Immunological Data (immunological + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

PERSPECTIVE ARTICLE: Why do adaptive immune responses cross-react?

Karen J. Fairlie-Clarke
Abstract Antigen specificity of adaptive immune responses is often in the host's best interests, but with important and as yet unpredictable exceptions. For example, antibodies that bind to multiple flaviviral or malarial species can provide hosts with simultaneous protection against many parasite genotypes. Vaccinology often aims to harness such imprecision, because cross-reactive antibodies might provide broad-spectrum protection in the face of antigenic variation by parasites. However, the causes of cross-reactivity among immune responses are not always known, and here, we explore potential proximate and evolutionary explanations for cross-reactivity. We particularly consider whether cross-reactivity is the result of constraints on the ability of the immune system to process information about the world of antigens, or whether an intermediate level of cross-reactivity may instead represent an evolutionary optimum. We conclude with a series of open questions for future interdisciplinary research, including the suggestion that the evolutionary ecology of information processing might benefit from close examination of immunological data. [source]

An update on Behçet's disease

A Kalayciyan
Abstract Behçet's disease (Adamantiades-Behçet's disease, ABD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disease, the pathogenesis of which is still a mystery. Many questions are still to be answered and the available diverse data need to be brought together to be compared and analysed. There is at least consensus on the effect of possible, but currently unknown, environmental triggering factor(s) against a background of genetic susceptibility. The possible aetiological factors form a broad spectrum, with infectious agents being the most probable ones. Whatever the stimulus is, the target tissue seems to be the small blood vessels, with various consequences of either vasculitis and/or thrombosis in many organ systems. The endothelium seems to be the primary target in this disease; however, it may just be the subject of the bizarre behaviour of the immune system. The diverse existing data could be interpreted in favour of either explanation. A similar confusion exists about the thrombotic tendency in Adamantiades-Behçet's disease, in terms of whether a primary hypercoagulability is present or whether it is secondary to inflammation. Recent interesting immunological data promise a way out of the existing dilemma. These findings will be outlined within the context of possible hypotheses and attention will be paid to further investigations that are needed. [source]

Common variable immunodeficiency: 20-yr experience at a single centre

Ma Pilar Llobet
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency. It can present at any age in patients with a history of recurrent bacterial infections, with or without a family history of other primary immunodeficiencies (PID), and shows a wide range of clinical manifestations and immunological data. Diagnosis is based on low IgG, IgM and/or IgA levels. Delayed diagnosis and therapy can lead to bronchiectasis and malabsorption. The aim of this study was to describe a paediatric population diagnosed of CVID and its evolution in the population. Memory B-cell (MB) classification carried out in these patients was correlated with clinical manifestations and outcome. Clinical and immunological data of 22 CVID children under 18 yr treated at our centre between 1985 and 2005 are presented. Immunological studies included those for diagnosis and MB quantification. Differences in form of presentation, familial incidence and MB classification were reviewed. A statistical descriptive analysis was made. Infections were the commonest manifestation, affecting mainly respiratory (19/22) and gastrointestinal (10/22) tracts. Bronchiectasis was present in seven cases, and detected prior to CVID diagnosis in five. Replacement therapy led to a significant reduction in the number of infections. Severe complications appeared mostly in patients without MB. Patients of the same family share the same MB group. Family members had also been diagnosed of CVID in seven cases. Early diagnosis and therapy are essential to improve outcome in these patients. MB studies are useful in children to orient prognosis and further genetic studies. [source]

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: a major review

Sunil Kumar
Abstract. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic, bilateral, at times asymmetrical, seasonally exacerbated, allergic inflammation of the ocular surface, involving tarsal and/or bulbar conjunctiva. Though the allergic nature of this entity has been accepted for a long time, the accumulation of a large amount of immunological data has proved that the pathogenesis of VKC is much more complex than a mere type 1 hypersensitivity reaction. In the past several years, many clinical and experimental studies about the cells and mediators involved in initiating and perpetuating the ocular allergic inflammation have shown that T helper type 2 cells and their cytokines, corneal fibroblasts and epithelium along with various growth factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC. Based on this information about the pathogenesis of VKC newer, more selective drugs like anti-chemokine receptor antibodies and leukotriene receptor antagonists are under evaluation. Cyclosporine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of VKC but further randomized control trials are required to establish the minimum effective concentration. [source]