Immunomodulating Effects (immunomodulating + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and biosynthesis of leukotriene B4 in acute myeloid leukemia cells

Gudmundur Runarsson
Abstract Leukotrienes (LT) exert stimulatory effects on myelopoiesis, beside their inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. Here, we have studied the expression and activity of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells (16 clones) and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cells. CD34+ cells from patients with non-myeloid malignancies expressed cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase but not 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). The enzyme cPLA2 was abundantly expressed in AML cells and the activity of the enzyme was high in certain AML clones. The expression of 5-LO, FLAP, and LTA4 hydrolase in AML clones was in general lower than in healthy donor polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). The calcium ionophore A23187-induced release of [14C] arachidonic acid (AA) in AML cells was low, compared with PMNL, and did not correlate with the expression of cPLA2 protein. Biosynthesis of LTB4, upon calcium ionophore A23187 activation, was only observed in five of the investigated AML clones and only three of the most differentiated clones produced similar amounts of LTB4 as PMNL. The capacity of various cell clones to produce LTs could neither be explained by the difference in [1 , 14C] AA release nor 5-LO expression. Taken together, these results indicate that LT synthesis is under development during early myelopoiesis and the capacity to produce LTs is gained upon maturation. High expression of cPLA2 in AML suggests a putative role of this enzyme in the pathophysiology of this disease. [source]

A novel model of sensitization and oral tolerance to peanut protein

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Jessica Strid
Summary The prevalence of food allergic diseases is rising and poses an increasing clinical problem. Peanut allergy affects around 1% of the population and is a common food allergy associated with severe clinical manifestations. The exact route of primary sensitization is unknown although the gastrointestinal immune system is likely to play an important role. Exposure of the gastrointestinal tract to soluble antigens normally leads to a state of antigen-specific systemic hyporesponsiveness (oral tolerance). A deviation from this process is thought to be responsible for food-allergic diseases. In this study, we have developed a murine model to investigate immunoregulatory processes after ingestion of peanut protein and compared this to a model of oral tolerance to chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA). We demonstrate that oral tolerance induction is highly dose dependent and differs for the allergenic proteins peanut and OVA. Tolerance to peanut requires a significantly higher oral dose than tolerance to OVA. Low doses of peanut are more likely to induce oral sensitization and increased production of interleukin-4 and specific immunoglobulin E upon challenge. When tolerance is induced both T helper 1 and 2 responses are suppressed. These results show that oral tolerance to peanut can be induced experimentally but that peanut proteins have a potent sensitizing effect. This model can now be used to define regulatory mechanisms following oral exposure to allergenic proteins on local, mucosal and systemic immunity and to investigate the immunomodulating effects of non-oral routes of allergen exposure on the development of allergic sensitization to peanut and other food allergens. [source]

Controversies related to red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients

DACVECC, DACVIM, Jennifer E. Prittie DVM
Abstract Objective , To review the evolution of and controversies associated with allogenic blood transfusion in critically ill patients. Data sources , Veterinary and human literature review. Human Data Synthesis , RBC transfusion practices for ICU patients have come under scrutiny in the last 2 decades. Human trials have demonstrated relative tolerance to severe, euvolemic anemia and a significant outcome advantage following implementation of more restricted transfusion therapy. Investigators question the ability of RBCs stored longer than 2 weeks to improve tissue oxygenation, and theorize that both age and proinflammatory or immunomodulating effects of transfused cells may limit efficacy and contribute to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Also controversial is the ability of pre- and post-storage leukoreduction of RBCs to mitigate adverse transfusion-related events. Veterinary Data Synthesis , While there are several studies evaluating the transfusion trigger, the RBC storage lesion and transfusion-related immunomodulation in experimental animal models, there is little research pertaining to clinical veterinary patients. Conclusions , RBC transfusion is unequivocally indicated for treatment of anemic hypoxia. However, critical hemoglobin or Hct below which all critically ill patients require transfusion has not been established and there are inherent risks associated with allogenic blood transfusion. Clinical trials designed to evaluate the effects of RBC age and leukoreduction on veterinary patient outcome are warranted. Implementation of evidence-based transfusion guidelines and consideration of alternatives to allogenic blood transfusion are advisable. [source]

Calcipotriol induces apoptosis in psoriatic keratinocytes

R. Tiberio
Summary In recent years, vitamin D3 analogues have become one of the most widely prescribed topical treatments for mild or moderate chronic plaque psoriasis. These molecules are effective and safe, but their exact mechanism of action is not completely understood. In vitro studies have shown that D3 analogues decrease proliferation and induce differentiation of keratinocytes, and have strong immunomodulating effects, but there are no conclusive data about apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in apoptotic response between lesional and perilesional keratinocytes of patients with psoriasis before and after treatment with calcipotriol, a synthetic vitamin D3 analogue. Keratinocytes were isolated from psoriatic plaques including lesional and perilesional skin, and cultured. Cells were treated with calcipotriol for 20 h and examined under confocal microscopy after staining with propidium iodide. The number of apoptotic cells after incubation with calcipotriol was significantly higher in lesional than in perilesional keratinocytes (P < 0.05) or non-treated psoriatic keratinocytes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, calcipotriol seems to induce apoptosis in psoriatic keratinocytes. [source]