Image Analysis Approach (image + analysis_approach)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The measurement of tooth whiteness by image analysis and spectrophotometry: a comparison

summary, Digital image capturing and analysis techniques have been used to measure the colour of teeth and to compare with spectrophotometric results and visual observations. A non-linear image analysis approach was developed and, for the colour range of human teeth, allows device-dependant digital camera colour data to be quantitatively transformed to Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) colorimetric values. With reference to a CIE standard illuminant, two different lighting arrays have been used. For flat and non-translucent white and yellow surfaces, spectrophotometric results showed that this transformation achieves required accuracy. It was found, in all of the present studies, which included measurements on the VITA Lumin® Vacuum shade guide and extracted teeth, that spectrophotometry invariably underestimated values of the CIE whiteness index. However, the results from these two types of measurement correlated well. There was also a reasonably good correlation between earlier data obtained by visual assessment and the present data by the two instrumental methods. For extracted teeth, both instrumental methods used in this work did not confirm a whitening effect for 2-min brushing with toothpaste, but did show significant whitening results for bleaching with 15% hydrogen peroxide. [source]

Morphology and compression-after-impact strength relationship in interleaved toughened composites

B. J. Derkowski
Morphology and compression after impact (CAI) strength relationships in interleaved toughened high performance composites are investigated using a quantitative two-dimensional image analysis approach. A group of six quasi-isotropic carbon fiber-epoxy composites with identical compositions, but having variations in CAI strengths, were analyzed to study how the interleaf particle size, particle size distribution, and location of particles in the interlaminar region affect the CAI strength values and the corresponding damage mechanisms. It is found that the CAI strength of interleaved-toughened composites is significantly affected by the size and size distribution of toughener particles in the interlaminar regions of the composite. In general, high CAI strength composites exhibit more uniform particle size distribution throughout the interlaminar regions. Whereas, for low CAI strength composites, the interleaf particles tend to cluster together and have varied size distribution. [source]

Predicting and monitoring cancer treatment response with diffusion-weighted MRI

Harriet C. Thoeny MD
Abstract An imaging biomarker that would provide for an early quantitative metric of clinical treatment response in cancer patients would provide for a paradigm shift in cancer care. Currently, nonimage based clinical outcome metrics include morphology, clinical, and laboratory parameters, however, these are obtained relatively late following treatment. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) holds promise for use as a cancer treatment response biomarker as it is sensitive to macromolecular and microstructural changes which can occur at the cellular level earlier than anatomical changes during therapy. Studies have shown that successful treatment of many tumor types can be detected using DW-MRI as an early increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Additionally, low pretreatment ADC values of various tumors are often predictive of better outcome. These capabilities, once validated, could provide for an important opportunity to individualize therapy thereby minimizing unnecessary systemic toxicity associated with ineffective therapies with the additional advantage of improving overall patient health care and associated costs. In this report, we provide a brief technical overview of DW-MRI acquisition protocols, quantitative image analysis approaches and review studies which have implemented DW-MRI for the purpose of early prediction of cancer treatment response. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Lacunar stroke is associated with diffuse blood,brain barrier dysfunction,

FMedSci, Joanna M. Wardlaw MD
Objective Lacunar stroke is common (25% of ischemic strokes) and mostly because of an intrinsic cerebral microvascular disease of unknown cause. Although considered primarily to be an ischemic process, the vessel and tissue damage could also be explained by dysfunctional endothelium or blood,brain barrier (BBB) leak, not just ischemia. We tested for subtle generalized BBB leakiness in patients with lacunar stroke and control patients with cortical ischemic stroke. Methods We recruited patients with lacunar and mild cortical stroke. We assessed BBB leak in gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid, at least 1 month after stroke, using magnetic resonance imaging before and after intravenous gadolinium. We measured tissue enhancement for 30 minutes after intravenous gadolinium by two image analysis approaches (regions of interest and tissue segmentation). We compared the enhancement (leak) between lacunar and cortical patients, and associations with key variables, using general linear modeling. Results We recruited 51 lacunar and 46 cortical stroke patients. Signal enhancement after gadolinium was higher in lacunar than cortical stroke patients in white matter (p < 0.001) and cerebrospinal fluid (p < 0.003) by both analysis methods, independent of other variables. Signal enhancement after gadolinium was also associated with increasing age and enlarged perivascular spaces, but these did not explain the lacunar-cortical difference. Interpretation Patients with lacunar stroke have subtle, diffuse BBB dysfunction in white matter. Further studies are required to determine the relative contributions of BBB dysfunction and/or ischemia to the microvascular and brain abnormalities in lacunar stroke. Ann Neurol 2009;65:194,202 [source]