Anatomists

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


New Anatomist to end publication: AAA and Wiley to consider new journal

THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
Andrea Pendleton Executive Director
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


John Browne (1642,1702): Anatomist and plagiarist

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 1 2010
Marios Loukas
Abstract In contrast to many other physicians of his age, John Browne (1642,1702), an English anatomist and surgeon, managed to strike a balance in his career that spanned relative obscurity, prestige, and notoriety. Among his more prestigious credits, Browne was Surgeon in Ordinary to King Charles II and William III. He also had numerous publications to his name, some of which are credited as great innovations. His career, however, was tempered by his most important book, which has been critiqued by his contemporaries as well as modern historians as plagiarism. Although Browne undeniably copied the works of others and published them under his name, he was not alone in this practice. Various forms of intellectual thievery were common in Browne's day, and there were many perpetrators. The life of this overlooked figure in the history of anatomy and the stigma attached to him will be examined. Clin. Anat. 23:1,7, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Association of Veterinary Anatomists, July 20-22, 2005

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 5 2007
Article first published online: 5 SEP 200
First page of article [source]


The celebrated écorchés of honoré Fragonard, part 1: The classical techniques of preparation of dry anatomical specimens in the 18th century

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2010
Christophe Degueurce
Abstract The écorchés that Honoré Fragonard created between 1766 and 1771 have miraculously survived the ravages of time due to a technique of preparation which Fragonard never revealed. The present paper and a subsequent article aim to explain the classical methods used by anatomists of the 18th century (Part 1) and to throw light on the details of Fragonard's method (Part 2). Anatomists of the 18th century who wished to preserve their dissections used a method of mummification, which has now fallen into disuse: drying after immersion in alcohol. This article explains the stages of the classical method utilized by French anatomists of the Age of Enlightenment. The cadaver was selected with care before the vascular system was injected with a colored mixture of wax, animal fat, and plant resins. The body was then dehydrated by immersion in a bath of alcohol, after which it was removed and positioned by means of a wooden framework, which held the body in the desired pose while the alcohol evaporated. The vessels were painted, and finally the body was varnished. Clin. Anat. 23:249,257, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


In response to Dr. Patel and Professor Moxham "Attitudes of Professional Anatomists to Curricular Change"

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 8 2006
C.F. Smith
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


The American Association of Clinical Anatomists from 1983,2003: Reflections of a founding member

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 6 2004
Ralph Ger
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Presented at the summer meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists, 21st July, 2003, Swansea Clinical School, University of Wales, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2004
Article first published online: 19 MAR 200
First page of article [source]


Gordon L. Ruskell: optometrist, teacher and anatomist

JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 3 2005
R. H. Douglas
First page of article [source]


If bone is the answer, then what is the question?

JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 2 2000
R. HUISKES
In the 19th century, several scientists attempted to relate bone trabecular morphology to its mechanical, load-bearing function. It was suggested that bone architecture was an answer to requirements of optimal stress transfer, pairing maximal strength to minimal weight, according to particular mathematical design rules. Using contemporary methods of analysis, stress transfer in bones was studied and compared with anatomical specimens, from which it was hypothesised that trabecular architecture is associated with stress trajectories. Others focused on the biological processes by which trabecular architectures are formed and on the question of how bone could maintain the relationship between external load and architecture in a variable functional environment. Wilhelm Roux introduced the principle of functional adaptation as a self-organising process based in the tissues. Julius Wolff, anatomist and orthopaedic surgeon, entwined these 3 issues in his book The Law of Bone Remodeling (translation), which set the stage for biomechanical research goals in our day. ,Wolff's Law' is a question rather than a law, asking for the requirements of structural optimisation. In this article, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results of stress transfer in bones, it is argued that it was the wrong question, putting us on the wrong foot. The maximal strength/minimal weight principle does not provide a rationale for architectural formation or adaptation; the similarity between trabecular orientation and stress trajectories is circumstantial, not causal. Based on computer simulations of bone remodelling as a regulatory process, governed by mechanical usage and orchestrated by osteocyte mechanosensitivity, it is shown that Roux's paradigm, conversely, is a realistic proposition. Put in a quantitative regulatory context, it can predict both trabecular formation and adaptation. Hence, trabecular architecture is not an answer to Wolff's question, in the sense of this article's title. There are no mathematical optimisation rules for bone architecture; there is just a biological regulatory process, producing a structure adapted to mechanical demands by the nature of its characteristics, adequate for evolutionary endurance. It is predicted that computer simulation of this process can help us to unravel its secrets. [source]


Descriptions of Cervical Dystonia by Sir Charles Bell

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 3 2010
Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre MD
Abstract Sir Charles Bell is better known among neurologists for his descriptions of the clinical consequences of facial nerve lesions. However, as an accomplished physician, anatomist, and artist, he made many other contributions to the fields of neurology and neuroscience. Among those, his descriptions of patients with what we now know as cervical dystonia have not received much attention. In this report, Bell's depictions of patients presenting with a syndrome consistent with cervical dystonia will be discussed, including the identification of many of the different clinical features we currently use for the diagnosis of this disorder and his thoughts about its pathogenesis. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society [source]


John Donne, godly inscription, and permanency of self in Devotions upon Emergent Occasions

RENAISSANCE STUDIES, Issue 3 2010
Matthew Horn
I argue that throughout his career but especially during his sickness of 1623, Donne fears self annihilation in death. Examining critical views on Donne's concept of death and the self, I identify this as a fear of a temporal blackout of the self between the body's death and the final Resurrection. Donne believes that the self is the result of the combination of the body and the soul, and although the soul can survive the body's dissolution, the self cannot. In order to counter this fear of the self's temporal disappearance, Donne seeks to inscribe himself in his Devotions upon Emergent Occasions, assuming the posture of an anatomist to distance himself from his physical body to capture the observations of his body in a text using a corporeal register. Donne preserves this textual encoding of himself by addressing God as the main audience for the Devotions: when God reads the text, the content of the text (Donne's self) becomes archived in the eternally stable mind of God. Ultimately, Donne's authorship of the Devotions is his imitation of God's own activity. Donne sees God's nature, his ,core self', as a system of eternally preserved propositions, and God's activity in creation is an act of copious literary expression using an alphabet of physical things that are used not for their own endurance qua physical entities but for their ability to figurative reveal God's self, which stands beyond and above them. Donne imitates this nature and activity in his act of writing the Devotions. [source]


Sir William Mackenzie: sympathetic ophthalmia and glaucoma before ophthalmoscopy

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 12 2009
Geoffrey Serpell
Abstract One of the practitioners of probably the oldest surgical specialty, ophthalmic, was the eminent Scottish ophthalmologist, Sir William Mackenzie. Educated in Edinburgh, he moved to Glasgow, and described and named sympathetic ophthalmia before the time of the ophthalmoscope, well defining his powers of observation and deduction. Founding the Glasgow Eye Infirmary, his ,Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Eye' appeared in English in four editions (1850,1884) and in French and German. In this also appears the first full and clear account of glaucoma. Both he and the illustrator of his book, Wharton Jones, moved to Glasgow because of rather indefinite connections with Robert Knox, the anatomist, who was allegedly helped by the bodysnatchers, Burke and Hare. Mackenzie and his book were highly regarded before the revolutionary ophthalmoscope. He was knighted and appointed Surgeon Oculist to the Queen in Scotland. [source]


John Browne (1642,1702): Anatomist and plagiarist

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 1 2010
Marios Loukas
Abstract In contrast to many other physicians of his age, John Browne (1642,1702), an English anatomist and surgeon, managed to strike a balance in his career that spanned relative obscurity, prestige, and notoriety. Among his more prestigious credits, Browne was Surgeon in Ordinary to King Charles II and William III. He also had numerous publications to his name, some of which are credited as great innovations. His career, however, was tempered by his most important book, which has been critiqued by his contemporaries as well as modern historians as plagiarism. Although Browne undeniably copied the works of others and published them under his name, he was not alone in this practice. Various forms of intellectual thievery were common in Browne's day, and there were many perpetrators. The life of this overlooked figure in the history of anatomy and the stigma attached to him will be examined. Clin. Anat. 23:1,7, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Ludwik Maurycy Hirschfeld (1814,1876)

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2008
Jerzy Reymond
Abstract It is rare to encounter exceptional individuals such as Ludwik Maurycy Hirschfeld. He was born into poverty and early on discovered his passion for medicine, particularly anatomy. His life is a testament to what pure human determination can achieve. He overcame societal and financial obstacles, ultimately becoming a physician, anatomist, and scientist. In 1834, Hirshfeld left Poland for France. His first exposure to medical anatomy came while under the direction of the great anatomist Professor Bourgery at École Pratique de Médicine. In 1848, he earned his degree in medicine and published his work "Des injections capillaires." He coupled his love of anatomy with teaching and research. Hirschfeld's skills, as a dissector, enabled him to prepare specimens for illustration, which produced some of the anatomy atlases of modern times. "The Descriptive Anatomy of the Human Body" is one of his most influential works. Dr. Hirschfeld pioneered the initial illustrations of the meninges of brain. There are many anatomical structures named after him, including Hirschfeld's nerves and anastomoses. Hirshfeld remained as a professor until 1875. His death in 1876 was a great loss to the scientific community. His scientific accomplishments were astounding but he should also be remembered as a great humanitarian, an individual who offered medical treatment to the poor, and who strived to instill in his students a passion for anatomy. Clin. Anat. 21: 225,232, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Jacobus Sylvius (1478,1555): Physician, teacher, and anatomist

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 8 2007
R. Shane Tubbs
Abstract Jacques Dubois (1478,1555), better known by his Latin cognomen Jacobus Sylvius was one of the great anatomists and teachers of the Renaissance period. His legacy today, however, is marred by his feud with pupil Andreas Vesalius. The story of Sylvius's life provides the modern clinical anatomist with valuable lessons regarding the nature of orthodoxy, conflict, and the evolving nature of "truth." Clin. Anat. 20:868,870, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


A portrait of Aristotle as an anatomist: Historical article

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 5 2007
Enrico Crivellato
Abstract Aristotle is principally known as a theoretical philosopher and logician but he was also an eminent natural scientist. In particular, he should be considered probably the first anatomist in the modern sense of this term and the originator of anatomy as a special branch of knowledge. Although it seems certain that he did not perform dissections of human adult cadavers, he examined human fetal material and, above all, made systematic analysis of animal bodies. His contribution to comparative anatomy, as well as to human anatomy, was enormous. He founded the anatomical discipline on precise descriptive and scientific ground. He also coined a series of technical terms, which are still in use in the modern nomenclature. His observational skill was astounding. Although many of his physiological concepts turned out to be wrong, still his structural description of organs and body parts was often first-rank. The present study will chiefly focus on Aristotle's anatomical work and will provide only essential mention of his complex physiological and philosophical doctrine. The main purpose of this article is indeed to offer to today's anatomists a systematic account of the extraordinary achievements of this great pioneer of our discipline. Clin. Anat. 20:477,485, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz (1836,1921): An anatomist who left his mark

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2007
Andreas Winkelmann
Wilhelm Waldeyer was anatomist, physiologist, and pathologist during the German Empire (the so-called Second Reich). His scientific career left many traces still noticeable today. Not only is he commemorated in "his" pharyngeal lymphoid ring and other eponyms, but he also coined an impressive range of successful medical terms, including "chromosome" and "neuron." Moreover, Waldeyer left truly physical traces by donating parts of his body to his own Institute of Anatomy in Berlin. His scientific production does, however, also include "pseudoscientific" works, notably his questionable research on African brains. Clin. Anat. 20:231,234, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Jean Casimir Félix Guyon,Urologist and anatomist

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 1 2007
Marios Loukas
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Medical professionalism and the clinical anatomist

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 5 2006
Herbert M. Swick
Abstract Medical professionalism has become an important issue for medical education and practice. The core attributes of professionalism derive from the roles and responsibilities of professions and from the nature of medicine as a healing profession. In medical education, most of the focus on professionalism has been directed to the clinical arena, yet it is critically important that the attributes of professionalism be manifested in basic science courses,especially anatomy,as well as in clinical experiences, because the transformation from medical student to physician begins at the outset of medical school. Throughout history, anatomists have exemplified many of the attributes and values of professionalism, and clinical anatomists today still have much to offer. Anatomy faculty have an important responsibility to nurture and exemplify professionalism. Clin. Anat. 19:393,402, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Origin of evolutionary novelty: Examples from limbs

JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
Neil H. Shubin
Abstract Classic hypotheses of vertebrate morphology are being informed by new data and new methods. Long nascent issues, such as the origin of tetrapod limbs, are being explored by paleontologists, molecular biologists, and functional anatomists. Progress in this arena will ultimately come down to knowing how macroevolutionary differences between taxa emerge from the genetic and phenotypic variation that arises within populations. The assembly of limbs over developmental and evolutionary time offers examples of the major processes at work in the origin of novelties. Recent comparative developmental analyses demonstrate that many of the mechanisms used to pattern limbs are ancient. One of the major consequences of this phenomenon is parallelism in the evolution of anatomical structures. Studies of both the fossil record and intrapopulational variation of extant populations reveal regularities in the origin of variation. These examples reveal processes acting at the level of populations that directly affect the patterns of diversity observed at higher taxonomic levels. J. Morphol. 252:15,28, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Pacinian corpuscle in the juxtaoral organ of Chievitz

JOURNAL OF ORAL PATHOLOGY & MEDICINE, Issue 7 2004
Fumio Ide
The juxtaoral organ of Chievitz (JOOC) is a normal permanent anatomical structure located within the soft tissue overlying the angle of the mandible in the buccotemporal space. Although the sensory organ nature of JOOC, repeatedly mentioned in German publications, has been neglected in the last decade by the American anatomists and pathologists, we incidentally found JOOC-type squamous epithelium accompanied by Pacinian corpuscles. This fortuitous finding appears to be the first report of the authentic Paciniform nerve endings within JOOC, supporting its mechanosensory function. [source]


Unresolved issues relating to the Shaking Palsy on the celebration of James Parkinson's 250th birthday

MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue S17 2007
Andrew J. Lees MD
Abstract James Parkinson's Essay on the Shaking Palsy published in 1817 provided the first clear clinical description for the disorder now known throughout the world by his name. His primary reason for publishing his monograph shortly before his retirement from medical practice was to draw the medical profession's attention to a malady, which had not yet been defined as a nosological entity. He also hoped that the eminent anatomists of the day would be stimulated to elucidate the pathological lesion responsible for the clinical picture and that this in turn might lead to a rational cure. The concept of Parkinson's disease remains clinically based and successive generations of neurologists have refined and embellished Parkinson's seminal descriptions. Narrative accounts by affected individuals have also helped physicians understand what it is like to live with Parkinson's disease. For many years, the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease were disputed and there were few clinico-pathological reports with adequate clinical description. However, most neurologists now link severe loss of nigral cells in the ventrolateral tier of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra with bradykinesia and the presence of Lewy bodies in a number of discrete brain stem and cortical regions with Parkinson's disease. There are many unanswered clinical questions relating to Parkinson's disease including the striking heterogeneity and frequent limb asymmetry. It also remains somewhat uncertain whether Parkinson's disease is ever truly unilateral by the time of clinical presentation and whether the hand rather than the foot is the most common site of onset. Hyposmia and visual hallucinations are helpful pointers in distinguishing Parkinson's disease from atypical Parkinsonism and should be specifically enquired about in the history. Simple reliable cultural-specific smell identification batteries are an urgent need and target of clinical research. It remains to be determined whether Alzheimer type dementia as opposed to a dysexecutive syndrome should be considered a part of Parkinson's disease and further detailed clinico-pathological correlative studies are needed. It is also unclear whether autosomal dominant monogenetic Parkinsonism due to synuclein or LRRK-2 mutations will prove to be identical clinically with Parkinson's disease and for the present it is wiser to regard Parkinson's disease as a sporadic disorder. Parkinson was an active political reformer and if alive today would certainly be campaigning to translate more effectively the rich seam of neuroscientific research of the last decade into therapeutic benefits for the rising number of people who are developing the shaking palsy as a result of increasing longevity in the developed world. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]


Sonographic development of the normal foetal thorax and abdomen across gestation

PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 7 2008
Harm-Gerd K. Blaas
Abstract In the following review, the development of the thorax and abdomen, as described by embryologists and anatomists in modern embryological text books, is compared with sonoanatomic descriptions from 2D and 3D ultrasound studies, week by week in the first trimester. The anatomic descriptions are limited to details that are of interest for the understanding of ultrasound examinations. For the second and third trimester, the description of the sonographic development of the thorax and abdomen is divided into thoracic skeleton, diaphragm, lungs, oesophagus, stomach, liver, spleen, bowel and gall bladder. The review is restricted to the normal development, appearance and biometric assessment of these organs; and discusses topical literature. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Anatomy comes to life at AAA annual meeting/EB 2006 , especially for young anatomists

THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
Andrea Pendleton
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Services of thanksgiving at the end of gross anatomy courses: A unique task for anatomists?

THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
Thomas Tschernig
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Die Mittlere Lebensdauer Der Veterinäranatomen an Deutschsprachigen, Tierärztlichen Bildungsstätten

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2 2009
B. Vollmerhaus
Summary The average lifespan of veterinary anatomists was statistically analysed. All teachers who ever taught veterinary anatomy (formerly ,zootomy') and histology/embryology separately or in combination with other subjects in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were included in that circle. The observation period was from the foundation of the veterinary schools up to the present. We find that the average lifespan of this specific group is not different from that of the general population. Comparable previous opinions on the lifespan of anatomists, estimated as shorter than that of the general population by Hyrtl, and longer by Voss, are incorrect. This opportunity is also used to mention our time-honored; especially the early completed and aged colleagues. Zusammenfassung Die Lebensdauer der Veterinäranatomen wird statistisch untersucht. In den Personenkreis sind alle Lehrer einbezogen, die die Fächer Veterinäranatomie (früher Zootomie) und Histologie/Embryologie separat oder in Verbindung mit anderen Fächern jemals in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz gelehrt haben. Der Beobachtungszeitraum reicht von der Gründung von Tierarzneischulen bis zur Gegenwart. Das Fazit lautet, daß sich die mittlere Lebensdauer dieser spezifischen Berufsgruppe nicht von derjenigen der allgemeinen Bevölkerung unterscheidet. Vergleichbare ältere Ansichten über die Lebensdauer der Anatomen , von Hyrtl als kürzer vermutet, von Voss als weit länger berechnet , sind unzutreffend. Die Gelegenheit wird genutzt, unserer Altvorderen, insbesondere der Frühvollendeten und Hochbetagten, zu gedenken. [source]


Magnetic resonance elastography: A review

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 5 2010
Yogesh K. Mariappan
Abstract Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a rapidly developing technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissue. The technology can be considered to be an imaging-based counterpart to palpation, commonly used by physicians to diagnose and characterize diseases. The success of palpation as a diagnostic method is based on the fact that the mechanical properties of tissues are often dramatically affected by the presence of disease processes, such as cancer, inflammation, and fibrosis. MRE obtains information about the stiffness of tissue by assessing the propagation of mechanical waves through the tissue with a special magnetic resonance imaging technique. The technique essentially involves three steps: (1) generating shear waves in the tissue, (2) acquiring MR images depicting the propagation of the induced shear waves, and (3) processing the images of the shear waves to generate quantitative maps of tissue stiffness, called elastograms. MRE is already being used clinically for the assessment of patients with chronic liver diseases and is emerging as a safe, reliable, and noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for staging hepatic fibrosis. MRE is also being investigated for application to pathologies of other organs including the brain, breast, blood vessels, heart, kidneys, lungs, and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review article is to introduce this technology to clinical anatomists and to summarize some of the current clinical applications that are being pursued. Clin. Anat. 23:497,511, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The contribution of the palmaris longus muscle to the strength of thumb abduction

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 4 2010
Hope Gangata
Abstract The palmaris longus muscle (PLM) is described as a weak flexor of the wrist and a tensor of the palmar aponeurosis, but not a thumb abductor. The PLM is believed to aid thumb abduction through its insertion onto the thenar eminence. Two groups, both right hand dominant, were selected from 1,200 sampled participants. The first group comprised of 38 subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM and was used to determine the strength of thumb abduction. The second group comprised of 30 subjects, with bilateral presence of the PLM, and it was used to calculate the effects of hand dominance. A significant number of subjects with bilateral absence of the PLM were observed and undocumented. Using a dynamometer in subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM, the force of thumb abduction was significantly greater on the hand with a PLM than the one without it (P = 0.014), irrespective of hand dominance. In the second sample with bilateral PLM, thumb abduction on the dominant hand was 10% stronger than on the nondominant hand and was similar to the universally accepted average of 10% increase in grip strength of the dominant hand. Thus, 10% was deducted from all the dominant hands, and the force of thumb abduction remained greater on the hand with PLM than the hand without it (P = 0.049). The results of this study demonstrated the PLM to be involved in thumb abduction, and the authors therefore recommend that this action of the muscle be universally accepted by anatomists and hand surgeons. Clin. Anat. 23:431,436, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The frequency of absence of palmaris longus in a South African population of mixed race

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 4 2010
Robert Ndou
Abstract The palmaris longus (PL) is a weak flexor of the wrist that may be harvested as a tendon graft and used in surgical procedures for reconstructive purposes. The PL is congenitally absent in 15% of the worldwide population. However, the frequency of absence varies considerably among different population groups, being as high as 63.9% in the Turkish population and as low as 3% in the black population in the Republic of Congo. In this study, South African persons of mixed race (n = 201) were assessed by two anatomists for the presence of the PL tendon using three clinical tests, namely the Traditional Test, Mishra's Test II, and the Gangata Test. The most reliable of the three tests used was determined using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Of the total number of subjects used, 11.5% had absence (either bilaterally or unilaterally) of the PL tendon. There was a 5.5% bilateral absence of the PL. The study revealed that the PL tendon may present in six different patterns according to the clinical assessment tests applied, the presence or absence of the PL alongside the flexor capi radialis, and the degree of prominence of PL, if present. Using the Kendall's coefficient of concordance, the Mishra's Test II, and the Gangata Test, both involving abduction of the thumb, were found to be most effective in revealing the PL. The frequency of absence of the PL in South Africans of mixed race has been determined. Clin. Anat. 23:437,442, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The celebrated écorchés of honoré Fragonard, part 1: The classical techniques of preparation of dry anatomical specimens in the 18th century

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2010
Christophe Degueurce
Abstract The écorchés that Honoré Fragonard created between 1766 and 1771 have miraculously survived the ravages of time due to a technique of preparation which Fragonard never revealed. The present paper and a subsequent article aim to explain the classical methods used by anatomists of the 18th century (Part 1) and to throw light on the details of Fragonard's method (Part 2). Anatomists of the 18th century who wished to preserve their dissections used a method of mummification, which has now fallen into disuse: drying after immersion in alcohol. This article explains the stages of the classical method utilized by French anatomists of the Age of Enlightenment. The cadaver was selected with care before the vascular system was injected with a colored mixture of wax, animal fat, and plant resins. The body was then dehydrated by immersion in a bath of alcohol, after which it was removed and positioned by means of a wooden framework, which held the body in the desired pose while the alcohol evaporated. The vessels were painted, and finally the body was varnished. Clin. Anat. 23:249,257, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]