Immunological Effects (immunological + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Immunological effects of stress in psoriasis

G. Schmid-Ott
Summary Background, Psychological stress causes phenotypic changes in circulating lymphocytes and is regarded as an important trigger of the Th1-polarized inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. Objective, To study the effects of psychological stress on immunological parameters, i.e. membrane molecules relevant to the pathophysiology of psoriasis, especially cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigens (CLA) involved in T and natural killer (NK) cells homing in on the skin. Methods, The severity of psoriasis was assessed in patients using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with psoriasis (n = 15) and healthy volunteers (n = 15) were exposed to brief psychological stress in the laboratory. In vitro analyses were conducted 1 h before, immediately following and 1 h after stress exposure. Peripheral T- and NK-cell subsets including CD8+ T lymphocytes, CLA+ lymphocytes and lymphocyte function-associated antigen type 1 (LFA-1)+ lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry. Results, We found a significant stress-induced increase of CD3+ T lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis only. Analyses of T-cell subsets revealed that this increase was observable for cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes and CLA+ CD3+ lymphocytes. The total number of circulating NK cells (CD16+, CD56+) increased immediately after stress in both groups whereas only patients with psoriasis showed a significant increase in CLA+ NK cells. Conclusions, A higher stress-induced increase of CLA+ T and CLA+ NK cells in the circulation of patients with psoriasis might point to an increased ability of T and NK cells in the presence of psoriasis to home in on the skin during mental stress. Further studies are needed to verify these relationships in more detail and to investigate the time point at which these cells accumulate within lesional skin, and whether or not psychotherapy improves the quality of life of patients with psoriasis and influences stress-dependent parameters. [source]

Augmentation of skin response by exposure to a combination of allergens and irritants , a review

Line Kynemund Pedersen
Clinical experimental studies on contact dermatitis (CD) often evaluate the effect of one allergen or one irritant at a time. In real life, the skin is often exposed to more allergens, more irritants or allergens and irritants in combination. This combined exposure may potentially influence irritant effects as well as allergenicity of the substances. Mechanisms for a changed response can be immunological effects or enhanced penetration. Knowledge about the influence on skin reaction of combined exposures may influence skin reactivity and is important for prevention of CD. For allergens, threshold values may be influenced by the presence of other allergens or irritants, and prevention of CD by regulation of threshold values may not be sufficient if this is not taken into account. [source]

Isoflurane attenuates pulmonary interleukin-1, and systemic tumor necrosis factor-, following mechanical ventilation in healthy mice

Background: Mechanical ventilation (MV) induces an inflammatory response in healthy lungs. The resulting pro-inflammatory state is a risk factor for ventilator-induced lung injury and peripheral organ dysfunction. Isoflurane is known to have protective immunological effects on different organ systems. We tested the hypothesis that the MV-induced inflammatory response in healthy lungs is reduced by isoflurane. Methods: Healthy C57BL6 mice (n=34) were mechanically ventilated (tidal volume, 8 ml/kg; positive end-expiratory pressure, 4 cmH2O; and fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.4) for 4 h under general anesthesia using a mix of ketamine, medetomidine and atropine (KMA). Animals were divided into four groups: (1) Unventilated control group; (2) MV group using KMA anesthesia; (3) MV group using KMA with 0.25 MAC isoflurane; (4) MV group using KMA with 0.75 MAC isoflurane. Cytokine levels were measured in lung homogenate and plasma. Leukocytes were counted in lung tissue. Results: Lung homogenates: MV increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. In mice receiving KMA+ isoflurane 0.75 MAC, no significant increase in interleukin (IL)-1, was found compared with non-ventilated control mice. Plasma: MV induced a systemic pro-inflammatory response. In mice anesthetized with KMA+ isoflurane (both 0.25 and 0.75 MAC), no significant increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, was found compared with non-ventilated control mice. Conclusions: The present study is the first to show that isoflurane attenuates the pulmonary IL-1, and systemic TNF-, response following MV in healthy mice. [source]

Clinical trial: the microbiological and immunological effects of synbiotic consumption , a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in active Crohn's disease

H. Steed
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 872,883 Summary Background, Crohn's disease is an inflammatory illness in which the immune response against gut microorganisms is believed to drive an abnormal immune response. Consequently, modification of mucosal bacterial communities, and the immune effects they elicit, might be used to modify the disease state. Aim, To investigate the effects of synbiotic consumption on disease processes in patients with Crohn's disease. Methods, A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted involving 35 patients with active Crohn's disease, using a synbiotic comprising Bifidobacterium longum and Synergy 1. Clinical status was scored and rectal biopsies were collected at the start, and at 3- and 6-month intervals. Transcription levels of immune markers and mucosal bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were quantified using real-time PCR. Results, Significant improvements in clinical outcomes occurred with synbiotic consumption, with reductions in both Crohn's disease activity indices (P = 0.020) and histological scores (P = 0.018). The synbiotic had little effect on mucosal IL-18, INF-, and IL-1,; however, significant reductions occurred in TNF-, expression in synbiotic patients at 3 months (P = 0.041), although not at 6 months. Mucosal bifidobacteria proliferated in synbiotic patients. Conclusion, Synbiotic consumption was effective in improving clinical symptoms in patients with active Crohn's disease. [source]

Immunological response to mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in cancer patients: a four-case series

Nilo Esvalter Gardin
Abstract European mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used in complementary cancer treatment, but little is known concerning its effects on immunological parameters, although there is evidence that Viscum may stimulate the immune system. In this study, a trial was conducted with cancer patients to determine whether Viscum album extracts could improve the results of immune tests. These were: white blood cell count (leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes), CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, intradermal tests of delayed hypersensitivity (candidin, trichophytin, purified protein derivative-PPD), complement C3 and C4, and immunoglobulin A, G and M. Four patients received seven doses of subcutaneous Viscum album 20 mg, twice weekly. Immunological tests were carried out before and after treatment, and an increase in several parameters of humoral and cellular immunity were shown. Apart from reactions around the injection sites, treatment was well tolerated and all patients benefited from it. These results suggest that Viscum album can enhance humoral and cellular immune responses in cancer patients, but further studies attesting to the possible clinical impact of these immunological effects are necessary. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effects of thymoquinone (volatile oil of black cumin) on rheumatoid arthritis in rat models

Ibrahim Tekeoglu
Abstract Many studies have been carried out in recent years on the pharmacological effects of Nigella sativa seeds that have uncovered their antiinflammatory and immunological effects. The objective of this study was to explore the antiinflammatory effects of thymoquinone on arthritis in rat models. Rats with arthritis induced by Freund's incomplete adjuvant were assigned to five groups: group 1: controls 0.9% NaCl (n = 7); group 2: 2.5 mg/kg thymoquinone (n = 7); group 3: 5 mg/kg thymoquinone (n = 7); group 4: Bacilli Chalmette Guerin (BCG) 6 105 CFU (n = 7); group 5: methotrexate 0.3 mg/kg (n = 7). Signs of inflammation on the claw and radiological signs were searched for and TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were measured. The results of the control and other groups were compared. As a result, thymoquinone, confirmed clinically and radiologically, suppressed adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Progesterone Regulates IL12 Expression in Pregnancy Lymphocytes by Inhibiting Phospholipase A2

G. Par
Par G, Geli J, Kozma N, Varga P, Szekeres-Bartho J. Progesterone regulates IL12 expression in pregnancy lymphocytes by inhibiting phospholipase A2. AJRI 2003; 49:1,5 Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003 PROBLEM: Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) is one of the pathways that mediate the immunological effects of progesterone. PIBF inhibits natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity. Recently we showed that neutralization of PIBF results in an increased interleukin (IL)-12 expression, which is corrected by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. As exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) voids the NK blocking effect of PIBF, it is likely that PIBF acts before the level of the cyclooxygenase enzyme. Therefore in this study we investigated the effect of PIBF neutralizing antibody and simultaneous phospholipase A2 inhibitor quinacrine (Q) treatment on IL-12 production. METHODS: Pregnancy lymphocytes were treated with anti-PIBF antibody or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a positive control, in the presence or absence of Q. IL-12 expression by PBMC was detected by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Neutralization of PIBF as well as LPS treatment resulted in an increased IL-12 expression, which was corrected by simultaneous Q treatment. Pre-treatment of lymphocytes with progesterone prevented the stimulating effect of LPS on IL-12 production. CONCLUSION: Progesterone binding of the lymphocytes is followed by the release of PIBF that inhibits AA release. The subsequent block of prostaglandin synthesis reduces IL-12 production and results in a lowered cytotoxic NK activity, which may contribute to a normal pregnancy outcome. [source]

Presence of prostate cancer metastasis correlates with lower lymph node reactivity,

THE PROSTATE, Issue 16 2006
Gannon Philippe Olivier
Abstract BACKGROUND Several reports suggest that the dissemination of neoplastic cells and cancer progression are associated with the generation of an immunosuppressive environment. METHODS In this report, we investigated immunological effects of prostate cancer by comparing metastastic and non-metastatic pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) from 25 patients with carcinomatous involvement of LNs to the non-metastatic LNs from 26 control patients with no metastatic involvement by immunohistochemistry and histological analyses. RESULTS Our results showed a decreased abundance of CD20+ B lymphocytes (P,=,0.031), CD38+ activated lymphocytes (P,=,0.038), and CD68+ macrophages (P,<,0.001), and less evidence of follicular hyperplasia (P,=,0.014), sinus hyperplasia (P,<,0.001), and fibrosis (P=0.028) in metastatic LNs comparatively to control LNs. Finally, we observed that metastatic LNs were significantly smaller than control LNs (P,=,0.005). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the development of prostate cancer LN metastasis is accompanied with smaller LN size and decreased LN reactivity suggesting the development of an immununosuppressive microenvironment. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Treatment-dependent Loss of Polyfunctional CD8+ T-cell Responses in HIV-infected Kidney Transplant Recipients Is Associated with Herpesvirus Reactivation

O. Gasser
Antiretroviral-therapy has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection and HIV-infected (HIV(+)) individuals are becoming more frequently eligible for solid-organ transplantation. However, only scarce data are available on how immunosuppressive (IS) strategies relate to transplantation outcome and immune function. We determined the impact of transplantation and immune-depleting treatment on CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV-, EBV-, and Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-viral loads and virus-specific T-cell immunity in a 1-year prospective cohort of 27 HIV(+) kidney transplant recipients. While the results show an increasing breadth and magnitude of the herpesvirus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response over-time, they also revealed a significant depletion of polyfunctional virus-specific CTL in individuals receiving thymoglobulin as a lymphocyte-depleting treatment. The disappearance of polyfunctional CTL was accompanied by virologic EBV-reactivation events, directly linking the absence of specific polyfunctional CTL to viral reactivation. The data provide first insights into the immune-reserve in HIV+ infected transplant recipients and highlight new immunological effects of thymoglobulin treatment. Long-term studies will be needed to assess the clinical risk associated with thymoglobulin treatment, in particular with regards to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. [source]

Complex immunomodulatory effects of interferon-, in multiple sclerosis include the upregulation of T helper 1-associated marker genes

Klaus-Peter Wandinger MD
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an autoimmune disease that is mediated by proinflammatory T helper-1 lymphocytes. The putative mechanism of interferon-, (IFN-,), an approved treatment for MS, includes the inhibition of T-cell proliferation, blocking of blood-brain-barrier opening and T-cell transmigration into the brain via interference with cell adhesion, and the upregulation of anti-inflammatory (TH2) cytokines. In the present study, a gene expression analysis of IFN-,-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by cDNA microarray documents the broad effects of IFN-, that are not purely anti-inflammatory. Specifically, we addressed the effect of IFN-, on T helper-1 differentiation- or lineage markers such as the IL-12 receptor ,2 chain and the chemokine receptor CCR5 that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MS. Both markers were significantly upregulated in vitro and in vivo under IFN-, therapy, supporting that this cytokine exerts complex effects on the immune system. The combination of cDNA microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction will expand our knowledge of the immunological effects of such pleiotropic agents as IFN-,, may provide a key to why certain patients fail to respond, and eventually influence our view of the disease pathogenesis. [source]

Physiological Effects of a Novel Immune Stimulator Drug, (1,4)-,- d -Glucan, in Rats

Ravishankar Koppada
We investigated physiological and immunological effects of a low and a high dose of ,- d -glucan (0.5 and 10 mg/kg), in vivo, testing the hypothesis that intravenous administration of ,- d -glucan does not affect haemodynamic, respiratory, haematological, and immune responses in normal rats. Male rats (300,400 g) were anaesthetized, tracheostomized, and catheterized in one femoral artery and vein. The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were continuously recorded. The baselines for gas exchange, differential blood cell count, and plasma concentration of TNF-,, IL-1,, IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-, were determined. Rats were then randomly assigned to controls (n = 7), a low dose (0.5 mg/kg; n = 10), and a high dose (10 mg/kg; n = 7) of ,- d -glucan for a six 6 hr study period. Gas exchange, differential cell count, plasma concentration of TNF-,, IL-1,, IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-,, and mean arterial blood pressure values remained within physiological range. Intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg ,- d -glucan created tachycardia, associated with hyperventilation, and significant reductions in the blood haemoglobin and haematocrit concentrations. We suggest that these in vivo effects of ,- d -glucan should be considered for future clinical and/or experimental trials. [source]

Safety of allogeneic Epstein,Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for patients with refractory EBV-related lymphoma

Qi Sun
Summary. Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) causes lymphomas in immunocompromised individuals such as recipients of stem cell or organ transplants and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). EBV has also been detected in the Reed,Sternberg cells of approximately 50% of all cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD). The purpose of this study was to examine the safety, and the clinical and immunological effects of infusing allogeneic EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) for patients with refractory EBV-positive malignancies. In this pilot study, we have treated four patients with EBV-related lymphoma using allogeneic EBV-specific CTL. Two patients received EBV-specific CTL derived from partially human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors and the other two from HLA-matched siblings. No complications were observed as a result of the CTL infusions and all patients showed increased levels of EBV-specific CTL precursors (CTLp) post infusion. Of the two organ transplant patients, one had refractory disease and has sustained a complete remission following the T-cell infusions. The second has also been disease free since T-cell infusions, although the efficacy cannot be definitively attributed to CTL therapy because this patient received local radiation therapy prior to immunotherapy. A patient with AIDS-related, EBV-positive lymphoma had disease progression following CTL infusions. One HD patient received HLA 4/6 matched T cells from an unrelated donor and showed a decrease in the size of affected lymph nodes and resolution of B-symptoms post infusion. In conclusion, adoptive immunotherapy with allogeneic EBV-specific CTL is safe and mayhave efficacy in patients with high-risk or refractory EBV-related tumours. [source]

Interferon- ,1b treatment modulates cytokines in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis

A. Dressel
Objectives,,, It is unknown whether the immunological effects of , -interferon (IFN- ,) differ in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) when compared with relapsing,remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Therefore, we investigated the effects of IFN- ,1b treatment in PPMS on proliferation and cytokine pattern of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) serum level. Methods,,, Eighteen patients were treated with IFN- ,1b for 12 months in an open-label trial. Serum and PBMC were collected longitudinally. Results,,, Interleukin-10 serum levels increased (P = 0.02) during treatment. Tumor necrosis factor- , was increased in anti CD3 (OKT3) antibody stimulated PBMC during treatment (P = 0.04), whereas secretion of IL-10 was decreased in OKT3 (P = 0.04), but increased in concavalin A stimulated PBMC (P = 0.02). Conclusions,,, Interleukin-10 serum levels rose in IFN- ,1b-treated patients as has been observed in RRMS. The changes in cytokine patterns secreted by T-lymphocytes of PPMS patients, however, differ from effects observed in RRMS supporting the hypothesis that PPMS differs in some immunological aspects from RRMS. [source]

The effect of oral steroids with and without vitamin D3 on early efficacy of immunotherapy in asthmatic children

P. Majak
Summary Background The possibility of additional strategies to enhance the effectiveness of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is highly attractive. Aim The aim of our study was to assess the influence of oral corticosteroids and oral corticosteroids combined with vitamin D3 on the early clinical and immunological effects of SIT. Methods It was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 54 asthmatic children allergic to house dust mites. Intervention was based on receiving a single dose of oral steroid, with or without vitamin D3, or placebo only on the day of the build-up phase of SIT. Results After 12 months of SIT, the median daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose, which controls the symptoms of asthma, was reduced by 25% in the steroid group. However, a 50% reduction of the median daily ICS dose was observed in the control group. The clinical effects of SIT were not affected in the steroid+D3 group. Concomitantly, we found that intervention with prednisone significantly impaired the induction of T regulatory lymphocytes. Importantly, the clinical and immunological effects of SIT were not affected by intervention with steroids administered with vitamin D3. Conclusions Our study failed to show a beneficial effect of oral corticosteroids on allergen-specific immunotherapy. We observed that the combined administration of a corticosteroid drug and allergen extract suppressed the early clinical and immunological effects of SIT and that vitamin D3 prevented this ,adverse' influence of steroids. [source]

A comparison of ex vivo cytokine production in venous and capillary blood

M. Eriksson
Summary We performed a randomized study of the immunological effects of an early measles vaccine given at 45 months of age and aimed to obtain venous samples from the infants at baseline and 6 weeks later. If this was not feasible, a capillary sample was obtained. We analysed baseline samples from the first 50 children enrolled in the study to investigate the potential differences in ex vivo cytokine production between venous blood and capillary blood. We also obtained paired venous and capillary blood samples from 11 adult volunteers. Whole blood was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 ligand], (S)-(2, 3-bis (palmitoyloxy)-(2-RS)-propyl)-N-palmitoyl-(R)-Cys-(S)-Ser-(S)-Lys4-OH, trihydrochloride (PAM3Cys) (a TLR-2 ligand), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or purified protein derivative (PPD). Cytokine concentrations in the supernatants were assessed by a multiplexed assay and were compared between venous and capillary samples in both infants and adults. The production of both the pro- and the anti-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, and interleukin (IL)-10, was higher in cultures of capillary blood compared with venous blood. This was found in non-stimulated control samples as well as in blood stimulated with PAM3Cys and PPD. Adults produced more IL-5 in venous blood than in capillary blood upon PHA stimulation. We found no other difference in the levels of IL-5 or IFN-, between venous and capillary blood. In capillary blood we found sex differences in response to PHA but this was not the case in venous blood. We found significant differences in the production of cytokines between venous and capillary blood. Such differences should be taken into account when setting up immuno-epidemiological studies. [source]