Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Important

  • area important
  • being important
  • domain important
  • element important
  • factor important
  • feature important
  • gene important
  • how important
  • information important
  • issues important
  • molecule important
  • only important
  • pathway important
  • process important
  • protein important
  • region important
  • signal important
  • signaling pathway important
  • species important
  • very important

  • Terms modified by Important

  • important action
  • important activity
  • important actor
  • important adaptation
  • important addition
  • important adjunct
  • important advance
  • important advantage
  • important agent
  • important agronomic trait
  • important aid
  • important aim
  • important allergen
  • important alteration
  • important alternative
  • important amount
  • important antecedent
  • important antigen-presenting cell
  • important antioxidant
  • important application
  • important approach
  • important area
  • important aspect
  • important association
  • important assumption
  • important attribute
  • important avenue
  • important barrier
  • important basis
  • important bearing
  • important being
  • important benefit
  • important biological function
  • important biomarker
  • important biomolecule
  • important bird area
  • important building block
  • important candidate
  • important candidate gene
  • important capability
  • important case
  • important cause
  • important cellular function
  • important cellular process
  • important challenge
  • important change
  • important character
  • important characteristic
  • important chiral building block
  • important class
  • important clinical
  • important clinical application
  • important clinical feature
  • important clinical implication
  • important clinical problem
  • important clinical tool
  • important clue
  • important co-morbidity
  • important cofactor
  • important commercial fish
  • important complement
  • important complication
  • important component
  • important compound
  • important concept
  • important concern
  • important conclusion
  • important condition
  • important confounder
  • important confounding variable
  • important connection
  • important consequence
  • important conservation implication
  • important consideration
  • important constituent
  • important constraint
  • important contributing factor
  • important contribution
  • important contributor
  • important control
  • important correlate
  • important covariate
  • important criterioN
  • important criterion
  • important crop
  • important cue
  • important cytokine
  • important data
  • important decision
  • important decrease
  • important degree
  • important descriptor
  • important detail
  • important determinant
  • important development
  • important diagnosis
  • important diagnostic
  • important diagnostic tool
  • important difference
  • important differential diagnosis
  • important dimension
  • important direction
  • important discovery
  • important disease
  • important disparity
  • important distinction
  • important domain
  • important drawback
  • important driver
  • important drivers
  • important driving force
  • important drug target
  • important ecological role
  • important effect
  • important effector cell
  • important effects
  • important effort
  • important element
  • important endpoint
  • important entity
  • important environmental factor
  • important environmental variable
  • important enzyme
  • important event
  • important evidence
  • important evolutionary consequence
  • important example
  • important exception
  • important explanatory factor
  • important explanatory variable
  • important extension
  • important facet
  • important fact
  • important factor
  • important factor contributing
  • important factor underlying
  • important family
  • important feature
  • important field
  • important figure
  • important finding
  • important first step
  • important fish
  • important fish species
  • important focus
  • important foliar disease
  • important food
  • important food crop
  • important for children
  • important force
  • important form
  • important foundation
  • important fraction
  • important function
  • important functionality
  • important gain
  • important gap
  • important gene
  • important genetic determinant
  • important genus
  • important goal
  • important group
  • important groups
  • important habitat
  • important health problem
  • important human pathogen
  • important hypothesis
  • important impact
  • important impediment
  • important implication
  • important improvement
  • important index
  • important indication
  • important indicator
  • important influence
  • important information
  • important ingredient
  • important inhibitor
  • important innovation
  • important input
  • important insect pest
  • important insight
  • important instrument
  • important interaction
  • important interface
  • important intermediate
  • important intervention
  • important issue
  • important issues
  • important item
  • important knowledge
  • important lesson
  • important light
  • important limitation
  • important line
  • important link
  • important marker
  • important material
  • important mean
  • important measure
  • important mechanism
  • important mechanistic insight
  • important mediator
  • important member
  • important method
  • important methods
  • important milestone
  • important mineral
  • important modality
  • important model
  • important models
  • important moderator
  • important modifications
  • important modifier
  • important modulator
  • important molecule
  • important natural enemy
  • important need
  • important negative regulator
  • important neurotransmitter
  • important new information
  • important new insight
  • important objective
  • important observation
  • important obstacle
  • important ones
  • important only
  • important opportunity
  • important option
  • important organ
  • important outcome
  • important outcome measure
  • important parallel
  • important parameter
  • important part
  • important participant
  • important pathogen
  • important pathway
  • important pattern
  • important period
  • important perspective
  • important pest
  • important phenomenon
  • important physiological process
  • important physiological role
  • important piece
  • important place
  • important plant pathogen
  • important player
  • important point
  • important policy implication
  • important policy issues
  • important pollinator
  • important polymorphism
  • important population
  • important position
  • important potential source
  • important practical implication
  • important precursor
  • important predator
  • important prediction
  • important predictive factor
  • important predictor
  • important prerequisite
  • important prey
  • important principle
  • important priority
  • important problem
  • important procedure
  • important process
  • important prognostic
  • important prognostic factor
  • important prognostic indicator
  • important prognostic information
  • important prognostic marker
  • important progress
  • important property
  • important protein
  • important public health concern
  • important public health implication
  • important public health issue
  • important public health problem
  • important quantity
  • important question
  • important ramification
  • important reaction
  • important reaction intermediate
  • important reason
  • important record
  • important reduction
  • important region
  • important regions
  • important regulator
  • important regulatory mechanism
  • important regulatory role
  • important relationship
  • important requirement
  • important research
  • important research area
  • important research question
  • important research tool
  • important reservoir
  • important residue
  • important resource
  • important respect
  • important response
  • important responsibility
  • important result
  • important risk
  • important risk factor
  • important role
  • important route
  • important selective force
  • important sense
  • important set
  • important shift
  • important shortcoming
  • important sign
  • important signal
  • important signaling molecule
  • important signalling pathway
  • important similarity
  • important site
  • important skill
  • important social
  • important source
  • important species
  • important stage
  • important stakeholder
  • important starting point
  • important step
  • important stimulus
  • important strand
  • important strategy
  • important structure
  • important study
  • important subgroup
  • important substrate
  • important support
  • important symptom
  • important system
  • important target
  • important task
  • important technique
  • important techniques
  • important technology
  • important test
  • important themes
  • important theoretical
  • important therapeutic
  • important therapeutic implication
  • important therapeutic target
  • important thing
  • important threat
  • important tool
  • important topic
  • important topics
  • important trait
  • important transcription factor
  • important treatment
  • important treatment modality
  • important treatment option
  • important trend
  • important type
  • important use
  • important value
  • important variable
  • important variation
  • important vector
  • important vehicle
  • important virulence determinant
  • important virulence factor
  • important way
  • important work

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT A starch-glycerol gel was subjected to a two-bite compression test using two sample-instrument geometries, various speeds of compression and strain levels, both with lubrication or not. Results were interpreted using the primary characteristic terminology previously defined in Texture Profile Analysis. Compression speeds from 0.1 to 10 m/s showed a logarithmic relationship with hardness, cohesiveness, corrected cohesiveness and adhesiveness. Gels survived compression to strains of 0.90 without failing, strain levels from 0.25 to 0.90 resulted in an exponential rise in hardness with increasing strain and linear reduction in corrected cohesiveness. Lubrication had no significant influence on any of the measured parameters and an application of force with different sample-instrument geometry revealed that parallel plates and plungers only had an influence on gel hardness. Caution is urged when researchers modify the test protocol from 75% deformation with parallel plates. A minimum crosshead speed of 2 mm/s is recommended. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Texture Profile Analysis has been widely applied to test solid and semisolid foods; however, some researchers deviate from the original test protocol. This article attempts to show how modifying the parameters in the test protocol can influence the apparent properties of the sample. [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2007
    A growing number of field and experimental studies focus on the institutional arrangements by which individuals are able to solve collective action problems. Important in this research is the role of reciprocity and institutions that facilitate cooperation via opportunities for monitoring, sanctioning, and rewarding others. Sanctions represent a cost to both the participant imposing the sanction and the individual receiving the sanction. Rewards represent a zero-sum transfer from participants giving to those receiving rewards. We contrast reward and sanction institutions in regard to their impact on cooperation and efficiency in the context of a public goods experiment. (JEL C92) [source]

    Regulation of Human Myometrial Contractility During Pregnancy and Labour: Are Calcium Homeostatic Pathways Important?

    Rachel M. Tribe
    If we are to develop new strategies for the treatment and management of preterm and dysfunctional term labour, it is imperative that we improve current understanding of the control of human uterine activity. Despite many studies of animal pregnancy, there is a paucity of knowledge relating to the complex control of human myometrium during pregnancy. It is hypothesized that human myometrium is relatively quiescent during the majority of pregnancy and that as term approaches there is cascade of molecular events that prepare the uterus for labour. This review will consider the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of human myometrial activity and the modulation of these by hormonal and mechanical signals. In particular, the contribution of calcium homeostatic pathways to the control of human myometrial contractility during gestation will be discussed. [source]

    What Is Important on the Job?

    Differences Across Gender, Job Level, Perspective
    The importance ratings of job competency dimensions on a 360-degree feedback instrument were examined. We hypothesized that men (incumbents and bosses) would rate agentic behaviors higher in importance than would women, and that women (incumbents and bosses) would rate communal behaviors higher in importance than would men. Differences were found for men and women across rating sources and across job level (organizational position). The present findings suggest that men and women incumbents view different factors as important for their jobs and that people in higher level jobs place more importance on agentic behaviors than do those in lower level positions, and people in lower level jobs place more importance on communal behaviors than do those in higher level positions. [source]

    Tumors Associated With Oncogenic Osteomalacia Express Genes Important in Bone and Mineral Metabolism

    Suzanne M. Jan De Beur
    Abstract Oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) is associated with primitive mesenchymal tumors that secrete phosphaturic factors resulting in low serum concentrations of phosphate and calcitriol, phosphaturia, and defective bone mineralization. To identify overexpressed genes in these tumors, we compared gene expression profiles of tumors resected from patients with OOM and histologically similar control tumors using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Three hundred and sixty-four genes were expressed at least twofold greater in OOM tumors compared with control tumors. A subset of 67 highly expressed genes underwent validation with an extended set of OOM and control tumors using array analysis or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ten of these validated genes were consistently overexpressed in all OOM tumors relative to control tumors. Strikingly, genes with roles in bone matrix formation, mineral ion transport, and bone mineralization were highly expressed in the OOM tumors. [source]

    Combination Antihypertensive Treatment: Is Initiation Order Important?

    John G. Gums PharmD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: How Important Is It in Estimating Risk or Guiding Therapy?

    Marvin Moser MD Editor in Chief
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Inside Track: On the Important (But Neglected) Role of Customers in the Resource-Based View of Strategy and Firm Growth*

    Ivo Zander
    abstract This paper argues for the important role of customers as a source of competitive advantage and firm growth, an issue which has been largely neglected in the resource-based view of the firm. It conceptualizes Penrose's (1959) notion of an ,inside track' and illustrates how in-depth knowledge about established customers combines with joint problem-solving activities and the rapid assimilation of new and previously unexploited skills and resources. It is suggested that the inside track represents a distinct and perhaps underestimated way of generating rents and securing long-term growth. This also implies that the sources of sustainable competitive advantage in important respects can be sought in idiosyncratic interfirm relationships rather than within the firm itself. [source]

    How Important Is Money in the Conduct of Monetary Policy?

    monetarism; two-pillar strategy; cashless economy I consider some of the leading arguments for assigning an important role to tracking the growth of monetary aggregates when making decisions about monetary policy. First, I consider whether ignoring money means returning to the conceptual framework that allowed the high inflation of the 1970s. Second, I consider whether models of inflation determination with no role for money are incomplete, or inconsistent with elementary economic principles. Third, I consider the implications for monetary policy strategy of the empirical evidence for a long-run relationship between money growth and inflation. And fourth, I consider reasons why a monetary policy strategy based solely on short-run inflation forecasts derived from a Phillips curve may not be a reliable way of controlling inflation. I argue that none of these considerations provides a compelling reason to assign a prominent role to monetary aggregates in the conduct of monetary policy. [source]

    Outcomes Important to People With Intellectual Disabilities

    Emma Miller
    Abstract, An emphasis on the outcomes of health and social care services has become increasingly apparent within public policy in the United Kingdom. Alongside this, working in partnership has been a key theme, despite a relatively underdeveloped evidence base. Of central importance, however, must be whether directives toward partnership working are delivering improved outcomes, and in particular, the outcomes that are valued by service users. The authors describe a project that sought to identify the outcomes important to people with intellectual disabilities, and where possible, whether partnerships delivered these outcomes. The research was primarily based on interviews with service users and carers, and involved people with intellectual disabilities as both researchers and research subjects. The project categorized key outcomes in two categories (quality of life and process) and identified ways in which health and social care partnerships can deliver the outcomes service users want. If agencies are to deliver good outcomes to users, as increasingly emphasized in policy, this focus should accurately reflect the outcomes that users themselves define as important. [source]

    How Important Are Brain Banks for Alcohol Research?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2003
    Clive Harper
    This article contains the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, organized and chaired by Clive Harper and co-chaired by Izuru Matsumoto. The presentations were (1) Introduction, by Clive Harper; (2) The quality of tissue,a critical issue, by Therese Garrick; (3) The first systematic brain tissue donor program in Japan, by Izuru Matsumoto; (4) Brain scans after death,really! by Adolf Pfefferbaum, Elfar Adalsteinsson, and Edith Sullivan; (5) Capture that (genial) expression, by Joanne Lewohl and Peter Dodd; and (6) Neurochemical/pharmacological studies: experimental design and limitations, by Roger Butterworth. [source]

    Influence of standard treatment on ileal and colonic antimicrobial defensin expression in active Crohn's disease

    Summary Background, Crohn's Disease (CD), a chronic intestinal inflammation, is currently treated primarily by therapeutics which are directed against inflammatory responses. Recent findings though suggest a central role of the innate immune barrier in the pathophysiology. Important factors providing this barrier are antimicrobial peptides like the ,- and ,-defensins. Little is known about in vivo effects of common drugs on their expression. Aim, To analyse the influence of corticosteroids, azathioprine and aminosalicylate treatment on ileal and colonic antimicrobial peptides in active CD and also assess the role of inflammation. Methods, We measured the expression of antimicrobial peptides and pro-inflammatory cytokines in 75 patients with active CD. Results, Ileal and colonic ,- and ,-defensins as well as LL37 remained unaffected by corticosteroids, azathioprine or aminosalicylate treatment. Additionally, we did not observe a negative coherency between Paneth cell ,-defensins and any measured cytokines. HBD2 and LL37 unlike HBD1 levels were linked to inflammatory cytokines and increased in highly inflamed samples. Conclusions, Current oral drug treatment seems to have no major effect on the expression of antimicrobial peptides. In contrast to HBD2 and LL37, ileal levels of HD5 and HD6 and colonic HBD1 level are independent of current inflammation. Innovative drugs should aim to strengthen protective innate immunity. [source]

    Why Medical Child Support is Important,and Complex

    Susan F. Paikin
    ABSTRACT Courts resolving child support cases involving separated, divorced, and non-marital children are charged with defining responsibility for health care coverage for the children under that order. This article explores historical and current medical child support requirements under Title IV-D of the Social Security Act,the national child support enforcement ("IV-D") program. It analyzes legal requirements and policy recommendations, and provides a practical tool judges may use to determine whether health care coverage available to either or both parents is appropriate,that is, comprehensive, accessible, and affordable. [source]

    RBC Aggregation: More Important than RBC Adhesion to Endothelial Cells as a Determinant of In Vivo Blood Flow in Health and Disease

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 7 2008
    ABSTRACT Although the shear-dependent and reversible phenomenon of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation has been studied for decades, its role as a determinant of in vivo blood flow in both health and disease has not yet been fully documented. In this brief review, we present compelling arguments, supported by literature evidence, that in vivo flow dynamics are more affected by RBC aggregation than by RBC adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs). A companion article (i.e., a "counter-point") published in this issue of the journal argues that in disease states, RBC-EC adhesion is the more important determinant. [source]

    Model Selection for Monetary Policy Analysis: How Important is Empirical Validity?,

    Q. Farooq Akram
    Abstract We investigate the economic significance of trading off empirical validity of models against other desirable model properties. Our investigation is based on three alternative econometric systems of the supply side, in a model that can be used to discuss optimal monetary policy in Norway. Our results caution against compromising empirical validity when selecting a model for policy analysis. We also find large costs from basing policies on the robust model, or on a suite of models, even when it contains the valid model. This confirms an important role for econometric modelling and evaluation in model choice for policy analysis. [source]

    Electronic Security Systems and Active Implantable Medical Devices

    IRNICH, W.: Electronic Security Systems and Active Implantable Medical Devices. How do active implantable medical devices react in the presence of strong magnetic fields in the frequency range between extremely low frequency (ELF) to radiofrequency (RF) as they are emitted by electronic security systems (ESS)? There are three different sorts of ESSs: electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices, metal detector (MDS) devices, and radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems. Common to all is the production of magnetic fields. There is an abundance of literature concerning interference by ESS gates with respect to if there is an influence possible and if such an influence can bear a risk for the AIMD wearers. However, there has been no attempt to study the physical mechanism nor to develop a model of how and under which conditions magnetic fields can influence pacemakers and defibrillators and how they could be disarmed by technological means. It is too often assumed that interference of AIMD with ESS is inevitable. Exogenous signals of similar intensity and rhythm to heart signals can be misinterpreted and, thus, confuse the implant. Important for the interference coupling mechanism is the differentiation between a "unipolar" and a "bipolar" system. With respect to magnetic fields, the left side implanted pacemaker is the most unfavorable case as the lead forms approximately a semicircular area of maximum 225 cm2 into which a voltage can be induced. This assumption yields an interference coupling model that can be expressed by simple mathematics. The worst-case conditions for induced interference voltages are a coupling area of 225 cm2 that is representative for a large human, a homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to the area formed by the lead, and a unipolar ventricular pacemaker system that is implanted on the left side of the thorax and has the highest interference sensitivity. In bipolar systems the fields must be 17 times larger when compared to a unipolar system to have the same effect. The magnetic field for interfering with ICDs must be 1.7 stronger than that of the most sensitive unipolar pacemaker. The lowest interference thresholds measured over the last 10 years in the low frequency range (16 2/3 Hz,24 kHz) together with thresholds > 24 kHz that were supplied by the CETECOM study are listed. Both sets of data together with the coupling model, allow for judging which fields of ESSs could influence AIMDs. From measurements at gate antennas, it is possible to derive a "maximum allowed field" curve over the whole frequency range, below which no interference will occur. Comparison of data from literature with these maximum allowed fields confirm the correctness of the calculations. Thus, it is possible to predict interference situations in gates if the magnetic field is known. If all future pacemakers were to have the immunity against interference of the better 50% of today's pacemakers, the magnetic field ceiling values could be at least four times higher. The same is true if the ventricular sensitivity is routinely set at 7 mV. Pacemaker manufacturers should consider filter improvement with modern technology, but gate manufacturers should not claim the privilege of being out of bounds. [source]

    Ground thermal conditions in a frost-crack polygon, a palsa and a mineral palsa (lithalsa) in the discontinuous permafrost zone, northern Sweden

    Bo Westin
    Abstract Ground temperature measurements were collected during 1997 to 1998 at three locations in the discontinuous permafrost zone in northern Sweden. Measurements were made in two frost-crack polygons, two palsas and a mineral palsa (lithalsa). Important for the formation of permafrost at all locations are (i) the absence of snow and, (ii) local soil properties. The seasonal variation in apparent thermal diffusivity,with higher diffusivities in summer than in winter in the mineral soil of the frost-crack polygon and relatively little seasonal variation in the peat of the palsas,is the main cause for the cooler conditions in the palsas in summer. Morphology adds to the temperature fluctuations as indicated by highly fluctuating ground temperatures in the dome-shaped mineral palsa as compared to the frost-crack polygon. Occasional ground temperature gradients of more than ,10 °C/m are probably sufficient for seasonal frost cracking. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. RÉSUMÉ En trois endroits de la zone du pergélisol discontinu, Staloluokta, Kisuris, et Laivadalen dans le nord de la Suède où les températures moyennes annuelles sont d'environ,0.9°C, des mesures de température du sol ont été réalisées jusqu'à des profondeurs de 125 cm dans deux polygones de fissures de gel, deux palses et une palse minérale (lithalse). Le facteur le plus important pour la formation du pergélisol en tous les sites étudiés paraît être l'absence de couverture neigeuse et secondairement les propriétés des sols. Le pergélisol a été trouvé dans les sols des polygones de fissures de gel, dans les palses et la palse minérale, en des endroits où probablement une faible couverture de neige existe en hiver. La variation saisonnière de la diffusivité thermique apparente,avec une plus grande diffusivité en été qu'en hiver dans le sol minéral du polygone de fissure de gel et relativement peu de variations saisonnières dans la tourbe des palses,a été la cause principale des conditions plus froides dans la palse en hiver. La morphologie des formes périglaciaires peut engendrer des fluctuations de température plus importantes comme l'indique la grande variation de la température du sol dans une palse minérale en forme de dôme par comparaison avec ce qui se produit dans un polygone de fissures de gel de la même région. En outre, des gradients de température de plus de 10°C/m dans le sol gelé de la majeure partie des formes étudiées ont été probablement suffisants pour permettre la fissuration par contraction thermique. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Diet: How Important Is It in the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia?

    Ezra A. Amsterdam MD Editor in Chief
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Governmental Efficiency in Our Time: Is the "What" Really More Important Than the "How"?

    John Bohte
    First page of article [source]

    Forty-five years in climatology,a personal odyssey

    This article presents a personal perspective on an academic and research vocation spanning a period of over 45 years. It starts with my early involvement in geography and climatology and terminates with my recent experience in a large interdisciplinary research venture. The presentation highlights, with specific examples, the importance of mentors. Also emphasized is the indispensable input of colleagues and graduate students to successful research endeavours. Most of my career has been centred on McMaster University, and I naturally draw on my experiences there. There have been great changes in the research world over the past few decades. Although the number of faculty and graduate students at McMaster remained relatively constant, the research output per person more than doubled. This is attributed in large part to the accelerating technological advancements in our ability to measure and our ability to process and manipulate data. In the environmental sciences, this has revolutionized the spatial and temporal scope of the scientific questions that can be addressed. Such major changes have stimulated a marked trend towards interdisciplinary research that has evolved from mainly wishful talking to active pursuit in a search to understand complex environmental interactions. Important among these is gaining insights into the processes and feedbacks driving climate change, whether natural or anthropologically induced. Equally important is gaining an understanding of the potential impacts resulting from climate change. My perception of my successes, failures and near misses divides chronologically into three periods that cover research in the early years, research in the central subarctic and research in the Mackenzie River Basin. Quarante-cinq ans en climatologie , une odyssée personnelle Cet article propose un regard personnel sur une carrière universitaire et en recherche échelonnée sur plus de 45 ans, de mes premières contributions à la géographie et la climatologie à mes expériences actuelles au sein d'un projet de recherche interdisciplinaire. L'importance du rôle des mentors est illustrée par des exemples. Le concours indispensable apporté par les collègues et les étudiants des cycles supérieurs au succès des démarches de recherche est également souligné. La majeure partie de mes expériences professionnelles s'est déroulée à l'université McMaster et c'est pourquoi il est naturel pour moi d'y faire référence. De grands changements ont bouleversé le monde de la recherche depuis quelques décennies. Malgré le fait que le nombre de professeurs et d'étudiants des cycles supérieurs soit demeuré relativement stable, la publication de résultats de recherche par personne a plus que doublé. Ceci est attribuable en grande partie au développement rapide des technologies qui nous permettent d'évaluer, de traiter et de manipuler les données. Nous assistons donc à une révolution dans le domaine des sciences environnementales au niveau des dimensions spatiales et temporelles des questions scientifiques que nous pouvons aborder. Ces changements d'envergure alimentent une tendance nette en faveur de la recherche interdisciplinaire qui a évolué d'un v,u pieux à une entreprise active visant à comprendre les interactions environnementales d'un haut niveau de complexité. Il est essentiel de mieux prendre conscience des processus et rétroactions qui interviennent dans les changements climatiques naturels ou d'origine anthropiques. Il est aussi très important de mieux comprendre les effets induits par les changements climatiques. Ma manière de percevoir mes réussites, échecs et quasi-succès se divise chronologiquement en trois époques: les recherches durant les premières années, les recherches menées dans le subarctique, et les recherches sur le bassin du fleuve Mackenzie. [source]


    The middle classes in Asian countries, which emerged rapidly in environments that were significantly different from those in the West, share some common features, but differ from one another on a number of other counts. Important among the similarities is that their nation-building efforts after independence were perforce ambivalent in that, while pursuing economic growth in condensed ways, they tried to maintain the integrity of the state by emphasizing traditional values. On the other hand, they differ from one another in terms of the peculiarities of the preconditions they faced when launching development, the social structure specific to each, and the time at which and the strategy under which they began to pursue economic growth. These factors have brought diversity into the Asian middle classes' development processes and characteristics This paper examines the diversity of the middle classes that are now in a process of emergence in Asia. [source]

    Why Scientific Details Are Important When Novel Technologies Encounter Law, Politics, and Ethics

    Lawrence Goldstein
    This paper focuses on the issue of what to do if a couple who generates embryos chooses to lawfully, and in their (and my) view, ethnically discard those embryos. Specifically, is it appropriate to use the cells that come from "excess" embryos in medical research instead of discarding them when a couple has ceased trying to have any additional children? [source]

    Why The Andy Griffith Show Is Important to Popular Cultural Studies

    Don Rodney Vaughan
    First page of article [source]

    Are Employment Effects of Gender Discrimination Important?

    Some Evidence from Great Britain
    Interpreting the unexplained component of the gender wage gap as indicative of discrimination, the empirical literature to date has tended to ignore the potential impact wage discrimination may have on employment. Employment effects may arise if discrimination lowers the female offered wage and the labour supply curve is upward sloping. The empirical analysis employs the British Household Panel Study and finds evidence of both wage and associated employment effects. [source]

    Is Downstaging Prior to Liver Transplantation Important in Hepatocellular Carcinoma?

    P. Lee
    Downstaging hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation is a procedure in evolution, but the results presented in this article for Yttrium-90 radioembolization are encouraging. See Article by Lewandowski et al on page 1920,1928. [source]

    Human ABO Blood Group Is Important in Survival and Function of Porcine Working Hearts

    Rizwan A. Manji
    Pig organs express ,Gal antigen and thus are hyperacutely rejected if perfused by human blood. Human B/A antigens are similar to pig ,Gal antigen, suggesting that the corresponding antibodies may cross-react. Our purpose was to determine if there is a human ABO blood-group difference in porcine,human xenotransplantation. Plasma from six A, five B, seven AB, and six O individuals pooled by blood group were tested in an ex-vivo porcine working heart model. Blood-group A plasma-perfused hearts survived 20 ± 14 min (n = 5), B 241 ± 9 min (n = 3), AB 151 ± 37 min (n = 5), and O 9 ± 1 min (n = 8). A and O were different (p < 0.001) from B and AB. Function was significantly better in group B. Edema accumulation and creatine kinase change was highest in A and O. All groups had comparable levels of anti-,Gal antibody, as well as comparable perfusion and operative conditions. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed the anti-B antibody levels to be predictive of survival (p < 0.001). At higher plasma concentrations, hearts perfused with B plasma survived longer (p =,0.01) than AB (218 ± 45 min, n = 4 vs. 6 ± 0 min, n = 3). These results suggest a human ABO blood-group difference in porcine-to-human xenotransplantation, which may be mediated by the anti-A and anti-B antibodies. [source]

    The Twisted Side Chain of Antillatoxin is Important for Potent Toxicity: Total Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Antillatoxin and Analogues,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 2 2010
    Ken Okura
    Seitenkette mit zentraler Bedeutung: Totalsynthesen und biologische Untersuchungen für das cyclische Peptid Antillatoxin, ein wirksames Neurotoxin, und dessen Analoga mit modifizierten Seitenketten werden beschrieben. Schon eine geringfügige Änderung der Seitenkette bewirkte große Unterschiede in der Cytotoxizität; detaillierte Konformationsanalysen belegen, dass die Form der verdrehten Seitenkette über die biologische Aktivität von Antillatoxin entscheidet. [source]

    Cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation of high-risk violent offenders: Investigating treatment change with explicit and implicit measures of cognition

    Devon L. L. Polaschek
    Important as it is both to risk of re-offending and to cognitive behavioural treatment, violent cognition is seldom measured in rehabilitation programmes, and even more rarely linked to measures of violence risk. Most often, researchers measure violent cognition by having offenders complete transparent self-report questionnaires. This approach may be flawed both by socially desirable responding and by theoretical speculation that stronger links exist between automatic rather than explicit, consciously deliberated cognition and violent behaviour. We measured violent cognition in several ways; collecting data with two self-report scales, along with two Implicit Association Tests (IATs) from men commencing and completing an intensive cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation programme for high-risk violent prisoners. We addressed the questions of whether these two forms of assessment,explicit and implicit,are related, and which is most strongly linked to estimates of violence, based on the Violence Risk Scale. Explicit and implicit tests were not related to each other, although both self-report scales, and one of the IATs elicited significantly more pro-social responses following treatment. Further, the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) scores were significantly correlated with dynamic risk both pre- and post-programme, while post-programme, scores on one of the two IATs was significantly correlated with dynamic and static risk, as measured pre- and post-programme. These findings suggest that implicit and explicit measures may be assessing different aspects of cognition, and only some are related to violence risk. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Discuss That The Coronal Seal Is More Important Than The Apical Seal For Endodontic Success

    Anjella Sritharan
    One of the main principles for successful root canal treatment is the prevention of microorganisms and toxins from the oral flora penetrating through the root canal system into the periapical tissues (1). This is achieved by obturating the root canal system completely, including the coronal and apical ends. Inadequate obturation of the root canal system has been found to be the most frequent cause of failure after endodontic treatment (2). A number of studies have indicated that leakage, whether from a coronal or apical direction, adversely affects the success of root canal treatment (3,7). The significance of the coronal seal has been increasingly recognized in the dental literature (4, 5, 8, 9) and in more recent times, it has been suggested that apical leakage may not be the most important factor leading to the failure of endodontic treatment , but that coronal leakage is far more likely to be the major determinant of clinical success or failure (10). This paper will discuss aspects of: endodontic success and failure; the use of leakage studies to assess the quality of the seal; the significance of both apical and coronal leakage; followed by a review of the literature. [source]

    RESEARCH AND EVALUATION: The Rudd Government's Employment Services Agenda: Is it Post-NPM and Why is that Important?

    Gaby Ramia
    Perhaps the most potent symbol of the Howard government's faith in New Public Management (NPM) was the Job Network. Interrogating the Rudd government's replacement package, this article assesses whether the recent restructuring of employment services constitutes a post-NPM environment. It is argued that there are major post-NPM elements, seen most clearly in: the softening of jobseeker sanctions; greater deliberation on policy direction and results; a more inclusive employment super-ministry and reliance on other ,horizontal' governance reforms; and enhanced government resources for multiple-disadvantage clients. However, categorising these changes as post-NPM is problematic because the steering mechanism remains the market-based contract, a central NPM characteristic. Theoretical difficulties in applying paradigmatic concepts to services provide additional barriers to conclusive assessments, though the Rudd government's employment services regime provides a basis for taking stock in the post-NPM debate. [source]