Impaired Cognition (impaired + cognition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Review article: Indications for thoracolumbar imaging in blunt trauma patients: A review of current literature

Enda O'Connor
Abstract Thoracolumbar spine injury is a common complication of blunt multitrauma and up to one third of fractures are associated with spinal cord dysfunction. Delayed fracture diagnosis increases the risk of neurological complications. While validated screening guidelines exist for traumatic c-spine injury equivalent guidelines for thoracolumbar screening are lacking. We conducted a literature review evaluating studies of thoracolumbar injury in trauma patients to generate indications for thoracolumbar imaging. We performed MEDLINE and Pubmed searches using MeSH terms "Wounds, Nonpenetrating", "Spinal Fractures", "Spinal Injuries" and "Diagnostic Errors", MeSH/subheading terms "Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries" and "Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries" and keyword search terms "thoracolumbar fractures", "thoracolumbar injuries", "thoracolumbar trauma", "missed diagnoses" and "delayed diagnoses". Limits and inclusion criteria were defined prior to searching. We evaluated 16 articles; 5 prospective observational studies (1 cohort study) and 11 retrospective observational studies. Predictors of TL injury in prospective studies , high-risk injury mechanism, distracting injury, impaired cognition, symptoms/signs of vertebral fracture and known cervical fracture , were defined and used to construct a decision algorithm, which in a total of 14189 trauma patients from all eligible studies recommended TL screening in 856(99.1%) of 864 patients with TL fractures and would probably have directed TL imaging in the remaining 8 patients. There is limited low level evidence guiding surveillance TL imaging in adult blunt trauma patients. Despite this, we propose and evaluate an algorithm with a high negative predictive value for TL fractures. This should be incorporated into spinal injury assessment protocols. [source]

Similar subcortical pattern of cognitive impairment in AIDS patients with and without dementia

S. V. Suarez
The aim of this study was to develop a series of neuropsychological tests that define the cortical and subcortical features of cognitive impairment and the characteristics of memory in demented and mildly cognitively impaired AIDS patients. We attempted to establish a usable method to assess and determine the type and degree of cognitive impairment in individual AIDS patients. We examined 53 patients without central nervous system opportunistic infections. A short battery included two scales of global efficiency (the Mattis dementia rating scale and the Mini Mental State Examination), a psychomotor speed test, an executive control assessment and explicit memory evaluation. Patients were categorized into four groups based on their score on both the Mattis dementia rating scale and the DSM-IV criteria: (1) asymptomatic; (2) having AIDS without cognitive impairment; (3) having AIDS with mild cognitive impairment; and (4) having AIDS dementia. Patients with mildly impaired cognition demonstrated slowed thinking, abnormal initiation and conceptualization, and memory impairment. AIDS dementia patients had slower motor activity and memory recall was more severely affected. The short neuropsychological battery was able to characterize modified cognitive performances in both severely and mildly cognitively impaired AIDS patients. The subcortical pattern of the memory disorder was obvious, regardless of the degree of cognitive impairment. [source]

Coronary heart disease is associated with regional grey matter volume loss: implications for cognitive function and behaviour

O. P. Almeida
Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with impaired cognition, but the mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. We designed this study to determine whether adults with CHD show regional brain losses of grey matter volume relative to controls. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM5) to determine regional changes in grey matter volume of T1 -weighted magnetic resonance images of 11 adults with prior history of myocardial infarction relative to seven healthy controls. All analyses were adjusted for total grey and white matter volume, age, sex and handedness. CHD participants showed a loss of grey matter volume in the left medial frontal lobe (including the cingulate), precentral and postcentral cortex, right temporal lobe and left middle temporal gyrus, and left precuneus and posterior cingulate. CHD is associated with loss of grey matter in various brain regions, including some that play a significant role in cognitive function and behaviour. The underlying causes of these regional brain changes remain to be determined. [source]

Cognitive toxicity of pharmacotherapeutic agents used in social anxiety disorder

I. Hindmarch
Summary Objective:, To compare cognitive impairment of medications used in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods:, Data from peer-reviewed publications (1975,2007) of controlled, crossover design, pharmacodynamic studies on SAD medications in healthy volunteers were analysed. The number of objective psychometrics for each drug/dose level at all time points after dosing, and of instances of statistically significant impairment of cognitive function, enabled calculation of drug-induced cognitive impairment. The magnitude of impairment between drugs was compared using proportional impairment ratios (PIRs). Results:, Olanzapine, oxazepam, lorazepam and mianserin had twice the average cognitive toxicity of other treatments. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) impaired cognition to a lesser extent than other pharmacological groupings. There was extensive intra-class variation: fluvoxamine (PIR = 0.08) possessed little detrimental cognitive activity, whereas sertraline (PIR = 5.33) caused impairment over five times the SSRI group average. Benzodiazepines caused noticeable cognitive impairment. Conclusions:, Substantial differences exist, both between and within therapeutic classes, in the behavioural toxicity of medications used for SAD. [source]

The diagnostic value of tau protein, ,-amyloid (1,42) and their ratio for the discrimination of alcohol-related cognitive disorders from Alzheimer's disease in the early stages

Elisabeth Kapaki
Abstract Background Chronic and heavy alcohol abuse or dependence may result in impaired cognition and dementia. The increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older individuals interferes with the differential diagnosis, especially when dealing with elderly patients with a long history of alcohol abuse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the putative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers tau, ,-amyloid 1,42 (A,42) and their ratio in differentiating alcohol related cognitive disorder (ARCD) from AD. Methods Double-sandwich ELISA (Innotest htau antigen and ,-Amyloid (1,42), Innogenetics) were used to quantify the above markers in a total of 20 patients with ARCD, 33 AD patients with mild to moderate dementia and 50 mentally intact subjects. Results Tau protein successfully differentiated AD from normal ageing with 96% specificity and 93.9% sensitivity and from ARCD with 95% specificity, and 87.9% sensitivity. A,42 alone had a specificity of 88% and a sensitivity of 69.7% in differentiating AD from normal ageing, while the corresponding values for differentiating AD from ARCD were 80% and 84.8% respectively. The tau/A,42 ratio was better than tau alone for differentiating AD from normal ageing (specificity 94%, sensitivity 97%) and better than any of the candidate markers alone, for differentiating AD from ARCD (specificity 100%, sensitivity 97%). Conclusions The combined use of CSF tau and A,42 may be a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of ARCD from AD, especially in the early stages, where diagnostic uncertainty is greater. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cognitive Status, Muscle Strength, and Subsequent Disability in Older Mexican Americans

Mukaila A. Raji MD
Objectives: To examine the association between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and subsequent muscle strength (measured using handgrip strength) and to test the hypothesis that muscle strength will mediate any association between impaired cognition and incident activity of daily living (ADL) disability over a 7-year period in elderly Mexican Americans who were initially not disabled. Design: A 7-year prospective cohort study (1993,2001). Setting: Five southwestern states (Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California). Participants: Two thousand three hundred eighty-one noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older with no ADL disability at baseline. Measurements: In-home interviews in 1993/1994, 1995/1996, 1998/1999, and 2000/2001 assessed social and demographic factors, medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, stroke, heart attack, and arthritis), body mass index (BMI), depressive symptomatology, handgrip muscle strength, and ADLs. MMSE score was dichotomized as less than 21 for poor cognition and 21 or greater for good cognition. Main outcomes measures were mean and slope of handgrip muscle strength over the 7-year period and incident disability, defined as new onset of any ADL limitation at the 2-, 5-, or 7-year follow-up interview periods. Results: In mixed model analyses, there was a significant cross-sectional association between having poor cognition (MMSE<21) and lower handgrip strength, independent of age, sex, and time of interview (estimate=,1.41, standard error (SE)=0.18; P<.001). With the introduction of a cognition-by-time interaction term into the model, there was also a longitudinal association between poor cognition and change in handgrip strength over time (estimate=,0.25, SE=0.06; P<.001), indicating that subjects with poor cognition had a significantly greater decline in handgrip strength over 7 years than those with good cognition, independent of age, sex, and time. This longitudinal association between poor cognition and greater muscle decline remained significant (P<.001) after controlling for age, sex, education, and time-dependent variables of depression, BMI, and medical conditions. In general estimation equation models, having poor cognition was associated with greater risk of 7-year incident ADL disability (odds ratio=2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.60,2.52); the magnitude of the association decreased to 1.66 (95% CI=1.31,2.10) when adjustment was made for handgrip strength. Conclusion: Older Mexican Americans with poor cognition had steeper decline in handgrip muscle strength over 7 years than those with good cognition, independent of other demographic and health factors. A possible mediating effect of muscle strength on the association between poor cognition and subsequent ADL disability was also indicated. [source]

Cognitive impairment and white matter damage in hypertension: a pilot study

K. Hannesdottir
Objectives,,, Hypertension has been associated with impaired cognition. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied to assess white matter abnormalities in treated vs untreated hypertension and if these correlated with neuropsychological performance. Methods,,, Subjects were 40 patients with medically treated hypertension (mean age 69.3 years), 10 patients with untreated hypertension (mean age 57.6 years) and 30 normotensive controls (mean age 68.2 years). Hypertension was defined as a previous diagnosis and taking hypertensive medication, or a resting blood pressure of >140/90 mmHg on the day of assessment. Results,,, Patients with treated hypertension performed worse on immediate (P = 0.037) as well as delayed memory tasks (P = 0.024) compared with normotensive controls. Cognitive performance was worse in untreated compared with treated hypertension on executive functions (P = 0.041) and psychomotor speed (P = 0.003). There was no significant correlation between cognition and any of the imaging parameters in treated hypertension. However, in untreated hypertension the results revealed a positive correlation between an executive functioning and attention composite score and DTI mean diffusivity values (P = 0.016) and between psychomotor speed and spectroscopy NAA/tCr levels (P = 0.015). Conclusions,,, These results suggest there is cognitive impairment in hypertension. Treated hypertension was associated with deficits in memory while untreated hypertension revealed a more ,subcortical' pattern of cognitive impairment. [source]