis and genomic mapping, such loci have not been reported in Pacific abalone so far. In this study, a bioinformatics strategy was adopted to discover SNPs within the expressed sequences (ESTs) of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, and furthermore, polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing (PCR-DS) and allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) were used for SNPs detection and genotype scoring respectively. A total of 5893 ESTs were assembled and 302 putative SNPs were identified. The average density of SNPs in ESTs was 1%. Fifty-two sets of sequencing primers were designed from SNPs flanking ESTs to amplify the genomic DNA, and 13 could generate products of expected size. Polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing of the amplification products from pooled DNA samples revealed 40 polymorphic SNP loci. Using a modified tetra-primer AS-PCR, seven mitochondrial and six nuclear SNPs were typed and characterized among 37 wild abalones. In conclusion, it is feasible to discover SNPs from number limited ESTs and the AS-PCR as a simple, robust and reliable assay could be a primary method for small- and medium-scale SNPs detection in abalones as well as other non-model organisms. [source]