Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Immunoreactive

  • cell immunoreactive

  • Terms modified by Immunoreactive

  • immunoreactive bands
  • immunoreactive cell
  • immunoreactive fiber
  • immunoreactive insulin
  • immunoreactive material
  • immunoreactive nerve fiber
  • immunoreactive neuron
  • immunoreactive neurone
  • immunoreactive protein
  • immunoreactive substance

  • Selected Abstracts

    Distribution of glycine receptor subunits on primate retinal ganglion cells: a quantitative analysis

    Bin Lin
    Abstract This study investigates the distribution of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors on sensory neurons. Ganglion cells in the retina of a New World monkey, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus, were injected with Lucifer yellow and Neurobiotin and subsequently processed with antibodies against one (,1), or against all subunits, of the glycine receptor, or against the anchoring protein gephyrin. Immunoreactive (IR) puncta representing glycine receptor or gephyrin clusters were found on the proximal and the distal dendrites of all ganglion cell types investigated. For both parasol and midget cells, the density of receptor clusters was greater on distal than proximal dendrites for all antibodies tested. In parasol cells the average density for the ,1 subunit of the glycine receptor was 0.087 IR puncta/µm of dendrite, and for all subunits it was 0.119 IR puncta/µm of dendrite. Thus, the majority of glycine receptors on parasol cells contain the ,1 subunit. For parasol cells, we estimated an average of 1.5 glycinergic synapses/100 µm2 dendritic membrane on proximal dendrites and about 9.4 glycinergic synapses/100 µm2 on distal dendrites. The segregation of receptors to the distal dendrites appears to be a common feature of inhibitory neurotransmitter input to parasol and midget cells, and might be associated with the receptive field surround mechanism. [source]

    Differential Localization of Immunoreactive ,- and ,-subunits of S-100 Protein in Feline Testis

    B. C. Cruzana
    This study investigates the differential localization of the ,- subunit (S100-,) and the ,-subunit (S100-,) of the S-100 protein in the feline testis, using immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies to bovine S-100 protein (S-100) and monoclonal antibodies to bovine S100-, and S100-,. Appreciable differences were observed in the cellular localization of the immunoreactivity of each subunit. S-100 was observed in the Sertoli cells, the epithelial cells of the transitional segment of the seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells and the peritubular cells of the seminiferous tubules, but was not observed in the epithelial cells of straight tubules and the rete testis or in the endothelial cells of blood and lymph vessels. S100-, immunoreactivity was localized in Sertoli cells, peritubular cells and the epithelial cells of the terminal segment of the tubules, whereas S100-, immunoreactivity was localized in Leydig cells. The differential localization of the ,- and ,-subunits of the S-100 protein in the feline testis suggests that this protein is multifunctional and be useful as an investigative tool in studying feline testis function. [source]

    Glypican 3-expressing gastric carcinoma: Distinct subgroup unifying hepatoid, clear-cell, and ,-fetoprotein-producing gastric carcinomas

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    Tetsuo Ushiku
    Gypican-3 (GPC3) has been recognized as an oncofetal protein in hepatic neoplasms and yolk sac tumors. To characterize a distinct subgroup of gastric carcinoma (GC) expressing GPC3 (GPC3-GC), primary and metastatic GC tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry with special focus on their related entities: hepatoid, clear-cell, and ,-fetoprotein-producing GC. GPC3-GC was defined as focal GPC3-GC when 10,49% of neoplastic cells were positive, and as diffuse GPC3-GC when more than 50% of cells were positive. Among 926 GC cases, 101 (11%) were GPC3-GC, of which 45 were diffuse and 56 were focal GPC3-GC. Specific histological patterns, such as the hepatoid and clear-cell patterns, were frequently observed in diffuse GPC3-GC (38 and 49%, respectively) and in focal GPC3-GC (4 and 25%, respectively), whereas these patterns were extremely rare in GPC3-negative GC. Immunoreactive ,-fetoprotein was only identified in GPC3-GC (38% of diffuse and 14% of focal GPC3-GC). Both diffuse and focal GPC3-GC showed nodal metastasis more frequently (67 and 55%, respectively) than GPC3-negative GC (34%), and the diffuse GPC3-GC had significantly more T2,4 and M1 stage cases. GPC3 immunostaining was present in 57 out of 61 nodal metastases (93%) and in all four liver metastases examined. Importantly, diffuse GPC3 expression was observed in the liver metastasis, even if the primary tumor was focal GPC3-GC. GPC3-GC is a distinctive group of GC, which unifies hepatoid, clear-cell, and ,-fetoprotein-producing GC. GPC3 is expected to be a target of forthcoming immunotherapy for a patient bearing this specific type of GC. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 626,632) [source]

    Myosin Va phosphorylated on Ser1650 is found in nuclear speckles and redistributes to nucleoli upon inhibition of transcription

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 6 2008
    Maria Cristina S. Pranchevicius
    Abstract Nuclear actin and nuclear myosins have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression in vertebrate cells. Myosin V is a class of actin-based motor proteins involved in cytoplasmic vesicle transport and anchorage, spindle-pole alignment and mRNA translocation. In this study, myosin-Va, phosphorylated on a conserved serine in the tail domain (phospho-ser1650 MVa), was localized to subnuclear compartments. A monoclonal antibody, 9E6, raised against a peptide corresponding to phosphoserine1650 and flanking regions of the murine myosin Va sequence, was immunoreactive to myosin Va heavy chain in cellular and nuclear extracts of HeLa cells, PC12 cells and B16-F10 melanocytes. Immunofluorescence microscopy with this antibody revealed discrete irregular spots within the nucleoplasm that colocalized with SC35, a splicing factor that earmarks nuclear speckles. Phospho-ser1650 MVa was not detected in other nuclear compartments, such as condensed chromatin, Cajal bodies, gems and perinucleolar caps. Although nucleoli also were not labeled by 9E6 under normal conditions, inhibition of transcription in HeLa cells by actinomycin D caused the redistribution of phospho-ser1650 MVa to nucleoli, as well as separating a fraction of phospho-ser1650 MVa from SC35 into near-neighboring particles. These observations indicate a novel role for myosin Va in nuclear compartmentalization and offer a new lead towards the understanding of actomyosin-based gene regulation. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neurotrophin-3 signaling in mammalian Merkel cell development

    Viktor Szeder
    Abstract Merkel cells are sensory cells of neural crest origin. Because little is known about the mechanisms that direct their differentiation, we have investigated the potential role of a candidate regulatory factor, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). At embryonic day 16.5 (E 16.5), neither NT-3 nor its primary receptors, TrkC and p75NTR are expressed by Merkel cells in the murine whisker. At the time of birth, however, Merkel cells are immunoreactive for NT-3, TrkC and p75NTR. In TrkC null and NT-3 null mice, Merkel cells differentiate initially, but undergo apoptosis perinatally. These results show that NT-3 signaling is not required for the differentiation of Merkel cells, but that it is essential for their postnatal survival. Developmental Dynamics 228:623,629, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Distribution of progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the midbrain and hindbrain of postnatal rats

    Princy S. Quadros
    Abstract Nuclear steroid hormone receptors are powerful transcription factors and therefore have the potential to influence and regulate fundamental processes of neural development. The expression of progesterone receptors (PR) has been described in the developing forebrain of rats and mice, and the mammalian brain may be exposed to significant amounts of progesterone, either from maternal sources and/or de novo synthesis of progesterone from cholesterol within the brain. The present study examined the distribution of PR immunoreactive (PRir) cells within the midbrain and hindbrain of postnatal rats. The results demonstrate that PR is transiently expressed within the first 2 weeks of life in specific motor, sensory and reticular core nuclei as well as within midbrain dopaminergic cell groups such as the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. Additionally, robust PRir was observed in cells of the lower rhombic lip, a transient structure giving rise to precerebellar nuclei. These results suggest that progestins and progesterone receptors may play a fundamental role in the postnatal development of numerous midbrain and hindbrain nuclei, including some areas implicated in human disorders. Additionally, these findings contribute to the increasing evidence that steroid hormones and their receptors influence neural development in a wide range of brain areas, including many not typically associated with reproduction or neuroendocrine function. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008 [source]

    Electrical stimulation promotes peripheral axon regeneration by enhanced neuronal neurotrophin signaling

    Arthur W. English
    Abstract Electrical stimulation of cut peripheral nerves at the time of their surgical repair results in an enhancement of axon regeneration. Regeneration of axons through nerve allografts was used to evaluate whether this effect is due to an augmentation of cell autonomous neurotrophin signaling in the axons or signaling from neurotrophins produced in the surrounding environment. In the thy-1-YFP-H mouse, a single 1 h application of electrical stimulation at the time of surgical repair of the cut common fibular nerve results in a significant increase in the proportion of YFP+ dorsal root ganglion neurons, which were immunoreactive for BDNF or trkB, as well as an increase in the length of regenerating axons through allografts from wild type litter mates, both 1 and 2 weeks later. Axon growth through allografts from neurotrophin-4/5 knockout mice or grafts made acellular by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing is normally very poor, but electrical stimulation results in a growth of axons through these grafts, which is similar to that observed through grafts from wild type mice after electrical stimulation. When cut nerves in NT-4/5 knockout mice were electrically stimulated, no enhancement of axon regeneration was found. Electrical stimulation thus produces a potent enhancement of the regeneration of axons in cut peripheral nerves, which is independent of neurotrophin production by cells in their surrounding environment but is dependent on stimulation of trkB and its ligands in the regenerating axons themselves. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 67: 158,172, 2007. [source]

    Sex differences in the level of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase-3 activation in the sexually dimorphic nuclei of the preoptic area in postnatal rats

    Shinji Tsukahara
    Abstract In developing rats, sex differences in the number of apoptotic cells are found in the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNc), which is a significant component of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area, and in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Specifically, male rats have more apoptotic cells in the developing AVPV, whereas females have more apoptotic cells in the developing MPNc. To determine the mechanisms for the sex differences in apoptosis in these nuclei, we compared the expression of the Bcl-2 family members and active caspase-3 in postnatal female and male rats. Western blot analyses for the Bcl-2 family proteins were performed using preoptic tissues isolated from the brain on postnatal day (PD) 1 (day of birth) or on PD8. In the AVPV-containing tissues of PD1 rats, there were significant sex differences in the level of Bcl-2 (female > male) and Bax (female < male) proteins, but not of Bcl-xL or Bad proteins. In the MPNc-containing tissues of PD8 rats, there were significant sex differences in the protein levels for Bcl-2 (female < male), Bax (female > male), and Bad (female < male), but not for Bcl-xL. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significant sex differences in the number of active caspase-3-immunoreactive cells in the AVPV on PD1 (female < male) and in the MPNc on PD8 (female > male). We further found that active caspase-3-immunoreactive cells of the AVPV and MPNc were immunoreactive for NeuN, a neuronal marker. These results suggest that there are sex differences in the induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway during development of the AVPV and MPNc. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006 [source]

    Comparison of antibodies to HBME-1 and calretinin for the detection of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology ,

    Patricia A. Fetsch M.T. (A.S.C.P.)
    Abstract The distinction of mesothelial cells in cytologic samples is often a diagnostic challenge. This is particularly true in potentially malignant effusions in which reactive mesothelial cells may simulate adenocarcinoma (ACA) cells, and in the differentiation of ACA vs. mesothelioma. We sought to determine the superior antibody for the positive identification of mesothelial cells in these circumstances. Cell block sections of 25 reactive and 8 malignant mesothelioma effusions were immunostained with an avidin-biotin procedure, using antibodies to HBME-1 and calretinin. No pretreatment of samples was necessary for the HBME-1-stained slides; microwave antigen retrieval was performed on all slides stained for calretinin. A negative control was performed on each sample. The staining intensity of tumor cells was scored on a scale of 0,3+, with the proportion of immunoreactive cells categorized as <25%, 25,50%, 50,75%, and >75%. The predominant staining pattern for HBME-1 was surface, with rare samples also exhibiting cytoplasmic staining as well. The calretinin-staining pattern was cytoplasmic, with peripheral condensation/prominence and accompanying nuclear staining. All samples were immunoreactive with both antibodies. Fifty-five percent (18/33) of samples showed significantly stronger immunoreactivity with calretinin than with HBME-1; 45% (15/33) of samples showed equivalent staining with the two markers. None of the samples in this study showed stronger immunoreactivity with HBME-1 than with calretinin. Sixty-one percent (20/33) of samples stained with HBME-1 at a moderate (2+) intensity. Fifty-five percent (18/33) of samples stained with calretinin at a strong (3+) intensity. While only 12% of samples showed >75% immunoreactivity for HBME-1, 58% of samples showed >75% of cells immunoreactive for calretinin. Calretinin is the preferred marker in identifying mesothelial cells in cytologic samples, showing the highest sensitivity for mesothelial cells, as evidenced by a more intense staining reaction in a higher percentage of cells than with HBME-1. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2001;25:158,161. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical observations of the nervous systems of three macrodasyidan gastrotrichs

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2003
    R. Hochberg
    Abstract The nervous systems of three macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, Dactylopodola baltica, Macrodasys caudatus and Dolichodasys elongatus, were investigated using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Labelling of neural structures against serotonin revealed the presence of two pairs of cerebral cells, a dorsal cerebral connective, and paired ventral nerve cords in D. baltica. In M. caudatus and D. elongatus serotonin immunoreactivity was present in a single pair of dorsal cerebral cells and the ventral nerve cords; the dorsal connective of D. elongatus was also immunoreactive to serotonin and acetylated ,-tubulin. The presence of paired, serotonin-like immunoreactive cells in D. baltica and other species may represent the plesiomorphic condition in Macrodasyida. The fine structure of the photoreceptors in D. baltica was also investigated to explore the potential ground pattern for eyes in the Macrodasyida. The pigmented photoreceptors of D. baltica contain a unicellular pigment cup, sheath cell and sensory receptor. The pigment cup contains numerous osmiophilic granules that presumably function to shield the eyes from downwelling light in the red part of the spectrum. Projecting into the pigment cup and sheath cell are numerous microvilli from a bipolar sensory cell. A single sensory cell may represent the plesiomorphic condition in Macrodasyida, with multiplication of sensory cells representative of more derived taxa. [source]

    Distinct caspase pathways mediate necrosis and apoptosis in subpopulations of hippocampal neurons after status epilepticus

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2010
    Maria-Leonor Lopez-Meraz
    Summary Status epilepticus in the immature brain induces neuronal injury in the hippocampal formation, but the mode and mechanism of death are poorly understood. Our laboratory has recently investigated the role of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in neuronal injury, using a lithium,pilocarpine model of status epilepticus in 2-week-old rat pups. Our results showed that dying neurons in the dentate gyrus and CA1-subiculum area do not share the same mechanism of death. In CA1-subiculum, caspase-8 upregulation preceded caspase-3 activation in morphologically necrotic neurons. The pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH reduced CA1 damage, showing that caspases contribute to status epilepticus,induced necrosis. In the dentate gyrus, dying neurons were caspase-9 and -3 immunoreactive and morphologically apoptotic. It is not clear why the same seizures cause different types of cell death in neurons that are connected in series along the same hippocampal circuit, but the apoptotic dentate neurons express doublecortin, and do not express calbindin-D28k, suggesting that their immaturity may be a factor in producing an apoptotic mode of death. [source]

    Characterization of Neuronal Migration Disorders in Neocortical Structures: Loss or Preservation of Inhibitory Interneurons?

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2000
    Petra Schwarz
    Summary: Purpose: Neuronal migration disorders (NMD) are often associated with therapy-resistant epilepsy. In human cerebral cortex, this hyperexcitability has been correlated with a loss of inhibitory interneurons. We used a rat model of focal cortical NMD (microgyria) to determine whether the expression of epileptiform activity in this model coincides with a decrease in inhibitory interneurons. Methods: In 2- to 4-month-old rats, the density of interneurons immunoreactive for ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA), cal-bindin, and parvalbumin was determined in fronto-parietal cortex in nine 200-,m-wide sectors located up to 2.5 mm lateral and 2.0 mm medial from the lesion center in primary parietal cortex (Par 1). Quantitative measurements in homotopic areas of age-matched sham-operated rats served as controls. Results: The freeze lesion performed in newborn rat cortex resulted in adult rats with a microgyrus extending in a rostro-caudal direction from frontal to occipital cortex. The density of GABA- and parvalbumin-positive neurons in fronto-parietal cortex was not significantly different between lesioned and control animals. Only the density of calbindin-immunoreactive neurons located 1.0 mm lateral and 0.5 mm medial from the lesion was significantly (Student t test, p > 0.05) larger in freeze-lesioned rats (5.817 ± 562 and 6,400 ± 795 cells per mm3, respectively; n = 12) compared with measurements in homotopic regions in Parl cortex of controls (4,507 ± 281 and 4,061 ± 319 cells per mm3, respectively; n = 5). Conclusions: The previously reported widespread functional changes in this model of cortical NMD are not related to a general loss of inhibitory interneurons. Other factors, such as a decrease in GABA receptor density, modifications in GABAA receptor subunit composition, or alterations in the excitatory network, e.g., an increase in the density of calbindin-immunoreactive pyramidal cells, more likely contribute to the global disinhibition and widespread expression of pathophysiological activity in this model of cortical NMD. [source]

    Urinary pheromones promote ERK/Akt phosphorylation, regeneration and survival of vomeronasal (V2R) neurons

    Jing Xia
    Abstract The G protein-coupled pheromone receptor neurons (V1R and V2R) of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) are continually replaced throughout the lifetime of the mouse. Moreover, active signalling of V2Rs via the transient receptor potential 2(TRPC2) channel is necessary for regeneration of receptors, as the TRPC2 null mutant mouse showed a 75% reduction of V2Rs by the age of two months. Here we describe V2R mediated signalling in a neuronal line established from vomeronasal stem cells taken from postnatal female mice. Cells were immunoreactive for G,o and V2R, whereas V1R and G,i immunoreactivity could not be detected. Biological ligands (dilute urine and its protein fractions) were found to increase proliferation and survival of these neurons. Dilute mouse urine but not artificial urine also induced ERK, Akt and CREB signalling in a dose dependent way. The volatile fraction of male mouse urine alone was without effect while the fraction containing peptides (> 5 kDa) also stimulated ERK and Akt phosphorylation. The ERK, Akt and CREB phosphorylation response was sensitive to pertussis toxin, confirming the involvement of V2R linked G,o. Dilute mouse urine or its high molecular weight protein fraction increased survival and proliferation of these neurons. Hence, urinary pheromones, which signal important social information via mature neurons, also promote survival and proliferation of their regenerating precursors. These data show that regenerating V2Rs respond to urine and the urinary peptides by activation of the Ras-ERK and PI3-Akt pathways, which appear to be important for vomeronasal neural survival and proliferation. [source]

    Estrogen-dependent selectivity of genomic responses to birdsong

    Donna L. Maney
    Abstract Behavioral responses to sociosexual signals often depend on gonadal steroid hormones, which are thought to modulate behavior by acting on motivational systems in the brain. There is mounting evidence that sex steroids may also modulate perception of sociosexual signals by affecting sensory processing. In seasonally breeding songbirds such as the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), the female's behavioral response to hearing male song depends on her plasma levels of estradiol (E2). Here, we examined whether plasma E2 also affects the selectivity of the song-induced zenk (egr-1) response in the auditory forebrain, which is known to vary according to the behavioral relevance of song stimuli. Non-breeding females were held on a winter-like photoperiod and implanted with silastic capsules containing either no hormone or E2. E2-treated birds hearing 42 min of conspecific song had more cells immunoreactive for the protein product of zenk in the auditory forebrain than did those hearing frequency-matched synthetic tones. In birds not treated with E2, however, the zenk response to song did not differ from that to tones. We found similar effects in the avian homolog of the inferior colliculus, indicating that E2 may affect the processing of auditory information upstream of the forebrain. Our data suggest that in females, zenk induction in the auditory system is selective for song only when plasma E2 exceeds non-breeding levels. E2-dependent plasticity of auditory pathways and processing centres may promote recognition of and attention to conspecific song during the breeding season. [source]

    Extracellular matrix molecules and synaptic plasticity: immunomapping of intracellular and secreted Reelin in the adult rat brain

    Tania Ramos-Moreno
    Abstract Reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is secreted by several neuron populations in the developing and adult rodent brain. Secreted Reelin triggers a complex signaling pathway by binding lipoprotein and integrin membrane receptors in target cells. Reelin signaling regulates migration and dendritic growth in developing neurons, while it can modulate synaptic plasticity in adult neurons. To identify which adult neural circuits can be modulated by Reelin-mediated signaling, we systematically mapped the distribution of Reelin in adult rat brain using sensitive immunolabeling techniques. Results show that the distribution of intracellular and secreted Reelin is both very widespread and specific. Some interneuron and projection neuron populations in the cerebral cortex contain Reelin. Numerous striatal neurons are weakly immunoreactive for Reelin and these cells are preferentially located in striosomes. Some thalamic nuclei contain Reelin-immunoreactive cells. Double-immunolabeling for GABA and Reelin reveals that the Reelin-immunoreactive cells in the visual thalamus are the intrinsic thalamic interneurons. High local concentrations of extracellular Reelin selectively outline several dendrite spine-rich neuropils. Together with previous mRNA data, our observations suggest abundant axoplasmic transport and secretion in pathways such as the retino-collicular tract, the entorhino-hippocampal (,perforant') path, the lateral olfactory tract or the parallel fiber system of the cerebellum. A preferential secretion of Reelin in these neuropils is consistent with reports of rapid, activity-induced structural changes in adult brain circuits. [source]

    Aberrant trajectory of thalamocortical axons associated with abnormal localization of neurocan immunoreactivity in the cerebral neocortex of reeler mutant mice

    Hong-Peng Li
    Abstract We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the thalamocortical pathway in the cerebral neocortex of normal and reeler mutant mice. During normal development of the mouse neocortex, thalamic axons immunoreactive for the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 rarely invaded the cortical plate and ran centered in the subplate which is immunoreactive for neurocan, a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. On the other hand, in homozygous reeler mutant mice, thalamic axons took an aberrant course to run obliquely through the cortical plate. Injection of bromodeoxyuridine at embryonic day 11 specifically labeled subplate neurons in normal mice, whilst in the reeler neocortex it labeled cells scattered in the cortical plate as well as in the superficial layer (superplate). Neurocan immunoreactivity was associated with the bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the superplate, as well as being present in oblique bands within the cortical plate, along which L1-bearing thalamic axons preferentially ran. The present results support our previous hypothesis proposed for normal rats that a heterophilic molecular interaction between L1 and neurocan is involved in determining the thalamocortical pathway within the neocortical anlage [T. Fukuda et al. (1997)Journal of Comparative Neurology, 382, 141,152]. [source]

    Ultrastructural evidence for a pre- and postsynaptic localization of full-length trkB receptors in substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of rat and mouse spinal cord

    Chiara Salio
    Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts its trophic effects by acting on the high-affinity specific receptor trkB. BDNF also modulates synaptic transmission in several areas of the CNS, including the spinal cord dorsal horn, where it acts as a pain modulator by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Spinal neurons are the main source of trkB in lamina II (substantia gelatinosa). Expression of this receptor in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells has been a matter of debate, whereas a subpopulation of DRG neurons bears trkA receptors and contains BDNF. By the use of two different trkB antibodies we observed that 7.7% and 10.8% of DRG neurons co-expressed BDNF + trkB but not trkA, respectively, in rat and mouse. Ultrastructurally, full-length trkB (fl-trkB) receptors were present at somato-dendritic membranes of lamina II neurons (rat: 66.8%; mouse: 73.8%) and at axon terminals (rat: 33.2%; mouse: 26.2%). In both species, about 90% of these terminals were identified as primary afferent fibres (PAFs) considering their morphology and/or neuropeptide content. All fl-trkB-immunopositive C boutons in type Ib glomeruli were immunoreactive for BDNF and, at individual glomeruli and axo-dendritic synapses, fl-trkB receptors were located in a mutually exclusive fashion at pre- or postsynaptic membranes. Thus, only a small fraction of fl-trkB-immunoreactive dendrites were postsynaptic to BDNF-immunopositive PAFs. This is the first ultrastructural description of fl-trkB localization at synapses between first- and second-order sensory neurons in lamina II, and suggests that BDNF may be released by fl-trkB-immunopositive PAFs to modulate nociceptive input in this lamina of dorsal horn. [source]

    Pro-apoptotic protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promotes the formation of Lewy body-like inclusions

    Katsumi Tsuchiya
    Abstract Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has long been recognized as a classical glycolytic protein; however, previous studies by our group and others have demonstrated that GAPDH is a general mediator initiating one or more apoptotic cascades. Our most recent findings have elucidated that an expression of a pro-apoptotic protein GAPDH is critically regulated at the promoter region of the gene. Apoptotic signals for its subsequent aggregate formation and nuclear translocation are controlled by the respective functional domains harboured within its cDNA component. In this study, coexpression of GAPDH with either wild-type or mutant (A53T) ,-synuclein and less likely with ,-synuclein in transfected COS-7 cells was found to induce Lewy body-like cytoplasmic inclusions. Unlike its full-length construct, the deleted mutant GAPDH construct (C66) abolished these apoptotic signals, disfavouring the formation of inclusions. The generated inclusions were ubiquitin- and thioflavin S-positive appearing fibrils. Furthermore, GAPDH coimmunoprecipitated with wild-type ,-synuclein in this paradigm. Importantly, immunohistochemical examinations of post mortem materials from patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease revealed the colocalized profiles immunoreactive against these two proteins in the peripheral zone of Lewy bodies from the affected brain regions (i.e. locus coeruleus). Moreover, a quantitative assessment showed that about 20% of Lewy bodies displayed both antigenicities. These results suggest that pro-apoptotic protein GAPDH may be involved in the Lewy body formation in vivo, probably associated with the apoptotic death pathway. [source]

    Intrinsic and spontaneous neurogenesis in the postnatal slice culture of rat hippocampus

    Maki Kamada
    Abstract Organotypic slice culture preserves the morphological and physiological features of the hippocampus of live animals for a certain time. The hippocampus is one of exceptional regions where neurons are generated intrinsically and spontaneously throughout postnatal life. We investigated the possibility that neurons are generated continuously at the dentate granule cell layer (GCL) in slice culture of the rat hippocampus. Using 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling and retrovirus vector transduction methods, the phenotypes of the newly generated cells were identified immunohistochemically. At 4 weeks after BrdU exposure, BrdU-labelled cells were found in the GCL and were immunoreactive with a neuronal marker, anti-NeuN. There were fibrils immunoreactive with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker, in the layer covering the GCL and occasionally encapsulated BrdU-labelled nuclei. When the newly divided cells were marked with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a retrovirus vector, these cells had proliferative abilities throughout the following 4-week cultivation period. Four weeks after the inoculation, the EGFP-expressing cells consisted of various phenotypes of both early and late stages of differentiation; some were NeuN-positive cells with appearances of neurons in the GCL and some were immunoreactive with anti-Tuj1, a marker of immature neurons. Some EGFP-expressing cells were immunoreactive with anti-GFAP or anti-nestin, a marker of neural progenitors. The present study suggests that slice cultures intrinsically retain spontaneous neurogenic abilities for their cultivation period. The combination of slice culture and retrovirus transduction methods enable the newly divided cells to be followed up for a long period. [source]

    Quantitative effects produced by modifications of neuronal activity on the size of GABAA receptor clusters in hippocampal slice cultures

    Serge Marty
    Abstract The number and strength of GABAergic synapses needs to be precisely adjusted for adequate control of excitatory activity. We investigated to what extent the size of GABAA receptor clusters at inhibitory synapses is under the regulation of neuronal activity. Slices from P7 rat hippocampus were cultured for 13 days in the presence of bicuculline or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to increase neuronal activity, or DNQX to decrease activity. The changes provoked by these treatments on clusters immunoreactive for the ,1 and ,2 subunits of the GABAA receptor or gephyrin were quantitatively evaluated. While an increase in activity augmented the density of these clusters, a decrease in activity provoked, in contrast, a decrease in their density. An inverse regulation was observed for the size of individual clusters. Bicuculline and 4-AP decreased whilst DNQX increased the mean size of the clusters. When the pharmacological treatments were applied for 2 days instead of 2 weeks, no effects on the size of the clusters were observed. The variations in the mean size of individual clusters were mainly due to changes in the number of small clusters. Finally, a regulation of the size of GABAA receptor clusters occurred during development in vivo, with a decrease of the mean size of the clusters between P7 and P21. This physiological change was also the result of an increase in the number of small clusters. These results indicate that neuronal activity regulates the mean size of GABAA receptor- and gephyrin-immunoreactive clusters by modifying specifically the number of synapses with small clusters of receptors. [source]

    Segregation of two endocannabinoid-hydrolyzing enzymes into pre- and postsynaptic compartments in the rat hippocampus, cerebellum and amygdala

    A. I. Gulyas
    Abstract Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoglyceride lipase (MGL) catalyse the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. We investigated their ultrastructural distribution in brain areas where the localization and effects of cannabinoid receptor activation are known. In the hippocampus, FAAH was present in somata and dendrites of principal cells, but not in interneurons. It was located mostly on the membrane surface of intracellular organelles known to store Ca2+ (e.g. mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum), less frequently on the somatic or dendritic plasma membrane. MGL immunoreactivity was found in axon terminals of granule cells, CA3 pyramidal cells and some interneurons. In the cerebellum, Purkinje cells and their dendrites are intensively immunoreactive for FAAH, together with a sparse axon plexus at the border of the Purkinje cell/granule cell layers. Immunostaining for MGL was complementary, the axons in the molecular layer were intensively labelled leaving the Purkinje cell dendrites blank. FAAH distribution in the amygdala was similar to that of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor: evident signal in neuronal somata and proximal dendrites in the basolateral nucleus, and hardly any labelling in the central nucleus. MGL staining was restricted to axons in the neuropil, with similar relative signal intensities seen for FAAH in different nuclei. Thus, FAAH is primarily a postsynaptic enzyme, whereas MGL is presynaptic. FAAH is associated with membranes of cytoplasmic organelles. The differential compartmentalization of the two enzymes suggests that anandamide and 2-AG signalling may subserve functional roles that are spatially segregated at least at the stage of metabolism. [source]

    Cell type-dependent expression of HCN1 in the main olfactory bulb

    Noémi B. Holderith
    Abstract In many brain regions, hyperpolarization-activated cationic currents (Ih) are involved in the generation of rhythmic activities, but the role of Ih in olfactory oscillations remains unclear. Knowledge of the cellular and subcellular distributions of hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (HCN) subunits is necessary for understanding the role of Ih in olfactory network activities. Using light microscopic immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate strong HCN1 labelling of the glomerular layer and moderate staining of granule cell, internal and external plexiform layers of the rat main olfactory bulb. In the glomerular layer, among many unlabelled neurons, two distinct subpopulations of juxtaglomerular cells are labelled. Approximately 10% of the juxtaglomerular cells strongly express HCN1. These small diameter cells are immunoreactive for GABA and comprise a subpopulation of periglomerular cells. An additional subset of juxtaglomerular cells (, 1%) expresses low levels of HCN1. They are large in diameter, GABA immunonegative but immunopositive for vesicular glutamate transporter 2, characterizing them as external tufted cells. Quantitative immunogold localization revealed that the somatic plasma membranes of periglomerular cells contain approximately four times more HCN1 labelling than those of external tufted cells. Unlike in cortical pyramidal cells, immunogold density for HCN1 does not significantly differ in somatic and dendritic plasma membranes of external tufted cells, indicating that post-synaptic potentials arriving at proximal and distal dendrites are modulated by the same density of Ih. Our results demonstrate a cell type-dependent expression of HCN1 in the olfactory bulb and predict a differential contribution of distinct juxtaglomerular cell types to network oscillations. [source]

    Neurogenesis in explants from the walls of the lateral ventricle of adult bovine brain: role of endogenous IGF-1 as a survival factor

    M. Pérez-Martín
    Abstract Previous studies have shown the existence of proliferating cells in explants from bovine (Bos Taurus) lateral ventricle walls that were maintained for several days in vitro in the absence of serum and growth factors. In this study we have characterized the nature of new cells and have assessed whether the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor regulates their survival and/or proliferation. The explants were composed of the ependymal layer and attached subependymal cells. Ependymal cells in culture were labelled with glial markers (S-100, vimentin, GFAP, BLBP, 3A7 and 3CB2) and did not incorporate bromodeoxiuridine when this molecule was added to the culture media. Most subependymal cells were immunoreactive for ,III-tubulin, a neuronal marker, and did incorporate bromodeoxiuridine. Subependymal neurons displayed immunoreactivity for IGF-1 and its receptor and expressed IGF-1 mRNA, indicating that IGF-1 is produced in the explants and may act on new neurons. Addition to the culture media of an IGF-1 receptor antagonist, the peptide JB1, did not affect the incorporation of bromodeoxiuridine to proliferating subependymal cells. However, JB1 significantly increased the number of TUNEL positive cells in the subependymal zone, suggesting that IGF-1 receptor is involved in the survival of subependymal neurons. In conclusion, these findings indicate that neurogenesis is maintained in explants from the lateral cerebral ventricle of adult bovine brains and that IGF-1 is locally produced in the explants and may regulate the survival of the proliferating neurons. [source]

    The expression of vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in neurochemically defined axonal populations in the rat spinal cord with emphasis on the dorsal horn

    A. J. Todd
    Abstract Two vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have recently been identified, and it has been reported that they are expressed by largely nonoverlapping populations of glutamatergic neurons in the brain. We have used immunocytochemistry with antibodies against both transporters, together with markers for various populations of spinal neurons, in an attempt to identify glutamatergic interneurons in the dorsal horn of the mid-lumbar spinal cord of the rat. The great majority (94,100%) of nonprimary axonal boutons that contained somatostatin, substance P or neurotensin, as well as 85% of those that contained enkephalin, were VGLUT2-immunoreactive, which suggests that most dorsal horn neurons that synthesize these peptides are glutamatergic. In support of this, we found that most somatostatin- and enkephalin-containing boutons (including somatostatin-immunoreactive boutons that lacked calcitonin gene-related peptide and were therefore probably derived from local interneurons) formed synapses at which AMPA receptors were present. We also investigated VGLUT expression in central terminals of primary afferents. Myelinated afferents were identified with cholera toxin B subunit; most of those in lamina I were VGLUT2-immunoreactive, whereas all those in deeper laminae were VGLUT1-immunoreactive, and some (in laminae III,VI) appeared to contain both transporters. However, peptidergic primary afferents that contained substance P or somatostatin (most of which are unmyelinated), as well as nonpeptidergic C fibres (identified with Bandeiraea simplicifolia isolectin B4) showed low levels of VGLUT2-immunoreactivity, or were not immunoreactive with either VGLUT antibody. As all primary afferents are thought to be glutamatergic, this raises the possibility that unmyelinated afferents, most of which are nociceptors, express a different vesicular glutamate transporter. [source]

    Innervation of interneurons immunoreactive for VIP by intrinsically bursting pyramidal cells and fast-spiking interneurons in infragranular layers of juvenile rat neocortex

    Jochen F. Staiger
    Abstract Cortical columns contain specific neuronal populations with characteristic sets of connections. This wiring forms the structural basis of dynamic information processing. However, at the single-cell level little is known about specific connectivity patterns. We performed experiments in infragranular layers (V and VI) of rat somatosensory cortex, to clarify further the input patterns of inhibitory interneurons immunoreactive (ir) for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Neurons in acute slices were electrophysiologically characterized using whole-cell recordings and filled with biocytin. This allowed us to determine their firing pattern as regular-spiking, intrinsically bursting and fast-spiking, respectively. Biocytin was revealed histochemically and VIP immunohistochemically. Sections were examined for contacts between the axons of the filled neurons and the VIP-ir targets. Twenty pyramidal cells and five nonpyramidal (inter)neurons were recovered and sufficiently stained for further analysis. Regular-spiking pyramidal cells displayed no axonal boutons in contact with VIP-ir targets. In contrast, intrinsically bursting layer V pyramidal cells showed four putative single contacts with a proximal dendrite of VIP neurons. Fast-spiking interneurons formed contacts with two to six VIP neurons, preferentially at their somata. Single as well as multiple contacts on individual target cells were found. Electron microscopic examinations showed that light-microscopically determined contacts represent sites of synaptic interactions. Our results suggest that, within infragranular local cortical circuits, (i) fast-spiking interneurons are more likely to influence VIP cells than are pyramidal cells and (ii) pyramidal cell input probably needs to be highly convergent to fire VIP target cells. [source]

    Differential regulation of trkA and p75 in noradrenergic pelvic autonomic ganglion cells after deafferentation of their cholinergic neighbours

    Janet R. Keast
    Abstract In rats, following lesion of lumbar or sacral preganglionic axons, many pelvic ganglion cells undergo axogenesis to form baskets of terminals around select populations of nearby ganglion cells. The aim of the current study was to address mechanisms underlying initiation of this sprouting, focusing on a possible role for nerve growth factor (NGF). Immunohistochemical localization of NGF receptors (trkA and p75) showed that virtually all noradrenergic and a minority of cholinergic pelvic neurons expressed both receptors. Terminals immunoreactive for each substance were found in pelvic viscera. In pelvic ganglia, many glial cells expressed p75 but not trkA, and very few lumbar or sacral preganglionic neurons expressed either receptor. Lumbar and/or sacral preganglionic inputs were removed from ganglion cells by cutting the hypogastric, pelvic or both nerves, and tissues analysed 8 days later. Levels of receptor expression in noradrenergic pelvic ganglion cells were estimated by calculating the proportion that were receptor-immunopositive, and quantifying the intensity of trkA or p75 immunofluorescence. No lesion had a significant effect on trkA expression, however, a marked decrease in p75 occurred after cutting pelvic nerves, i.e. after deafferentation of neighbouring cholinergic neurons. These injuries appeared to cause little overall change in glial p75 expression. This study shows that manipulations that trigger sprouting from noradrenergic pelvic neurons cause downregulation of p75 but not trkA. Interestingly, this is occurring while some of their target organs are synthesizing high levels of NGF. This contrasts with other NGF-sensitive cells, in which one or both receptor types are upregulated by increased exposure to the ligand. The current study is also the first to show a change in p75 expression in neurons that are neither deafferented nor axotomized. [source]

    Expression of c-Met in developing rat hippocampus: evidence for HGF as a neurotrophic factor for calbindin D-expressing neurons

    Laura Korhonen
    Abstract Hepatocyte growth factor-scatter factor (HGF) is expressed in different parts of the nervous system, and has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. Here we show that c-Met, the receptor for HGF, is expressed in developing rat hippocampus, with the highest levels during the first postnatal weeks. To study the function of HGF, hippocampal neurons were prepared from embryonic rats and treated with different HGF concentrations. In these cultures, HGF increased the number of neurons expressing the 28-kDa calcium-binding protein (calbindin D) in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of HGF was larger than that observed with either brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and cotreatment of the cultures with HGF and the neurotrophins was additive with respect to calbindin D neurons. Besides affecting the number of neurons, HGF significantly increased the degree of sprouting of calbindin D-positive neurons, suggesting an influence on neuronal maturation. BDNF and NT-3 stimulated neurite outgrowth of calbindin D neurons to a much smaller degree. In contrast to calbindin D neurons, HGF did not significantly increase the number of neurons immunoreactive with the neurotransmitter ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the hippocampal cultures. Immunohistochemical studies showed that c-Met-, calbindin D- and HGF-immunoreactive cells are all present in the dentate gyrus and partly colocalize within neurons. These results show that HGF acts on calbindin D-containing hippocampal neurons and increases their neurite outgrowth, suggesting that HGF plays an important role for the maturation and function of these neurons in the hippocampus. [source]

    Localization of the A kinase anchoring protein AKAP79 in the human hippocampus

    Attila Sík
    Abstract The phosphorylation state of the proteins, regulated by phosphatases and kinases, plays an important role in signal transduction and long-term changes in neuronal excitability. In neurons, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC) and calcineurin (CN) are attached to a scaffold protein, A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP), thought to anchor these three enzymes to specific sites of action. However, the localization of AKAP, and the predicted sites of linked phosphatase and kinase activities, are still unknown at the fine structural level. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of AKAP79 in the hippocampus from postmortem human brains and lobectomy samples from patients with intractable epilepsy, using preembedding immunoperoxidase and immunogold histochemical methods. AKAP79 was found in the CA1, presubicular and subicular regions, mostly in pyramidal cell dendrites, whereas pyramidal cells in the CA3, CA2 regions and dentate granule cells were negative both in postmortem and in surgical samples. In some epileptic cases, the dentate molecular layer and hilar interneurons also became immunoreactive. At the subcellular level, AKAP79 immunoreactivity was present in postsynaptic profiles near, but not attached to, the postsynaptic density of asymmetrical (presumed excitatory) synapses. We conclude that the spatial selectivity for the action of certain kinases and phosphatases regulating various ligand- and voltage-gated channels may be ensured by the selective presence of their anchoring protein, AKAP79, at the majority of glutamatergic synapses in the CA1, but not in the CA2/CA3 regions, suggesting profound differences in signal transduction and long-term synaptic plasticity between these regions of the human hippocampus. [source]

    FMRFamide gene and peptide expression during central nervous system development of the cephalopod mollusk, Idiosepius notoides

    Tim Wollesen
    SUMMARY Mollusks are a showcase of brain evolution represented by several classes with a varying degree of nervous system centralization. Cellular and molecular processes involved in the evolution of the highly complex cephalopod brain from a simple, monoplacophoran-like ancestor are still obscure and homologies on the cellular level are poorly established. FMRFamide (Phe-Ile-Arg-Phe-NH2)-related peptides (FaRPs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved and diverse group of neuropeptides in the central nervous system (CNS) of many metazoans. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the developing FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (Fa-lir) CNS of the pygmy squid Idiosepius notoides using gene expression analyses and immunocytochemistry. The open reading frame of the I. notoides FMRFamide gene InFMRF predicts one copy each of FIRFamide, FLRFamide (Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2), ALSGDAFLRFamide (Ala-Leu-Ser-Gly-Asp-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2), and 11 copies of FMRFamide. Applying matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry-based peptide profiling, we characterized all predicted FaRPs except ALSGDAFLRFamide. Two cell clusters express InFMRF and show FMRFamide-like-immunoreactivity within the palliovisceral ganglia, that is, the future posterior subesophageal mass, during the lobe differentiation phase. They project neurites via ventral axonal tracts, which form the scaffold of the future subesophageal mass. In the supraesophageal mass, InFMRF is first expressed during mid-embryogenesis in the superior and inferior buccal lobes. A neurite of the peduncle commissure represents the first Fa-lir element. Later, the sub- and supraesophageal mass interconnect via Fa-lir neurites and more brain lobes express InFMRF and FMRFamide-like peptides. InFMRF expression was observed in fewer brain lobes than Fa-lir elements. The early expression of InFMRF and FMRFamide-lir peptides in the visceral system and not the remaining CNS of the cephalopod I. notoides resembles the condition found in the majority of investigated gastropods. [source]

    Presence of immunoreactive ,-endorphin in human skin

    M. Wintzen
    Abstract: The production and its induction by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides by keratinocytes has been reported, albeit not consistently. Recently we demonstrated that only under specific culturing conditions human keratinocytes are capable of producing a ,-endorphin (,E)-like peptide with the characteristics of ,-lipotropin (,LPH). Here the presence and UV-induction of ,E-immunoreactivity (,E-IR) in keratinocytes in human skin in vivo was investigated. ,E-IR was detectable by immunohistochemistry in keratinocytes of the follicular matrix and to some extent in cells of sweat ducts, but was absent from epidermal keratinocytes. Absence of ,E-IR was confirmed by radioimmunoassay of HPLC-fractionated extracts of normal epidermis. Repeated exposure to solar-simulated UVR had no effect. This investigation is the first to demonstrate the presence of ,E-immunoreactive material in the follicular matrix of corporal hairs and in duct cells of sweat glands. The possible meaning of these results is discussed. [source]