Immunological Mechanisms (immunological + mechanism)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

CMR 2005: 11.05: Immunological mechanisms of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media

M. Lerch

A case of acute hepatitis E associated with multidrug hypersensitivity and cytomegalovirus reactivation

Yasuhiro Takikawa
A 65-year-old Japanese man was hospitalized because of acute hepatitis and severe cholestasis due to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection combined with a drug reaction to a cold preparation. He died of disseminated intravascular coagulation and severe intestinal bleeding due to systemic cytomegalovirus reactivation following the development of severe eruptions with marked eosinophilia due to drug hypersensitivity to taurine and ursodeoxycholate preparations. The close interaction between viral infection or reactivation and drug hypersensitivity was considered as a pathophysiology in this case, which emphasizes the need for further study of the immunological mechanism of the interaction. [source]

Anaphylaxis to Patent Blue V. II.

ALLERGY, Issue 1 2010
A unique IgE-mediated reaction
Abstract Background:, Patent Blue V (PBV) is injected in order to map sentinel nodes during cancer staging procedures. Anaphylactic reactions, allegedly IgE antibody mediated, have been reported. The aim of the study was to explore the immunological mechanism of anaphylaxis to PBV. Methods:, PBV allergen threshold basophil sensitivity, CD-sens, was performed on cells from nine patients diagnosed as having had adverse reactions to PBV. The mechanisms of the CD-sens were studied by immunological and immuno-chemical methods. Results:, Five of the nine patients had a positive CD-sens to PBV which was completely eliminated by washing the cells in phosphate buffered saline before allergen challenge. However, the positive CD-sens was completely reconstituted by incubating the cells in plasma or serum of that patient or the other PBV-anaphylactic patients for 15 min at room temperature. In some patients the factor mediating CD-sens was completely or partially destroyed by heating at +56°C for 30 min or being exposed to the low pH used for elution from anti-Ig columns. A 1000-fold excess of monoclonal IgE blocked the reconstitution by approximately 50%. Conclusion:, Anaphylactic reactions to PBV are mediated by IgE antibodies giving a classical CD-sens reaction. However, the allergenic configuration seems to constitute a structure completely dependent on PBV, as a hapten, linked to a, so far, unknown carrier that seems to be unique for patients having experienced a PBV-induced reaction. Further studies are needed to characterize the postulated carrier. [source]

Skin testing in patients with hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media , a European multicenter study

ALLERGY, Issue 2 2009
K. Brockow
Background:, Iodinated contrast media cause both immediate and nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of skin tests in patients who have experienced such reactions. Methods:, Skin prick, intradermal and patch tests with a series of contrast media were conducted in 220 patients with either immediate or nonimmediate reaction. Positive skin tests were defined according to internationally accepted guidelines. Seventy-one never-exposed subjects and 11 subjects who had tolerated contrast medium exposure, served as negative controls. Results:, Skin test specificity was 96,100%. For tests conducted within the time period from 2 to 6 months after the reaction, up to 50% of immediate reactors and up to 47% of nonimmediate reactors were skin test positive. For immediate reactors, the intradermal tests were the most sensitive, whereas delayed intradermal tests in combination with patch tests were needed for optimal sensitivity in nonimmediate reactors. Contrast medium cross-reactivity was more common in the nonimmediate than in the immediate group. Interestingly, 49% of immediate and 52% of nonimmediate symptoms occurred in previously unexposed patients. Many of these patients were skin test positive, indicating that they were already sensitized at the time of first contrast medium exposure. Conclusions:, These data suggest that at least 50% of hypersensitivity reactions to contrast media are caused by an immunological mechanism. Skin testing appears to be a useful tool for diagnosis of contrast medium allergy and may play an important role in selection of a safe product in previous reactors. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Mifepristone as an Anti-Implantation Contraceptive Drug: Roles in Regulation of Uterine Natural Killer Cells during Implantation Phase

Hong-Xia Zhu
Problem, To investigate the immunological mechanism of low-dose mifepristone acting as a contraceptive at the level of the endometrium. Method of study, Endometrial explants were cultured in vitro with or without mifepristone treatment for 24 hr. Some tissues were fixed and immunostained for CD56, while other tissues were dissociated and cells analysed by three colour flow cytometry for CD3, CD56 and CD16. Results and conclusion, Results showed a significant increase in the number of CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells and the percentages of CD3, CD56+ CD16, NK cell subset in the tissue treated with mifepristone, while the percentage of CD3, CD56+ CD16+ NK cell subset remained unaffected. It shows that low-dose mifepristone increases the number of CD56+ NK cells and the percentage of CD3, CD56+ CD16, NK subset in receptive endometrium and provides new insights into the immunological mechanism of low-dose mifepristone as an anti-implantation contraceptive drug. [source]

Proton pump inhibitor-induced acute interstitial nephritis

Linda Härmark
What is already known about this subject ,,In several case reports the use of omeprazole has been associated with interstitial nephritis. ,,Recently there have been reports linking other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with interstitial nephritis. What this study adds ,,We present supplementary cases received by the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, concerning interstitial nephritis in users of PPIs including omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. ,,In this case series seven patients are presented. In six cases they recovered spontaneously after cessation of the PPI, in one case the patient recovered after treatment with a corticosteroid. ,,Further support for this association comes from the worldwide adverse drug reaction database of the World Health Organization. ,,This report shows that interstitial nephritis can occur with all PPIs. Health professionals should be aware of this potential serious adverse drug reaction. Aim To investigate the association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). Methods The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received seven case reports of AIN induced by various PPIs. In five of the reports it was mentioned that the diagnosis was confirmed by a renal biopsy. Results The time to onset varied between hours to 4 months. In all cases but one the patient spontaneously recovered after withdrawal of the offending agent. In one case the patient received treatment with prednisolone and recovered. In one patient a rechallenge was done 9 days after the initial event. Within 12 h of re-exposure the patient developed symptoms of AIN. Conclusions The mechanism of drug-induced AIN is unknown, but an immunological mechanism is suspected. Our reports show no relation between dosage, latency, time to recovery, age or gender, supporting the hypothesis that the aetiology of AIN is immunological. Lareb has received reports of AIN with the use of omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. This shows that AIN is a complication associated with the whole group of PPIs and not only omeprazole. It is important for health professionals to be aware of this adverse drug reaction, because an accurate and timely diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending drug can prevent potentially life-threatening renal failure. [source]

Autoantibodies against CD28 are associated with atopic diseases

K. Neuber
Summary The B7-1/B7-2-CD28/CTLA-4 pathway is crucial in regulating T cell activation and tolerance. Autoantibodies to surface molecules on lymphocytes have already been described in various immune conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, infections and blood transfusions. The objective of this study was to test sera from healthy individuals and from patients for association of CD28 autoantibodies with inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases. First, CD28 was obtained by digestion of CD28-Ig fusion protein with trypsin. The cleavage products were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate,page gel electrophoresis. Additionally, a CD28/GST fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of autoantibodies against CD28. Sera from healthy individuals (n = 72) and patients with different inflammatory and non-inflammatory skin diseases (n = 196) were tested for the presence of autoantibodies against CD28. Using mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), purified autoantibodies against CD28 were tested for their effects on CTLA-4-Ig-induced T cell anergy. In this study, for the first time, we describe the existence of autoantibodies against CD28 in humans which are associated with atopic diseases, e.g. allergic rhinitis and asthma. These antibodies stimulate T cells and overcome the CTLA-4-Ig-induced anergy of T cells in an MLR. The existence of autoantibodies against CD28, which may have a T cell-stimulating function, has been shown. The data indicate that autoantibodies against CD28 could be a new immunological mechanism in allergic inflammation. Additionally, autoantibodies against CD28 could be an important new marker to discriminate between atopic diseases and other inflammatory skin diseases. [source]

Multiple sclerosis complexity in selected populations: the challenge of Sardinia, insular Italy1

S. Sotgiu
Several lines of evidence indicate a genetic contribution to multiple sclerosis (MS) both in terms of predisposition to the disease and of immunological mechanisms which are known to play crucial roles in MS pathogenesis. The presence of high- and low-risk areas for MS in neighbouring regions supports the theory that MS predisposition is influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Therefore, the use of genetically homogeneous and geographically isolated populations becomes an increasing requirement to reduce biasing biological variables. Sardinians fulfil these conditions well because of their different phylogeny from Europeans and the unique selective pressures which shaped their genome. Sardinians display amongst the highest MS prevalence rates world-wide and increasing MS incidence rates over time. Also, MS in Sardinia is linked to distinct human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and associated to different patterns of cytokine production from lymphoid cells of different HLA subtypes. In this context, recent findings and future perspectives on the peculiarities of Sardinian MS concerning genetic, immunological and epidemiological aspects are presented. So far, our results indicate that variations at the level of territorial distribution and HLA-association are present which render MS heterogeneous even in this ethnically homogeneous population. [source]

Prevention of psoriasis-like lesions development in fsn/fsn mice by helminth glycans

Olga Atochina
Abstract:, The helminth glycan LNFPIII is an immunomodulatory molecule, driving CD4+ Th2-type biasing as well as immune suppression. Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease where the immune mechanisms as well as the antigens responsible for development of immune autoreactivity are still not known. In the absence of defined immunological mechanisms, we asked whether LNFPIII would function as novel therapy for psoriasis. We tested the therapeutic efficacy of LNFPIII using the flaky skin (fsn)/fsn mutant mouse model of psoriasis-like lesion development. We found that treatment of mice with LNFPIII prevented the appearance of psoriatic skin lesions on fsn/fsn mice. Examination of the skin 2 weeks after treatment demonstrated that prevention of skin lesions was associated with maintenance of normal epidermis thickness in LNFPIII-treated mice as compared with a significantly thickened epidermis in control treated and diseased mice. In addition, cells from skin of LNFPIII-treated mice produced lower amounts of interferon-, as compared with cells from skin of control treated diseased mice. Examination of macrophages and T cells from peripheral lymph nodes of control and LNFPIII-treated fsn/fsn mice showed that glycan treatment reduced the numbers of Gr1+F4/80+ macrophages and the numbers of CD8+ T cells, restoring the numbers of these two cell populations as well as the CD4 : CD8 ratio to near normal levels. Overall, the results from this study suggest that the helminth immunomodulatory glycan LNFPIII functions to prevent development of psoriatic-like skin lesions in fsn/fsn mice. [source]

Gene Expression Profiling in Cluster Headache: A Pilot Microarray Study

HEADACHE, Issue 10 2006
Christina Sjöstrand MD
Background.,Cluster headache (CH) is a primary neurovascular headache disorder characterized by attacks of excruciating pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. CH pathophysiology is presumed to involve an activation of hypothalamic and trigeminovascular systems, but inflammation and immunological mechanisms have also been hypothesized to be of importance. Objective.,To identify differentially expressed genes during different clinical phases of CH, assuming that changes of pathophysiological importance would also be seen in peripheral venous blood. Methods.,Blood samples were drawn at 3 consecutive occasions from 3 episodic CH patients: during attacks, between attacks and in remission, and at 1 occasion from 3 matched controls. Global gene expression was analyzed with microarray tehnology using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus GeneChip® Set, covering more than 54,000 gene transcripts, corresponding to almost 22,000 genes. Quantitative RT-PCR on S100P gene expression was analyzed in 6 patients and 14 controls. Results.,Overall, quite small differences were seen intraindividually and large differences interindividually. However, pairwise comparisons of signal values showed upregulation of several S100 calcium binding proteins; S100A8 (calgranulin A), S100A12 (calgranulin C), and S100P during active phase of the disease compared to remission. Also, annexin A3 (calcium-binding) and ICAM3 showed upregulation. BIRC1 (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein), CREB5, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 were upregulated in patients compared to controls. The upregulation of S100P during attack versus remission was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions.,The S100A8 and S100A12 proteins are considered markers of non-infectious inflammatory disease, while the function of S100P is still largely unknown. Furthermore, upregulation of HLA-DQ genes in CH patients may also indicate an inflammatory response. Upregulation of these pro-inflammatory genes during the active phase of CH has not formerly been reported. Data from this pilot microarray study provide a basis for further studies in CH. [source]

Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in liver tissue from patients with cystic fibrosis

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
Nils Kinnman M.D.
The authors examined the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and its relationship to histopathological changes in cystic fibrosis (CF) liver tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine expression of CFTR, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and liver cell-type markers in liver cryosections in 11 patients with CF-associated liver disease, and non-CF controls with (n = 17) and without (n = 3) liver disease. In CF patients prominent inflammatory infiltrates were not found, yet hepatic stellate cells were identified within fibrotic areas around bile ducts. Proliferating bile ducts displayed ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in 3 cases, but bile ducts were otherwise negative. In 2 patients homozygous for R764X and for 1112delT no CFTR immunoreactivity was detected. Bile-duct epithelial cells in patients carrying the ,F508 mutation displayed aberrant cytoplasmic immunolocalization of CFTR, as determined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, in contrast to the distinct CFTR expression at the luminal surface seen in controls. No clear relationship between CFTR expression and fibrosis or inflammation was evidenced in CF patients. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with an impairment of ,F508 CFTR processing in intrahepatic biliary epithelium. ICAM-1 expression on bile-duct epithelial cells and inflammatory infiltrates were rare findings in CF liver tissue, indicating that immunological mechanisms are unlikely to be involved in initiation of CF-associated liver disease. [source]

Characterization of cecal gene expression in a differentially susceptible mouse model of bacterial-induced inflammatory bowel disease

Matthew H. Myles DVM
Abstract Background: A/JCr mice develop typhlitis in response to Helicobacter hepaticus infection, whereas C57BL/6 mice coexist with this bacterium in a "commensal" relationship and do not develop disease even during prolonged colonization. Methods: To determine mechanisms that control this balance between responsiveness and nonresponsiveness, the mucosal response of A/JCr and C57BL/6 mice to acute H. hepaticus colonization was evaluated using genome-wide profiling. Transcription levels for a subset of gene discoveries were then evaluated longitudinally by semiquantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify changes in gene expression that occur during progression from the acute to chronic phase of colonization. To determine whether chronic mucosal inflammation in A/JCr mice was mediated through a Th1 mechanism, as was inferred from the gene expression data, mice with typhlitis were treated with neutralizing antibody targeting IL-12/23p40 or IFN-gamma and the response to treatment was determined by cecal lesion severity and transcription of disease-related genes. Results: A/JCr mice had a biphasic expression of proinflammatory genes that corresponded with the acute and chronic phases of disease. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice exhibited a less robust acute transcriptional response that waned by day 30 postinoculation. Sustained upregulation of proinflammatory signals and responsiveness to anti-IL-12/23p40 and anti-IFN-, antibody suggests that inflammation in A/JCr mice was mediated through a Th1 mechanism. Prolonged upregulation of SOCS3 during the acute response to colonization suggests that C57BL/6 mice maintain mucosal homeostasis, at least in part by attenuating responsiveness to cytokine signaling. Conclusions: Collectively, these findings provide a foundation for understanding the immunological mechanisms that confer resistance or susceptibility to H. hepaticus -induced typhlitis. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

Systematic review: hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia , a syndrome associated with abnormal immunological function

Summary Background, Hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia is a syndrome in which marrow failure follows the development of hepatitis. Aim, To review systematically the aetiology, immunopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia. Methods, Literature searches were undertaken on the MEDLINE electronic database up to December 2008. Twenty-four relevant studies were identified. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients were analysed and reviewed. Results, Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is a variant of acquired aplastic anemia in which an episode of hepatitis precedes the onset of aplastic anemia. The hepatitis may be acute and severe, even fulminant; it may be self-limiting or chronic. The pathology is often not attributable to a recognized cause of viral hepatitis. The syndrome occurs in 28 percent of young adults after liver transplantation for non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis. Several features of the syndrome suggest that the marrow aplasia is mediated by immunological mechanisms, possibly mediated by gamma interferon or the cytokine cascade. Survival of patients treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation has been 82%, and the response rate to immunosuppressive therapy 70%. Conclusions, Hepatitis-associated bone marrow aplasia is mediated by immunological mechanisms. Treatment options include hematopoietic cell transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy. [source]

Vaccination against hepatitis B in liver transplant recipients: Pilot analysis of cellular immune response shows evidence of HBsAg-specific regulatory T cells

Tanja Bauer
After liver transplantation for hepatitis-B-related diseases, patients currently receive lifelong treatment with hepatitis B immunoglobulin to prevent endogenous reinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Active immunization with hepatitis B vaccine would be a preferable alternative; however, most attempts to immunize these patients with standard vaccine have failed. A recent study with a new adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine was exceptionally successful, leading to a high-titered long-lasting antibody response in 80% of all vaccinees. To identify the immunological mechanisms behind these unexpected results, the successfully vaccinated participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific T and B cells, and their cellular responses to revaccination with conventional vaccine were studied. HBsAg-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes could be detected in 13 of 16 patients after immunization with the new vaccine. Unexpectedly, these T cells produced almost exclusively interleukin (IL)-10 and had a CD4+/CD25+ phenotype. They were functionally active, suppressing cytokine secretion in HBsAg-specific (Th1) cells, thus representing antigen-specific regulatory T cells (TReg). Following a booster dose with conventional vaccine 22-31 months after completion of the initial vaccination series, the T-cell pattern in the revaccinated individuals changed substantially: 7 days after revaccination 9 of 11 individuals showed a switch to a Th1-type immune response with HBsAg-specific T cells secreting IL-2, interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha as observed in healthy controls. Four weeks after the booster, 4 patients still showed a Th1-type cytokine pattern, whereas in 5 patients only IL-10-secreting cells were detectable. After 1 year, in 3 of 4 revaccinated individuals only IL-10-secreting cells could be found, whereas the specific T cells of the fourth patient still showed a Th1-type of response. HBsAg-specific TReg cells could be demonstrated in HBV-positive liver transplant recipients successfully immunized with a new adjuvanted vaccine. Revaccination led to immediate disappearance of the these cells and the appearance of HBsAg-specific T cells with a Th1-type cytokine profile, which in most cases were replaced by the IL-10-secreting regulatory cells during the following months. The specific induction of TReg cells could contribute to the poor response of liver transplant recipients to conventional vaccine. In conclusion,, for successful vaccination of these patients, a vaccine with a strong inhibitory effect on TReg cells would be desirable. Liver Transpl 13:434,442, 2007. © 2007 AASLD. [source]

IgE-mediated facilitated antigen presentation underlies higher immune responses in peanut allergy

ALLERGY, Issue 10 2010
V. Turcanu
To cite this article: Turcanu V, Stephens AC, Chan SMH, Rancé F, Lack G. IgE-mediated facilitated antigen presentation underlies higher immune responses in peanut allergy. Allergy 2010; 65: 1274,1281. Abstract Background:, Peanut allergy poses significant healthcare problems, because its prevalence is increasing in many countries, and it is rarely outgrown. To explore the immunological mechanisms that underlie peanut allergy and tolerance, we compared the peanut-specific responses of peanut-allergic (PA) and nonallergic (NA) individuals. Methods:, We measured peanut-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation using tritiated thymidine. The frequency of peanut-specific T cells amongst PBMC was determined by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labelling. The role of IgE-dependent facilitated antigen presentation (FAP) in modulating proliferation was investigated by depleting IgE from plasma with anti-IgE-coated beads and then assessing PBMC proliferation in the presence of IgE-depleted or nondepleted plasma. Results:, We found that peanut-specific PBMC proliferation is higher and peaks earlier in PA than in NA donors. We investigated the immunological mechanisms that could underlie these differences. We found that both PA and NA have memory responses to peanut, but the frequency of peanut-specific T cells is higher in PA than in NA. Facilitated antigen presentation could cause both the higher proliferation and precursor frequency in PA. Facilitated antigen presentation activity in vitro was confirmed by showing that IgE depletion decreases proliferation, while adding IgE back restores it. Conclusion:, Our results identify FAP as a mechanism that underlies higher responses to peanut in PA. In these individuals, high levels of peanut-specific IgE could furthermore maintain long-term allergic T-cell responses. We raise the question whether, in the future, therapies targeting IgE such as anti-IgE antibodies may be used to suppress these T-cell responses. [source]

Allergic hypersensitivity to topical and systemic corticosteroids: a review

ALLERGY, Issue 7 2009
M. Baeck
,Corticosteroids, which are potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulator agents used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases including allergic diseases, can in some cases produce immediate or delayed hypersensitivity reactions. This review summarizes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of such reactions, including related diagnostic issues. It also presents a detailed analysis of the proposed immunological mechanisms including underlying cross-reactions. [source]

Gender-medicine aspects in allergology

ALLERGY, Issue 5 2008
E. Jensen-Jarolim
Despite the identical immunological mechanisms activating the release of mediators and consecutive symptoms in immediate-type allergy, there is still a clear clinical difference between female and male allergic patients. Even though the risk of being allergic is greater for boys in childhood, almost from adolescence onwards it seems to be a clear disadvantage to be a woman as far as atopic disorders are concerned. Asthma, food allergies and anaphylaxis are more frequently diagnosed in females. In turn, asthma and hay fever are associated with irregular menstruation. Pointing towards a role of sex hormones, an association of asthma and intake of contraceptives, and a risk for asthma exacerbations during pregnancy have been observed. Moreover, peri- and postmenopausal women were reported to increasingly suffer from asthma, wheeze and hay fever, being even enhanced by hormone replacement therapy. This may be on account of the recently identified oestradiol-receptor-dependent mast-cell activation. As a paradox of nature, women may even become hypersensitive against their own sex hormones, resulting in positive reactivity upon intradermal injection of oestrogen or progesterone. More importantly, this specific hypersensitivity is associated with recurrent miscarriages. Even though there is a striking gender-specific bias in IgE-mediated allergic diseases, public awareness of this fact still remains minimal today. [source]

Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis: Current status

Abstract Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a unique perforating dermatosis, characterized clinically by umbilicated hyperkeratotic papules or nodules and histologically by a focal hyperkeratosis in direct contact with transepidermal perforating dermal collagen. Several inflammatory or malignant systemic diseases may coexist with acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. The possible biochemical or immunological mechanisms of the systemic diseases, potentially responsible for the development and appearance of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis, are still under investigation. Several topical treatments, ultraviolet B phototherapy and allopurinol p.o. administration may be effective. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A High Dose of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Increases CD94 Expression on Natural Killer Cells in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

Shigeki Shimada
Problem, A high dose of intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIg) therapy is effective in various diseases such as autoimmune diseases, and also is expected to have efficacy in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The aim of this study was to understand immunological mechanisms of this therapy. Method of study, By flowcytometric analyses, we examined phenotypic changes of a variety of immunological cells including natural killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells and macrophages in peripheral blood of RSA women with HIVIg therapy (n = 8). Results, Expression percentages of inhibitory CD94 on NK cells significantly (P = 0.01) increased after the therapy (58.8 ± 21.4% versus 71.0 ± 17.6%). Conclusion, Mechanisms of possible efficacy of HIVIg therapy for RSA may include enhancement of CD94 expression and subsequent suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity. [source]

REVIEW ARTICLE: Anti-phospholipid Antibodies and Other Immunological Causes of Recurrent Foetal Loss , A Review of Literature of Various Therapeutic Protocols

Shrimati Shetty
Problem, An immune-based aetiology is one of the several accepted causes for recurrent foetal loss (RFL). However, most of the immunological theories have not fulfilled the criteria for causality. This is a review of the various immunological causes of RFL and the outcome of different treatment protocols. Method of study, Both auto- and alloimmune maternal immunological abnormalities have been proposed to account for foetal loss. Among the autoimmune factors, anti-phospholipid antibodies (APAs) have been demonstrated to be the strongest risk factors for foetal loss, the prevalence of which is as high as 40% in women with RFL. Other autoimmune antibodies implicated in RFL are anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-thyroid antibodies and anti-endothelial cell antibodies. The alloimmune factors implicated in pregnancy loss of unknown aetiology include abnormal natural killer (NK) cell activity, alteration in T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) ratios, presence of alloimmune antibodies like anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies, anti-idiotypic antibodies, mixed lymphocyte reaction blocking antibodies and abnormal expression of HLA-G molecules. Management of patients with RFL is mainly based on immunomodulatory (prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, paternal lymphocyte therapy), anti-aggregation (aspirin) or anti-coagulation (unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin) agents. Results, Low-molecular-weight heparin with low-dose aspirin has been found to be the most effective treatment for women with APAs and RFL. Differences in dosage, timing of treatment, inclusion criteria, outcome assessment parameters etc. are some of the factors which have resulted in discrepancies in various reports. Conclusion, Identification of the immunological mechanisms involved in pregnancy loss and the action of different therapeutic reagents is important so that effective therapies can be designed and investigated. [source]

A mouse model of pemphigus vulgaris by adoptive transfer of naive splenocytes from desmoglein 3 knockout mice

M. Aoki-Ota
Summary Background, Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by antidesmoglein3 (anti-Dsg3) IgG autoantibodies. Recently, we developed a PV mouse model by adoptive transfer of splenocytes from recombinant Dsg3-immunized Dsg3,/, mice to Rag2,/, immunodeficient mice that expressed Dsg3. Objectives, We determined whether the adoptive transfer of naive splenocytes from nonimmunized Dsg3,/, mice induces the anti-Dsg3 IgG production and the PV phenoytpe in recipient mice. Methods, We adoptively transferred naive Dsg3,/, splenocytes into Rag2,/, mice and compared their PV phenoytpe with those mice receiving immunized Dsg3,/, splenocytes. The numbers of splenocytes and their subpopulations required for anti-Dsg3 IgG production were examined. Results, Mice that received naive Dsg3,/, splenocytes produced anti-Dsg3 IgG, which bound to keratinocyte cell surfaces in vivo, and developed the PV phenotype, including oral erosions with suprabasilar acantholysis. Antibody production and the appearance of the PV phenotype were delayed by approximately 2 weeks in mice that received naive splenocytes compared with mice that received immunized splenocytes. However, once the PV phenotypes developed, there were no apparent differences in disease severity between the two models. Interestingly, the anti-Dsg3 IgG titres were significantly lower in mice that received naive splenocytes than in mice that received immunized splenocytes, suggesting that the former antibodies were more potent than the latter. The frequency of anti-Dsg3 IgG production depended on the number of transferred naive splenocytes. Both CD4+ T cells and B220+ B cells from naive Dsg3,/, mice were essential for the production of anti-Dsg3 IgG antibodies. Conclusions, Dsg3-specific naive lymphocytes in Dsg3,/, mice can be primed and activated by the endogenous Dsg3 in recipient mice to produce pathogenic anti-Dsg3 IgG without active immunization. This approach using naive lymphocytes provides a unique model to dissect immunological mechanisms of tolerance against peripheral autoimmune targets. [source]

Serum chemokine levels in Hodgkin lymphoma patients: highly increased levels of CCL17 and CCL22

Marijke Niens
Summary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is characterized by a minority of neoplastic Hodgkin-Reed Sternberg (HRS) cells surrounded by a non-neoplastic reactive infiltrate. As immunological mechanisms appear to be crucial in classical HL pathogenesis, altered serum chemokine levels might be related to disease activity. Serum levels of nine chemokines were examined in 163 untreated HL patients and 334 controls. We investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with serum CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, TARC) levels and HL susceptibility. Serum CCL17 and CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine, MDC) levels were significantly increased in 82% and 57% of the HL patients. Nodular sclerosis cases showed increased serum CCL17 and CCL22 levels (P < 0·001) and serum levels were correlated with Ann Arbor stage. Of nine patients with pre- and post-treatment serum samples, the majority showed decreased CCL17 and CCL22 levels after treatment. HRS cells expressed CCL17 and CCL22 in 77% and 75% of 74 cases. Three SNPs showed a trend of increased serum CCL17 levels with minor alleles in controls, but were not associated with HL susceptibility. CCL17 and CCL22 were the only chemokines with increased serum levels in the vast majority of HL patients, which provides further insight into the molecular mechanism(s) leading to infiltrations of reactive lymphocytes in HL. [source]

Graft failure following reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation for adult patients

Hiroto Narimatsu
Summary We reviewed the medical records of 123 adult reduced-intensity cord blood transplantation (RI-CBT) recipients to investigate the clinical features of graft failure after RI-CBT. Nine (7·3%) had graft failure, and were classified as graft rejection rather than primary graft failure; they showed peripheral cytopenia with complete loss of donor-type haematopoiesis, implying destruction of donor cells by immunological mechanisms rather than poor graft function. Three of them died of bacterial or fungal infection during neutropenia. Two recovered autologous haematopoiesis. The remaining four patients underwent a second RI-CBT and developed severe regimen-related toxicities. One died of pneumonia on day 8, and the other three achieved engraftment. Two of them died of transplant-related mortality, and the other survived without disease progression for 9·0 months after the second RI-CBT. In total, seven of the nine patients with graft failure died. The median survival of those with graft failure was 3·8 months (range, 0·9,15·4). Graft failure is a serious complication of RI-CBT. As host T cells cannot completely be eliminated by reduced-intensity preparative regimens, we need to be aware of the difficulty in differentiating graft rejection from other causes of graft failure following RI-CBT. Further studies are warranted to establish optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies. [source]

Cyclosporine treatment of RPE allografts in the rabbit subretinal space

Sven Crafoord
ABSTRACT. Purpose: To determine the effects of systemic cyclosporine A (CsA) on the survival of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) allografts in the subretinal space in an animal model using atraumatic transplantation surgery. Methods: Following pars plana vitrectomy, an RPE cell suspension from brown rabbits was injected with a glass micropipette into the subretinal space of 39 albino rabbits. For immunosuppression, 22 rabbits were given an injection of CsA, 20 mg daily intramuscularly, 17 rabbits with RPE grafts were controls. The grafts were monitored by biomicroscopy, color fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography. Rabbits were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively, and the eyes processed for light and electron microscopy including immunohistochemistry. Results: After three months, the transplanted RPE cells, in both the CsA group and the controls, formed a monolayer in the subretinal space. Although a few macrophages were encountered, there was no massive cellular infiltration and the photoreceptor layer was well preserved. After six months, however, there was a disruption of grafted RPE cells in both groups, characterized by dispersion of melanin pigment in the subretinal space, and invasion of macrophages with focal photoreceptor damage but no infiltration of lymphocytes in the retina or choroid. No significant differences between the CsA treated and the control eyes were discernible. Conclusion: Although the subretinal space has been considered an immunologically privileged site, we found that the survival of RPE allografts was limited. CsA did not prevent RPE allograft destruction in the subretinal space. The transplant seems to be disrupted either by immunological mechanisms that are not inhibited by CsA, or by nonimmunologic events. [source]

Immunoreactivity profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis

J. Sun
Summary Background Seasonal rhinitis is manifested by a series of nasal symptoms in response to exposure to seasonal allergens including ragweed pollen. Understanding its immunological mechanisms may help to better manage the disease. Objective We sought to determine comprehensively ragweed-induced cytokine and chemokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal individuals and patients with seasonal rhinitis sensitized to ragweed pollen, and to assess its regulation by exogenous IL-10. Methods Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of a purified ragweed pollen extract with or without exogenous IL-10. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in the supernatant. Gene expression was evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results Ragweed stimulation significantly increased the production of the Th2-associated cytokines IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 and the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in allergic patients, whereas transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,) production was increased only in normal individuals. No difference was detected between groups in the production of the Th1 cytokine IFN-, or the Th1-affiliated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11. Exogenous IL-10 significantly suppressed spontaneous and induced production of both Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines and chemokines. Conclusion Our work demonstrated that locally manifested allergic rhinitis is underlined by a systemic Th2 immune response specific to allergens. The molecular pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis may be linked to a compromised allergen-specific immune regulation, e.g., reduced spontaneous and allergen-induced TGF-, production in patients compared with healthy controls. Our data also show that IL-10 inhibits both the effector and directional mechanisms of allergen-specific immune response, further supporting its potential therapeutic benefit in preventing and treating allergic diseases. [source]