Immunological Studies (immunological + studies)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

HPRT mutations, TCR gene rearrangements, and HTLV-1 integration sites define in vivo T-cell clonal lineages,

Mark Allegretta
Abstract HPRT mutations in vivo in human T-lymphocytes are useful probes for mechanistic investigations. Molecular analyses of isolated mutants reveal their underlying mutational changes as well as the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements present in the cells in question. The latter provide temporal reference points for other perturbations in the in vivo clones as well as evidence of clonal relationships among mutant isolates. Immunological studies and investigations of genomic instability have benefited from such analyses. A method is presented describing a T-cell lineage analysis in a patient with HTLV-1 infection. Lineage reconstruction of an in vivo proliferating HPRT mutant clone allows timing of the integration event to a postthymic differentiated cell prior to the occurrence of HPRT mutations. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


C. Di Girolamo
Immunological studies document the role of HLA in psoriasis and the correlation between neuropeptides, psoriasis, and related arthritis. Some anecdotal case reports, moreover, describe a noncasual association between peripheral neuropathy and psoriatic manifestations. To verify a possible subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in this disimmune pathology, we started a pilot study in twenty patients with psoriatic arthritis and in whom other common causes of peripheral neuropathies had been ruled out. We performed a complete clinical neurological examination and a neurophysiological examination (orthodromic sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in median and tibial nerves; antidromic sensory nerve conduction velocity in sural nerve). In 40% of the patients there was a mild but definite "glove-stocking" hypoesthesia, while hypopallesthesia was detected in only 20%. Electrophysiologic examinations were less informative borderline distal conduction velocities in 30% of patients. These preliminary data suggest a peripheral nerve involvement in this pathology, mainly affecting the small nerve fibres. [source]

Common variable immunodeficiency: 20-yr experience at a single centre

Ma Pilar Llobet
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency. It can present at any age in patients with a history of recurrent bacterial infections, with or without a family history of other primary immunodeficiencies (PID), and shows a wide range of clinical manifestations and immunological data. Diagnosis is based on low IgG, IgM and/or IgA levels. Delayed diagnosis and therapy can lead to bronchiectasis and malabsorption. The aim of this study was to describe a paediatric population diagnosed of CVID and its evolution in the population. Memory B-cell (MB) classification carried out in these patients was correlated with clinical manifestations and outcome. Clinical and immunological data of 22 CVID children under 18 yr treated at our centre between 1985 and 2005 are presented. Immunological studies included those for diagnosis and MB quantification. Differences in form of presentation, familial incidence and MB classification were reviewed. A statistical descriptive analysis was made. Infections were the commonest manifestation, affecting mainly respiratory (19/22) and gastrointestinal (10/22) tracts. Bronchiectasis was present in seven cases, and detected prior to CVID diagnosis in five. Replacement therapy led to a significant reduction in the number of infections. Severe complications appeared mostly in patients without MB. Patients of the same family share the same MB group. Family members had also been diagnosed of CVID in seven cases. Early diagnosis and therapy are essential to improve outcome in these patients. MB studies are useful in children to orient prognosis and further genetic studies. [source]

Rice cellulose synthase-like D4 is essential for normal cell-wall biosynthesis and plant growth

Ming Li
Summary Cellulose synthase-like (CSL) proteins of glycosyltransferase family 2 (GT2) are believed to be involved in the biosynthesis of cell-wall polymers. The CSL D sub-family (CSLD) is common to all plants, but the functions of CSLDs remain to be elucidated. We report here an in-depth characterization of a narrow leaf and dwarf1 (nd1) rice mutant that shows significant reduction in plant growth due to retarded cell division. Map-based cloning revealed that ND1 encodes OsCSLD4, one of five members of the CSLD sub-family in rice. OsCSLD4 is mainly expressed in tissues undergoing rapid growth. Expression of OsCSLD4 fluorescently tagged at the C- or N-terminus in rice protoplast cells or Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that the protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi vesicles. Golgi localization was verified using phenotype-rescued transgenic plants expressing OsCSLD4,GUS under the control of its own promoter. Two phenotype-altered tissues, culms and root tips, were used to investigate the specific wall defects. Immunological studies and monosaccharide compositional and glycosyl linkage analyses explored several wall compositional effects caused by disruption of OsCSLD4, including alterations in the structure of arabinoxylan and the content of cellulose and homogalacturonan, which are distinct in the monocot grass species Oryza sativa (rice). The inconsistent alterations in the two tissues and the observable structural defects in primary walls indicate that OsCSLD4 plays important roles in cell-wall formation and plant growth. [source]

Vital role of the itch,scratch response in development of spontaneous dermatitis in NC/Nga mice

K. Mihara
Summary Background, The itch sensation and the resultant response, scratching, are important symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) and have a significant impact on the quality of life of affected patients. However, the influence of the itch,scratch response on the pathology of AD has not been precisely elucidated. Objectives, To investigate the role of scratching behaviour in the development of spontaneous dermatitis using conventionally raised NC/Nga mice (Conv-NC mice), which are known to be an animal model for human AD. Methods, Capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves of the mice were ablated by neonatal capsaicin treatment (Cap-NC mice), and the development of spontaneous dermatitis in the Cap-NC mice was compared chronologically with that in Conv-NC mice. Results, Scratching behaviour was almost completely prevented in Cap-NC mice raised for 84 days under conventional conditions, and the development of dermatitis and elevation of the serum IgE level were significantly suppressed. Histological analysis revealed that the numbers of infiltrating eosinophils and mast cells in the lesional skin of Cap-NC mice were lower than those in Conv-NC mice. Immunological studies showed that the capability of spleen T cells to produce both T-helper (Th) 1 (interferon-,) and Th2 [interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13] cytokines was diminished in Cap-NC mice. Furthermore, serum levels of IL-18 were approximately twice higher in Conv-NC mice than in Cap-NC mice. Conclusions, These observations suggest that scratching behaviour contributes to the development of dermatitis by enhancing various immunological responses in the murine AD model, implying that prevention of the itch sensation and/or itch-associated scratching behaviour is an effective treatment for AD. [source]

Pathological and immunological profiles of rat tuberculosis

Isamu Sugawara
Summary To investigate the pathological and immunological profiles of rat tuberculosis, Lewis female rats were infected aerially with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Histopathology, immunological profiles of mononuclear cells from M. tuberculosis -infected rat lung tissue, and the expression patterns of cytokine and iNOS mRNAs were examined over time. M. tuberculosis induced granulomatous lesions in the lungs, spleen, lymph nodes and liver, but these lesions lacked central necrosis. Multinucleate giant cells were observed in late-phase tuberculosis. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased with time and reached a peak 5 weeks after infection, decreasing gradually thereafter. ED1 antigen, suggestive of alveolar macrophages, was expressed at a high level in early phase tuberculosis and remained at the same level even in the late phase. OX62 antigen increased gradually and reached a peak 5 weeks after infection. Interferon-,, tumour necrosis factor-, and iNOS mRNAs were expressed strongly over time, but their expression decreased 12 weeks after infection. Because rat tuberculosis is very similar to murine tuberculosis and it is easy to obtain mononuclear cells from M. tuberculosis -infected rat lung tissue, the rat tuberculosis model appears to be suitable for immunological studies in vivo. [source]

Immunization with recombinant beta-tubulin from Trypanosoma evansi induced protection against T. evansi, T. equiperdum and T. b. brucei infection in mice

S.-Q. LI
SUMMARY The beta-tubulin gene of Trypanosoma evansi (STIB 806) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The predicted amino acid sequence of T. evansi beta-tubulin shows 100%, 998%, 991%, and 986% homology with T. equiperdum, T. b. brucei, T. cruzi and T. danilewskyi, respectively, but is diverse from that of T. cyclops, showing only 516% of homology. Recombinant beta-tubulin was expressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli. It was purified and renatured for immunological studies. Mice immunized with the renatured recombinant beta-tubulin were protected from lethal challenge with T. evansi STIB 806, T. equiperdum STIB 818 and T. b. brucei STIB 940, showing 833%, 70% and 767% protection, respectively. Serum collected from the rabbit immunized with recombinant beta-tubulin inhibited the growth of T. evansi, T. equiperdum and T. b. brucei in vitro. Serum from mice and rabbits immunized with recombinant beta-tubulin recognized only T. evansi beta-tubulin and not mouse beta-tubulin. The results of this study demonstrated that the recombinant T. evansi beta-tubulin is a potential candidate for the development of a vaccine to prevent animal trypanosomiasis caused by these three trypanosome species. [source]

Effects of Glucose Concentration on in vitro Fertilization in BALB/c Mice

Contents BALB/c mice are widely used in genetic, tumour and immunological studies. However, the mice demonstrate a lower reproduction rate, low fertility and small litters, because of their highly genetic homozygoisty. Based on in vitro fertilization (IVF), a routine technique for biomedical studies, it is worth to evaluate the effects to BALB/c mice on IVF efficiency. In order to test the genetic factor affecting the IVF efficiency of BALB/c, four reciprocal IVF tests of BALB/cByJ and FVB/NCrl mice were performed. The results showed that the average fertility of IVF sponsored by FVB/NCrl spermatozoa was 69.6%, but only 12.1% was obtained from BALB/cByJ strain. Effect of glucose contained in the culture medium to the IVF efficiency of BALB/cByJ was also evaluated. The results showed that the fertility of BALB/cByJ spermatozoa incubated with 0, 2.7, 5.5, 11.1 and 22.2 mm of glucose in the TYH medium were 6.8, 9.9, 13.9, 32.7 and 22.2%, respectively. It is showed that IVF efficiency of BALB/cByJ spermatozoa could be improved depending on the concentration of glucose in the IVF medium. According to the results, it is beleived that lower IVF of BALB/cByJ mice might be due to the genetic defect in spermatozoa and increasing glucose in the IVF medium which significantly affect the IVF efficiency of BALB/cByl via activating the spermatozoa. [source]

Immunoglobulin A antibodies against desmoglein 1, envoplakin, periplakin and BP230 in a patient with atypical bullous pemphigoid

Abstract Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease associated with autoantibodies against BP180 and BP230. We report herein a rare case of bullous pemphigoid with newly formed annular erythematous lesions when bullous skin lesions were in remission. Various immunological studies revealed immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibodies against desmoglein 1, envoplakin, periplakin and BP230 in addition to IgG antibodies against BP180 and BP230. These clinical and immunological changes in a patient are a rare event, suggesting an epitope-spreading phenomenon. [source]

Nutrition and allergic disease

S. Tricon
Summary The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically over the past few decades with the highest incidence occurring in children. Most asthma and related atopic disorders have their origins in early life. Thus, it is imperative to understand the early life origins of the disease in order to identify targets for prevention and early intervention. Although atopic diseases have genetic determinants, the increased incidence of these diseases has occurred far too rapidly for genetic changes to explain the increase. This, most likely, results from changes in environmental influences acting on a pre-existent genetic susceptibility. One of the environmental changes over the last 20,40 years that could have contributed to the recent increase in atopic diseases is diet. Food allergy is often one of the earliest manifestations of atopy, and sensitization to food is a risk factor for the subsequent appearance of respiratory allergy and asthma. However, studies investigating the effects of dietary restrictions on the prevention of allergy have been disappointing. On the other hand, current data suggests that exclusive breastfeeding should be encouraged for at least 4,6 months in infants at both high and low risk of atopy. Increased risk of asthma has also been observed in low birth weight infants, suggesting that under-nutrition can detrimentally alter foetal development. Epidemiological and immunological studies also suggest that dietary modification or supplementation in the foetal and early life could reduce the development of atopic diseases. The current dietary hypotheses relate to antioxidants, lipids, electrolytes and probiotics. The aims of this report are: (i) to assess the best methods to analyse nutrient intake and nutrient status; (ii) to review the existing epidemiological evidence for an association between dietary intake (nutrients and food) and allergic diseases; and (iii) to define the windows of opportunity for nutritional supplementation to be used as a preventative strategy for asthma and allergy. [source]

Immunological profile of peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in Kawasaki disease

T. Matsubara
Summary Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute illness of early childhood characterized by prolonged fever, diffuse mucosal inflammation, indurative oedema of the hands and feet, a polymorphous skin rash and nonsuppurative lymphadenopathy. The histopathological findings in KD comprise panvasculitis with endothelial necrosis, and the infiltration of mononuclear cells into small and medium-sized blood vessels. The levels of many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules can be elevated in sera from children with KD at the acute stage. Although many immunological studies on KD involving peripheral blood have been reported, the data obtained remain controversial. This review focuses on the immune response of peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages during acute KD. [source]