Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Immunotherapy

  • adoptive immunotherapy
  • allergen immunotherapy
  • allergen-specific immunotherapy
  • cancer immunotherapy
  • cellular immunotherapy
  • effective immunotherapy
  • grass pollen immunotherapy
  • novel immunotherapy
  • peptide immunotherapy
  • pollen immunotherapy
  • specific immunotherapy
  • subcutaneous immunotherapy
  • sublingual immunotherapy
  • tumor immunotherapy
  • venom immunotherapy

  • Terms modified by Immunotherapy

  • immunotherapy strategy

  • Selected Abstracts


    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Preclinical development of hybrid cell vaccines for multiple myeloma

    Renata Walewska
    Abstract Immunotherapy may provide alternative or supplementary treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). We propose that hybrid cells, formed by fusing professional antigen-presenting cells with malignant plasma cells, would induce immune responses capable of mediating tumour regression. The human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, HMy2, was fused in vitro with CD138+ bead-separated myeloma plasma cells from five patients with MM. The hybrid cell lines generated in these studies grew stably in tissue culture, and maintained their phenotypic and functional characteristics, providing self-renewing cell lines with potential for therapeutic vaccination. The hybrid cells stimulated allogeneic and autologous T-cell proliferative responses in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent myeloma plasma cells, and directly activated both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The enhanced T-cell stimulation correlated with expression of CD80 on the hybrid cells, and was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein. The hybrid cell lines expressed several tumour-associated antigens known to be expressed in myeloma. These data show that self-replicating cell lines with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination can be generated by in vitro fusion of ex vivo myeloma cells and B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. [source]

    Immunization with a P53 synthetic long peptide vaccine induces P53-specific immune responses in ovarian cancer patients, a phase II trial,

    Ninke Leffers
    Abstract The prognosis of ovarian cancer, the primary cause of death from gynecological malignancies, has only modestly improved over the last decades. Immunotherapy is one of the new treatment modalities explored for this disease. To investigate safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and obtain an impression of clinical activity of a p53 synthetic long peptide (p53-SLP) vaccine, twenty patients with recurrent elevation of CA-125 were included, eighteen of whom were immunized 4 times with 10 overlapping p53-SLP in Montanide ISA51. The first 5 patients were extensively monitored for toxicity, but showed no , grade 3 toxicity, thus accrual was continued. Overall, toxicity was limited to grade 1 and 2, mostly locoregional, inflammatory reactions. IFN-, producing p53-specific T-cell responses were induced in all patients who received all 4 immunizations as measured by IFN-, ELISPOT. An IFN-, secretion assay showed that vaccine-induced p53-specific T-cells were CD4+, produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines as analyzed by cytokine bead array. Notably, Th2 cytokines dominated the p53-specific response. P53-specific T-cells were present in a biopsy of the last immunization site of at least 9/17 (53%) patients, reflecting the migratory capacity of p53-specific T-cells. As best clinical response, stable disease evaluated by CA-125 levels and CT-scans, was observed in 2/20 (10%) patients, but no relationship was found with vaccine-induced immunity. This study shows that the p53-SLP vaccine is safe, well tolerated and induces p53-specific T-cell responses in ovarian cancer patients. Upcoming trials will focus on improving T helper-1 polarization and clinical efficacy. © 2009 UICC [source]

    IFN-, withdrawal after immunotherapy potentiates B16 melanoma invasion and metastasis by intensifying tumor integrin ,v,3 signaling

    Wei Gong
    Abstract Immunotherapy can effectively suppress tumor, yet complete tumor eradication occurs infrequently. The metastatic potential of remnant tumor cells after immunotherapy and the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that the termination of immunotherapy strikingly increases the metastatic potential of remnant melanoma. This is mainly due to the withdrawal of IFN-, after immunotherapy. The relief of IFN-, stress led to the increase of ,v,3 integrin expression in B16 cells, which increased the adhesion of B16 cells to fibrinogen, fibronectin and laminin. Through ,v,3 signaling, the activation of FAK, upregulation of cdc2, production of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 and actin polymerization were intensified in B16 cells stimulated with ECM molecules 24 h after the withdrawal of IFN-,. The i.v. injection of such tumor cells into mice resulted in more metastatic tumor nodes in lung and shortened the survival of mice. The pitfall of immunotherapy termination can be remedied by the administration of recombinant CBD-HepII polypeptide of fibronectin, which effectively inhibits ,v,3 signaling. These findings suggest that the risk of tumor metastasis can be increased after the termination of immunotherapy, due to the withdrawal of IFN-, and that targeting ,v,3 signaling pathway can improve the therapeutic effect of immunotherapeutic approaches by reducing such metastatic risk. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-pulsed dendritic cells stimulate natural killer T cells and ,,T cells

    Michio Naoe
    Background: Immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for bladder cancer is successful, although the precise mechanism is unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells are a candidate for BCG-activated killer cells, but the roles of other T lymphocytes, such as NKT cells and ,,T cells, are not fully understood. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a potent activator of both NKT cells and ,,T cells. However, it is known that the patient's prognosis is good if there are increased numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) in the urine after BCG therapy. Therefore, we investigated whether DCs are matured by BCG and whether BCG-pulsed DCs stimulate NKT cells and ,,T cells. Methods: Naďve Pan T cells were isolated form peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and DCs were obtained by culturing CD14+ monocytes with granulocyte,macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4. The DCs were pulsed with BCG and their maturation was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis using the CD86 antibody. Naďve T lymphocytes were stimulated by coculture with BCG-pulsed DCs in vitro, followed by FACS analysis to estimate the ratio and activation of NKT cells and the ratio of ,,T cells. The 51Cr (chromium) release assay was used to estimate the cytotoxic activity of the stimulated T cells. Cytolytic proteins in the patient's PBMCs were measured during BCG therapy using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The DCs were matured by BCG stimulation and the number of NKT cells and ,,T cells increased after culturing with BCG-pulsed DCs. The BCG-pulsed DCs also activated the NKT cells and ,,T cells. Also, the lymphocytes that were cocultured with the BCG-pulsed DCs showed unspecific cytotoxic activity against a bladder cancer cell line. Conclusion: Sensitization of NKT cells and ,,T cells by BCG-pulsed DCs might be one of the mechanisms of BCG immunotherapy. [source]

    Immunotherapy against metastatic renal cell carcinoma with mature dendritic cells

    Akihiko Matsumoto
    Objective: We performed a clinical trial of immunotherapy using autologous mature dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with autologous tumor lysate, for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Patients with refractory metastatic RCC were enrolled in the study. All of them received interferon (IFN)-, treatment after nephrectomy and were followed over 3 months prior to this study. Autologous monocyte-derived immature DC were pulsed with lysate from autologous primary tumor as the antigen and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as immunomodulator, and cultured in the presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-,, interleukin (IL)-1,, and prostaglandin (PG)E2 to generate mature DC. Mature DC were injected intradermally near bilateral inguinal lymph nodes of the patients. A delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) test and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay were performed to evaluate the immunological response. After 4 months from first injection, the clinical effect was evaluated by diagnostic imaging. Results: The treatments were well tolerated without significant toxicity by the patients who were an average of 65.7 years old and had multiple metastases in the lung and other organs. One of the two patients developed a positive DTH reaction to tumor lysate and the other patient only to KLH. The patient with a positive DTH reaction to tumor lysate had stable disease in the clinical evaluation. Conclusions: We confirmed the safety of DC therapy in this clinical trial. The DTH test revealed that the DC therapy induced immunological response to RCC. On the other hand, it was necessary to reconsider the patient selection criteria. [source]

    Immunotherapy using autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with leukemic cell lysates for acute myeloid leukemia relapse after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    Je-Jung Lee
    Abstract Although a second stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be used as salvage therapy in patients with relapsing leukemia after SCT, most of these patients have a poor outcome. We tried clinical vaccination using monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with leukemic lysates to treat relapsing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after autologous SCT. To generate DCs, CD14+ cells isolated from peripheral blood stem cell products were cultured in AIM-V in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. Adding TNF-, on day 6 induced maturation of the DCs, which were harvested on day 8 or 9. The DCs were incubated with tumor lysate and KLH for 2 hr at 37°C. After certifying the absence of microorganisms and endotoxins, the patients received four DC vaccinations at two- to three-week intervals. Two patients received four DC vaccinations with means of 7.8 × 106 and 9 × 106 DCs at two- to three-week intervals. The DC vaccinations were well tolerated with no apparent side effects. After the vaccinations, the patients showed immunological responses with positive delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reaction and increasing autologous T cells stimulatory capacity to the DCs; however, the BM blast percentage of the patients did not improve. The results suggest that DCs are a feasible cellular therapy for relapsing AML after autologous SCT. J Clin Apheresis 19:66,70, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Molecular basis of therapeutic approaches to gastric cancer

    Kaichun Wu
    Abstract Gastric cancer is the top lethal cancer in Asia. As the majority of cases present with advanced disease, conventional therapies (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) have limited efficacy to reduce mortality. Emerging modalities provide promise to combat this malignancy. Target-protein-based cancer therapy has become available in clinical practice. Numerous molecules have been shown potential to target specific pathways for tumor cell growth. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in and correlated with gastric cancer, and knockdown of COX-2 or administration of COX-2 inhibitors suppresses tumor formation in models of gastric cancer. Induction of apoptosis, reduction of angiogenesis, and blocking of potassium ion channels may present new mechanisms of COX-2 inhibition. Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene whose deficiency is causally related to gastric cancer. RUNX3 is downregulated in metastatic gastric cancer. RUNX3 activation inhibits angiogenesis in xenograft tumors in nude mice. Tumor microenvironment modulation also provides a powerful tool to inhibit cancer development and progress; details of the potential roles of angiopoietins are discussed in this review. Osteopontin is a secreted protein involved in stress response, inflammation, wound healing, and immune response. Inhibition of osteopontin by RNA interfering technique suppressed tumorigenesis as well as angiogenesis in gastric cancer. Immunotherapy remains another important choice of adjuvant therapy for cancer. A tumor-specific antigen MG7-Ag has been identified with great potential for inducing immune response in gastric cancer. Using HLA-A-matched allogeneic gastric cancer cells to induce tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes appeared to be an alternative option of immunotherapy for gastric cancer. [source]

    Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)

    Nobuto Yamamoto
    Abstract Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3 -binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of HIV-infected patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by ,- N -acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from HIV-infected cells. Therefore, macrophages of HIV-infected patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Since Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the envelope protein gp120, serum Nagalase activity is the sum of enzyme activities carried by both HIV virions and envelope proteins. These Nagalase carriers were already complexed with anti-HIV immunoglobulin G (IgG) but retained Nagalase activity that is required for infectivity. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized ,-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF), which produces no side effects in humans. Macrophages activated by administration of 100 ng GcMAF develop a large amount of Fc-receptors as well as an enormous variation of receptors that recognize IgG-bound and unbound HIV virions. Since latently HIV-infected cells are unstable and constantly release HIV virions, the activated macrophages rapidly intercept the released HIV virions to prevent reinfection resulting in exhaustion of infected cells. After less than 18 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF for nonanemic patients, they exhibited low serum Nagalase activities equivalent to healthy controls, indicating eradication of HIV-infection, which was also confirmed by no infectious center formation by provirus inducing agent-treated patient PBMCs. No recurrence occurred and their healthy CD,+,cell counts were maintained for 7 years. J. Med. Virol. 81:16,26, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sub-lingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2009

    ALLERGY, Issue 2009
    Article first published online: 22 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    Targeting the MHC class II pathway of antigen presentation enhances immunogenicity and safety of allergen immunotherapy

    ALLERGY, Issue 1 2009
    J. M. Martínez-Gómez
    Background:, Current s.c. allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) leads to amelioration of IgE-mediated allergy, but it requires numerous allergen injections over several years and is frequently associated with severe side-effects. The aim of this study was to test whether modified recombinant allergens can improve therapeutic efficacy in SIT while reducing allergic side-effects. Methods:, The major cat allergen Fel d 1 was fused to a TAT-derived protein translocation domain and to a truncated invariant chain for targeting the MHC class II pathway (MAT-Fel d 1). The immunogenicity was evaluated in mice, while potential safety issues were assessed by cellular antigen stimulation test (CAST) using basophils from cat-dander-allergic patients. Results:, MAT-Fel d 1 enhanced induction of Fel d 1-specific IgG2a antibody responses as well as the secretion of IFN-, and IL-2 from T cells. Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy of mice using the modified Fel d 1 provided stronger protection against anaphylaxis than SIT with unmodified Fel d 1, and MAT-Fel d 1 caused less degranulation of human basophils than native Fel d 1. Conclusion:, MAT-Fel d 1 allergen enhanced protective antibody and Th1 responses in mice, while reducing human basophil degranulation. Immunotherapy using MAT-Fel d 1 allergen therefore has the potential to enhance SIT efficacy and safety, thus, shortening SIT. This should increase patient compliance and lower treatment costs. [source]

    Immunotherapy of idiopathic inflammatory neuropathies

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 3 2003
    Peter D. Donofrio MD
    Abstract Evaluation of peripheral neuropathy is a common reason for referral to a neurologist. Recent advances in immunology have identified an inflammatory component in many neuropathies and have led to treatment trials using agents that attenuate this response. This article reviews the clinical presentation and treatment of the most common subacute inflammatory neuropathies, Guillain,Barré syndrome (GBS) and Fisher syndrome, and describes the lack of response to corticosteroids and the efficacy of treatment with plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, although sharing some clinical, electrodiagnostic, and pathologic similarities to GBS, improves after treatment with plasma exchange and IVIG and numerous immunomodulatory agents. Controlled trials in multifocal motor neuropathy have shown benefit after treatment with IVIG and cyclophosphamide. Also discussed is the treatment of less common inflammatory neuropathies whose pathophysiology involves monoclonal proteins or antibodies directed against myelin-associated glycoprotein or sulfatide. Little treatment data exist to direct the clinician to proper management of rare inflammatory neuropathies resulting from osteosclerotic myeloma; POEMS syndrome; vasculitis; Sjögren's syndrome; and neoplasia (paraneoplastic neuropathy). Muscle Nerve 28: 273,292, 2003 [source]

    Immunotherapy with live BCG plus heat killed Leishmania induces a T helper 1-like response in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients

    Maira Cabrera
    Previous work has shown that American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients treated with viable BCG plus heat killed promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis show the same rate of cure as patients receiving conventional chemotherapy. The treatment is safe and economical, but the immunological correlates of cure have not been examined. In the present study, T cell responses have been analysed in 43 ACL patients, including patient groups sampled before and after therapy, and in 10 endemic controls. Lymphocyte proliferation, interferon (IFN)-, and interleukin (IL)-5 responses to crude antigen (L. amazonensis, MEL; Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPD; M. bovis BCG) stimulation, and serum IL-5 levels, were analysed. In endemic volunteers, proliferative responses to BCG were high and IFN-, responses low. In contrast, localized cutaneous (LCL) and mucocutaneous (MCL) patients showed low proliferative and high IFN-, responses to BCG. Treatment enhanced the IFN-, response and further decreased the proliferative response to BCG, especially in MCL patients. LCL and MCL patients showed an increase in proliferative and IFN-, responses to MEL with treatment, but the response was not exaggerated in MCL patients, either before or after treatment, compared to LCL patients. IL-5 production was low in T cell assays, and > 62% of untreated patients had very low serum IL-5 levels. There were no significant changes in serum IL-5 with treatment. Overall results show enhanced antigen-specific IFN-, responses to the two components of the immunotherapy, live M. bovis BCG and heat killed L. amazonensis, which is consistent with a shift in balance of T cell response towards a T helper 1 response and clinical cure mediated by IFN-,. [source]

    Immunotherapy in children and adolescents with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a systematic review

    Esther Röder
    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is one of the cornerstones of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis treatment. Since the development of non-invasive administration forms with better safety profiles, there is an increasing tendency to prescribe immunotherapy in youngsters. However, no overview is available on the efficacy of immunotherapy in all its different administration forms in youngsters. Therefore, we systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of immunotherapy with inhalant allergens on symptoms and medication use in children and adolescents with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register and reference lists of recent reviews and published trials were searched. RCTs including youngsters aged 0,18 yr with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and comparing immunotherapy with placebo, symptomatic treatment or a different administration form of immunotherapy were included. Primary outcome measures were rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and/or medication scores. Methodological quality was assessed using the validated Delphi list. A method of best evidence synthesis, a rating system with levels of evidence based on the overall quality and the outcome of the trials, was used to assess efficacy. Six subcutaneous (SCIT), four nasal (LNIT), seven oral (OIT) and 11 sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy trials, comprising 1619 youngsters, were included. Only 39% of the trials were of high methodological quality. For the SCIT and OIT subgroups the level of evidence for efficacy was conflicting. Moderate evidence of effect was found for LNIT. Analysis of the SLIT subgroup showed no evidence of effect. The evidence for the perennial and seasonal allergen trials within the subgroups varied from moderate evidence of effect to no evidence of effect. In conclusion, there is at present insufficient evidence that immunotherapy in any administration form has a positive effect on symptoms and/or medication use in children and adolescents with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. [source]

    One-Year Experience with Candida Antigen Immunotherapy for Warts and Molluscum

    Mandi Maronn M.D.
    We report our 1-year experience with intralesional candida antigen therapy for both warts and molluscum contagiosum. A retrospective chart review was performed and a total of 217 patients were identified. Follow-up was obtained either through clinic visits or telephone interviews for 25/47 molluscum patients and 55/170 wart patients. Of the molluscum patients with follow-up, 14/25 (56%) had complete resolution, 7/25 (28%) had partial clearing, and 4/25 (16%) had no improvement. For the wart patients with follow-up, 48/55 (87%) had complete resolution, 3/55 (6%) had partial clearing, and 4/55 (7%) had no improvement. It is important to note that our clearance rate may be overestimated, as many patients were also treated concurrently with liquid nitrogen or other therapies. All wart and molluscum patients experienced some discomfort at the time of injection, but no serious side effects were reported. Our experience suggests intralesional candida antigen may represent a treatment option for warts and molluscum contagiosum that is safe and effective. [source]

    First Successful Pregnancy after Addition of Enoxaparin to Sildenafil and Etanercept Immunotherapy in Woman with Fifteen Failed IVF Cycles , Case Report

    gorzata Jerzak
    Citation Jerzak M, Niemiec T, Nowakowska A, Klochowicz M, Górski A, Baranowski W. First successful pregnancy after addition of enoxaparin to sildenafil and etanercept immunotherapy in woman with fifteen failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles , case report. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 64: 93,96 Problem, Does addition of enoxaparin to sildenafil and etanercept immunotherapy improve IVF outcome? Methods, Report of a striking case with 15 IVF failures. Result, When enoxaparin was added, the 16th IVF cycle generated a healthy male baby. Conclusions, Combination therapy that includes a heparin may allow successful IVF outcome and this issue merits further study. [source]

    The Expression of Th1- and Th2-Related Chemokine Receptors in Women with Recurrent Miscarriage: the Impact of Lymphocyte Immunotherapy

    Nasim Kheshtchin
    Citation Kheshtchin N, Gharagozloo M, Andalib A, Ghahiri A, Maracy MR, Rezaei A. The Expression of Th1- and Th2-Related chemokine receptors in women with recurrent miscarriage: the impact of lymphocyte Immunotherapy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 64: 104,112 Problem, Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to the 20th week of gestation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-related chemokine receptors on CD4+ T helper and CD8+ T cytotoxic (Tc) cells in RM and control subjects. The effects of lymphocyte immunotherapy on the balance of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 chemokine receptors were further evaluated in RM women. Method of study, The expression of Th1-related (CCR5 and CXCR3) and Th2-related (CCR3 and CCR4) chemokine receptors on CD4+ or CD8+ T cells from RM women were analyzed and compared with controls using flow cytometry. The expression of chemokine receptors in RM women was also compared before and after lymphocyte immunotherapy. Results, The ratios of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 chemokine receptors were higher in RM women compared to controls. The ratio of Th1/Th2 chemokine receptors was decreased in RM women after immunotherapy, while no significant change was identified in the Tc1/Tc2 after immunotherapy. Conclusion, This study indicates the Th1 dominant immune responses in circulation of RM women compared to controls. Moreover, lymphocyte immunotherapy might influence pregnancy outcome via a shift in the balance of the Th1/Th2 chemokine receptors. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Cell-Surface CD200 May Predict Efficacy of Paternal Mononuclear Leukocyte Immunotherapy in Treatment of Human Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    David A. Clark
    Problem, The allogeneic leukocytes in transfused blood can modulate the recipient's immune system so as to induce TGF-,-producing suppressor cells, and the cell-surface CD200 tolerance-signaling molecule on mononuclear dendritic cells is required for this effect. A subset of couples with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss appears to benefit from transfusion of allogeneic paternal blood leukocytes (LIT), and considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing those who may benefit. Some data has been accumulated for LIT as sole therapy in patients with classical spontaneous abortions with respect to dose,response, duration of protection, need for boosting, excluding patients with autoimmunity, and inefficacy of paternal mononuclear cells stored at 4°C overnight before use which causes loss of cell-surface CD200. Recent data emphasize an important role of expression of the CD200 tolerance-signaling molecule on cells used to prevent abortions both in mice and humans. Method of study, An observational study of outcome as a function of the number of CD200+ paternal mononuclear cells was performed. Fourteen patients constituted the pilot group. Patients with autoimmunity who had failed inspite of treatment with IVIG + Heparin + Aspirin ± Prednisone were allowed to have paternal mononuclear cells added to their therapy. CD200 on purified paternal blood mononuclear cells was measured by flow cytometry. Results, The number of CD200+ cells administered was significantly greater in women achieving pregnancy (39.2 × 106 versus 20.8 × 106, P < 0.025) and in those who achieved a live birth (50.2 × 106 versus 20.8 × 106, P < 0.005) compared to those who did not achieve pregnancy, and % of paternal cells that were CD200+ was greater (11,12.5% versus 5.6%, P < 0.01). Amongst those achieving pregnancy which failed, the CD200+ cell dose was not significantly different from the non-pregnant group (30.5 × 106 versus 20.8 × 106). Conclusion, The number of CD200+ paternal mononuclear leukocytes may be an important determinant of subsequent reproductive outcome in a subset of patients. A lower % CD200+ cell number may also reflect hitherto unappreciated paternal factors bearing on reproductive success. It is feasible to recruit women to enter observational studies and to obtain useful data as a foundation for further studies. More complete patient characterization in a larger study is needed. [source]

    Transfusion-Related Risks of Intradermal Allogeneic Lymphocyte Immunotherapy: Single Cases in a Large Cohort and Review of the Literature

    Christiane Kling
    Problem, Lymphocyte immunotherapy (LIT) is applied in infertility treatment. Moreover, it has been suggested for prevention of rhesus D-hemolytic disease and as a vaccine for reduction of human immunodeficiency virus-1 susceptibility. Although transfusion-related problems have been rarely reported they were a matter of debate. Here we discuss extensive single-center experience with intradermal LIT for implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages. Method of study, Retrospective 2- to 3-year follow-up of in vitro fertilization couples treated during 1996,2002 (feedback 2848/3041 = 93%), registering 930 deliveries. Prospective survey for acute reactions for 2000,2003 (feedback 2687/3246 = 83%). Review of the literature. Results, Infections of the patient and transplant rejection later in life are minor residual risks. Post-transfusion purpura was suspected once but not verified. Anaphylaxis or malignancy were not promoted. Fetal/newborn alloimmune disease (severe hemolytic disease, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia) were not observed. Conclusion, Based on microbiological, immunological, and hematological testing the risks of intradermal LIT are low. [source]

    Immunotherapy for Invasive Fungal Infections in Transplant Patients: Back to the Future?

    Hans H. Hirsch
    For kidney transplant patients with life-threatening disseminated fungal infections and failure of modern antifungal therapies, exogenous interferon-gamma might represent an adjunct salvage therapy, but the risk-benefit ratio is not yet established. See Article by Armstrong-James et al on page 1796. [source]

    Exogenous Interferon-, Immunotherapy for Invasive Fungal Infections in Kidney Transplant Patients

    D. Armstrong-James
    The incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in nonneutropenic solid organ transplant patients is increasing. We report our clinical experience with the use of interferon-, (IFN-,) immunotherapy in seven renal transplant patients who developed life threatening, disseminated IFIs refractory to conventional antifungal drug therapy. The infections were all microbiologically and histologically proven. The rapid cure of these disseminated infections with exogenous IFN-, injections was not associated with impaired kidney allograft function despite the use of liposomal amphotericin B in all cases. No clinical toxicity from the IFN-, immunotherapy was seen and no IFI relapsed during long-term follow-up. Our experience is both uncontrolled and in patients with unpredictable fungal infection-related outcomes. However, compared to standard approaches, the accelerated cure of life threatening, disseminated IFIs with 6 weeks of combination antifungal drug therapy and IFN-, immunotherapy saved lives, retained allograft function and led to substantial cost savings in this small patient group. [source]

    Successful Immunotherapy of HCMV Disease Using Virus-Specific T Cells Expanded from an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient

    G. R. Hill
    Opportunistic infection remains the principal cause of mortality in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with active extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents an important cause of disease in this setting and the toxicity of protracted and recurrent antiviral treatment together with eventual drug resistance represents a significant limitation to therapy. Although the expansion and adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific T cells from the healthy original donor can be an effective strategy to control viral replication, this is not possible when donors are seronegative or are subsequently inaccessible. Here we demonstrate for the first time, the successful expansion of HCMV-specific T cells from a seropositive transplant recipient of a seronegative graft with active HCMV disease and the long-term reconstitution of protective antiviral immunity following their adoptive transfer back into the patient. [source]

    Immunity, Homing and Efficacy of Allogeneic Adoptive Immunotherapy for Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    M. K. Gandhi
    Adoptive immunotherapy using autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (auto-CTL) can regress posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). Widespread applicability of auto-CTL remains constrained. Generation is time-consuming, and auto-CTL cannot be established in patients treated with the B-cell depleting antibody rituximab. By contrast, pregenerated allogeneic CTL (allo-CTL) offers immediate accessibility. Allo-CTL has previously shown efficacy in "early" polyclonal- PTLD. We treated three patients with aggressive, advanced monoclonal-PTLD following solid-organ transplantation. All were refractory to at least three prior therapies. Despite HLA disparity, there was negligible toxicity, with early in vivo antiviral efficacy and reconstitution of EBV peptide-specific immunity. Two patients attained complete remission (CR). One remains in CR 17 months following therapy, coincident with persistence of donor-derived tumor targeted EBV-specific CTL; the other died of non-PTLD related pathology. In the third patient, autopsy demonstrated homing of allo-CTL at the tumor site. Larger prospective studies of EBV-specific allo-CTL in PTLD are warranted. [source]

    Temozolomide in advanced malignant melanoma with small brain metastases

    CANCER, Issue 2 2007
    Can we Withhold Cranial Irradiation?
    Abstract BACKGROUND. The efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in patients who have brain metastases from melanoma is limited. In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of treatment with temozolomide in patients with metastatic melanoma, including small brain metastases, who did not require immediate RT and investigated the feasibility of deferring RT. METHODS. Patients with brain metastasis were identified from 3 prospective studies of temozolomide (with or without immunotherapy) for metastatic melanoma. Patients with brain metastasis that measured >2 cm, extensive edema, and localization in the brain stem were excluded from the study. For the current analysis, patients with leptomeningeal metastasis and patients who received previous stereotactic RT were excluded. In patients who achieved a systemic response or stabilization to temozolomide, the response of brain metastasis and the necessity for palliative cranial RT were evaluated. RESULTS. Among 179 patients who received temozolomide for advanced melanoma, 52 patients with brain metastasis were evaluable. Stabilization of systemic metastasis was noted in 7 of 52 patients (13%), and there were 6 responses (5 partial responses and 1 complete response; 11%); thus, in those 13 patients, 6 had stabilization of brain metastasis (11%) and 5 had a response (2 partial responses and 3 complete responses; 9%). Immunotherapy did not influence the neurologic response. The median time to neurologic progression was 7 months (range 2,15, months). RT for cerebral recurrence was required in 2 patients. The median survival of patients with brain metastases was 5.6 months (95% confidence interval, 4.4,6.8 months). Intracranial hemorrhagic complications were not observed. CONCLUSIONS. The current results indicated that it is feasible to treat patients who have advanced melanoma and small brain metastasis with temozolomide as the single treatment. The small subset of patients with systemic response usually showed durable stabilization or a response of brain metastasis. With this approach, neurologic disease can be controlled, and cranial irradiation may be deferred and even withheld in most of patients. Cancer 2007. © 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Phase I clinical trial using peptide vaccine for human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in combination with gemcitabine for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
    Motoki Miyazawa
    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is an essential factor in tumor angiogenesis and in the growth of pancreatic cancer. Immunotherapy using epitope peptide for VEGFR2 (VEGFR2-169) that we identified previously is expected to improve the clinical outcome. Therefore, a phase I clinical trial combining of VEGFR2-169 with gemcitabine was conducted for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients with metastatic and unresectable pancreatic cancer were eligible for the trial. Gemcitabine was administered at a dose of 1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 in a 28-day cycle. The VEGFR2-169 peptide was subcutaneously injected weekly in a dose-escalation manner (doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/body, six patients/one cohort). Safety and immunological parameters were assessed. No severe adverse effect of grade 4 or higher was observed. Of the 18 patients who completed at least one course of the treatment, 15 (83%) developed immunological reactions at the injection sites. Specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) reacting to the VEGFR2-169 peptide were induced in 11 (61%) of the 18 patients. The disease control rate was 67%, and the median overall survival time was 8.7 months. This combination therapy for pancreatic cancer patients was tolerable at all doses. Peptide-specific CTL could be induced by the VEGFR2-169 peptide vaccine at a high rate, even in combination with gemcitabine. From an immunological point of view, the optimal dose for further clinical trials might be 2 mg/body or higher. This trial was registered with (no. NCT 00622622). (Cancer Sci 2009) [source]

    Photodynamic therapy-generated tumor cell lysates with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide enhance immunotherapy efficacy in human papillomavirus 16 (E6/E7) immortalized tumor cells

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2007
    Su-Mi Bae
    Immunotherapy with photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers great promise as a new alternative for cancer treatment; however, its use remains experimental. In this study, we examined the immunotherapeutic significance of human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized tumor cell lysates induced by PDT with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). PDT-cell lysates were generated by irradiating Radachlorin (5 µg/mL) preloaded TC-1 cells carrying HPV 16 E7. PDT-cell lysates plus ODN coinjection for protection against E7-expressing tumors as well as specific immune responses were evaluated with the following tests: heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro and in vivo tumor growth inhibition, interferon-, (IFN-,) and tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) assay, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay, and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. PDT-cell lysates plus ODN coinjection showed a significant suppression of tumor growth at both prophylactic and therapeutic levels, compared to PDT (or F/T)-cell lysates or ODN alone. In addition, we evaluated the level of the immune response with the coinjection. HSP70, an important regulator of inflammatory and immune response, was observed in abundance in the PDT-cell lysates. IFN-, production and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses were induced by PDT-cell lysates plus ODN injection. The coinjection resulted in PDT-cell lysate-specific antibodies (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3) and T-helper cell responses significantly higher than PDT-cell lysates alone. Moreover, IFN-, production and CTL responses were significantly induced in the PDT-cell lysate plus ODN immunized groups. These enhanced immune responses appeared to be mediated by CD8+ T cells only. These data suggest that PDT-cell lysates plus ODN injection may be an effective approach to induce CTL immune responses as a possible immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 747,752) [source]

    Interferon, tryptophan and depression

    D. Fekkes
    Depression is a frequent comorbid disorder of many inflammatory diseases and it is suggested that brain inflammatory processes have a pathogenic role in mood dysregulation. Several immunocompromised patients have been treated with cytokines and long-term treatments have resulted in a variety of neuropsychiatric side-effects. The objective of the study was to present evidence for an association between the induction of neuropsychiatric side-effects during treatment with interferon-, (IFN-,) and changes in serotonergic and immunological parameters. Moreover, the use of IFN-,-induced depression as a paradigm for research into the pathophysiology of depressive disorders in general will be discussed. This literature review focused on the relationships between tryptophan, serotonin, cytokines and depression associated with interferon treatment. Immunotherapy with IFN-, influences several immunological and serotonergic parameters, and induces in most patients neurovegetative, somatic and depressive symptoms. Literature findings indicate that the development of depressive symptoms in patients undergoing cytokine therapy are secondary to cytokine induction and could be mediated by a reduced availability of tryptophan to the brain, resulting ultimately in decreased serotonergic activity. Changes in the metabolism of tryptophan and consequently of serotonin may play a role in the pathophysiology of interferon-induced depression. Studies on interferon-induced neuropsychiatric side-effects may be a promising research paradigm and shed light on the role of immunological and serotonergic factors in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders in general. However, first the appropriate symptomatology of the interferon-induced depressive states has to be documented. [source]

    Time course of serum inhibitory activity for facilitated allergen,IgE binding during bee venom immunotherapy in children

    E-M Varga
    Summary Background Immunotherapy for bee venom allergy is effective and provides long-term protection. Venom-specific IgG4 levels are increased but with no correlation with clinical improvement. Following grass pollen immunotherapy, elevation of antigen-specific IgG4 is accompanied by increases in IgG-dependent serum inhibitory activity for IgE-facilitated binding of allergen,IgE complexes to B cells. As this ,functional' assay of inhibitory antibodies may be more predictive of clinical efficacy, we investigated the time course of serum inhibitory activity for IgE-facilitated antigen binding during venom immunotherapy (VIT) in children and following 2 years of VIT withdrawal. Methods Ten bee venom-allergic children (mean age: 9.3 years; m/f, 7/3) with moderate to severe allergic reactions to bee stings received VIT. A separate group of seven children (mean age: 14 years; m/f, 5/2) were investigated 2 years after VIT withdrawal. Ten age- and gender-matched children served as non-allergic controls. Allergen-specific serum IgG4 and IgE levels were measured by ELISA at baseline, after 2 years of VIT and 2 years after VIT withdrawal. Serum inhibitory activity was assessed using the facilitated-allergen binding (FAB) assay. Results Sera obtained during VIT significantly inhibited allergen,IgE binding to B-cells (pre-treatment=104±23%; 2 years=46±15%; P<0.001) when compared with sera obtained after treatment withdrawal and sera from normal controls. In parallel to FAB inhibition during VIT, significantly higher IgG4 levels were noted after immunotherapy (pre-treatment=8.6±2.3 AU; 2 years=26.7±3.5 AU; P<0.001) compared with those observed after withdrawal and in the controls. In contrast, progressively lower IgE concentrations were observed compared with pre-treatment (44±7 AU) in sera obtained after 2 years of VIT (25±5 AU; P<0.01) and 2 years following the withdrawal of VIT (10±3 AU; P<0.05). Conclusions In contrast to grass pollen immunotherapy, the persistent decline in venom-specific IgE levels, rather than serum inhibitory activity for FAB, may be more relevant for long-term clinical efficacy of VIT. [source]

    Immunology of Asthma & Immunotherapy

    Article first published online: 2 OCT 200
    First page of article [source]

    Immunotherapy: how safe is safe?

    A. J. Frew
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]