Anatomical Study (anatomical + study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Comparative Anatomical Study on Fissura Nasolacrimalis and Nasomaxillaris in Skull of the Korean Native Goat (Capra hircus)

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 3 2001
S. J. Yi
We found specific anatomical strucutre on the fissura nasolacrimalis and fissura nasomaxillaris of the skull of the Korean native goat. It has quite a wide opening on each side of the os nasale and could be classified into four types according to various patterns of articulations of the neighbouring bones. [source]


Anatomical study of the pyramidal process of the palatine bone in relation to implant placement in the posterior maxilla

JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 2 2001
S. P. Lee
The placement of dental implants in the molar region of the maxilla is often difficult because of insufficient bone volume and the inferior bone quality. In order to avoid these limitations, the pillar of bone, which is composed of the maxillary tuberosity, the pyramidal process of the palatine bone and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, was introduced for implant placement. In fact, the pyramidal process is the posterior structure where implants are placed but until now, there is no available data of the size or shape of the pyramidal process. Therefore, we measured the height, anteroposterior distance and mediolateral distance of the pyramidal process and observed the shape of lateral and posterior surfaces of the pyramidal process of 54 Korean edentulous dry skulls in this study. The height was 13·1 mm (male: 13·6 mm, female: 12·4 mm). The anteroposterior distance was 6·5 mm (male: 6·7 mm, female: 6·1 mm). The mediolateral distance was 9·5 mm (male: 9·9 mm, female: 9·0 mm). The most common type was the right-angled triangle in the lateral surface (44·4%) and in the posterior surface (66·7%). There was no statistical significance between the male and the female in all items (P > 0·05). These results provide anatomical features in relation to placement of dental implants in the molar region of the maxilla and would be useful in treatment planning of partially or completely edentulous patients. [source]


Anatomic study and clinical application of distally-based neuro-myocutaneous compound flaps in the leg

MICROSURGERY, Issue 6 2007
Ai-Xi Yu M.D., Ph.D.
Objective: Anatomical study on the anastomosis between the neurovascular axis and the musculocutaneous perforators in leg. The distally-based neuron-myocutaneous flap was used for repairing special patients with soft tissue defect in foot and ankle. Methods: Systematical observation was carried out on 30 injected lower legs about the anastomosis between the neurovascular axis and the musculocutaneous perforators, and we summarized the clinical experiences from February 2004 on 12 cases using distally-based neuron-myocutaneous flap for repairing special patients with soft tissue defect in foot and ankle. Results: The neuron-vessels of sural nerve anastomosed permanently with the musculocutaneous perforators of medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius. There were two to three anastomoses found, respectively. The medial anastomotic branches were found larger in caliber than the lateral ones. The spatium intermuscular branches of the posterior tibial artery gave off their junior branches and anastomosed with the vessels in or out of the soleus muscle. There were two to three muscular branches perforated out of the soleus muscle, with mean caliber 0.5 ± 0.2 mm and accompanying with one to two veins. The neuron-vessels of the superficial fibular nerve gave off alone its course two to three muscular branches to the long extensor muscle digits and the long fibular muscle, and one to two fasciocutaneous to the skin. The diameter of the muscular branches was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm in average. Accounting for the operating models in the 12 cases, we had distally-based sural neuron-myocutaneous flap in 7 cases, saphenous neuron-myocutaneous flap in 4 cases, and superficial fibular neuron-myocutaneous flap in 1 case. All these cases were followed up at least for 2,6 months and had the significant results of nice limb's shape and cured osteomyelitis. Conclusion: Distally-based neuro-myocutaneous flap in leg can live with reliable blood circulation. These flaps offer excellent donor sites for repairing special the soft tissue defect in foot and ankle. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2007. [source]


The arterial supply of the patellar tendon: Anatomical study with clinical implications for knee surgery

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2009
Jack Pang
Abstract The middle-third of the patellar tendon (PT) is well-established as a potential graft for cruciate ligament reconstruction, but there is little anatomical basis for its use. Although studies on PT vascular anatomy have focused on the risk to tendon pedicles from surgical approaches and knee pathophysiology, the significance of its blood supply to grafting has not been adequately explored previously. This investigation explores both the intrinsic and extrinsic arterial anatomy of the PT, as relevant to the PT graft. Ten fresh cadaveric lower limbs underwent angiographic injection of the common femoral artery with radio-opaque lead oxide. Each tendon was carefully dissected, underwent plain radiography and subsequently schematically reconstructed. The PT demonstrated a well-developed and consistent vascularity from three main sources: antero-proximally, mainly by the inferior-lateral genicular artery; antero-distally via a choke-anastomotic arch between the anterior tibial recurrent and inferior medial genicular arteries; and posteriorly via the retro-patellar anastomotic arch in Hoffa's fat pad. Two patterns of pedicles formed this arch: inferior-lateral and descending genicular arteries (Type-I); superior-lateral, inferior-lateral, and superior-medial genicular arteries (Type-II). Both types supplied the posterior PT, with the majority of vessels descending to its middle-third. The middle-third PT has a richer intrinsic vascularity, which may enhance its ingrowth as a graft, and supports its conventional use in cruciate ligament reconstruction. The pedicles supplying the PT are endangered during procedures where Hoffa's fat pad is removed including certain techniques of PT harvest and total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Anat. 22:371,376, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The arterial anatomy of the Achilles tendon: Anatomical study and clinical implications

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2009
Tony M. Chen
Abstract The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon in the lower limb and accounts for almost 20% of all large tendon injuries. Despite numerous published studies describing its blood supply, there has been no uniformity in describing its topography. The current study comprises a detailed anatomical study of both the intrinsic and extrinsic arterial supply of the Achilles tendon, providing the detail sought from studies calling for improved planning of surgical procedures where damage to the vascularity of the Achilles tendon is likely. A dissection, microdissection, histological, and angiographic study was undertaken on 20 cadaveric lower limbs from 16 fresh and four embalmed cadavers. The Achilles tendon is supplied by two arteries, the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. Three vascular territories were identified, with the midsection supplied by the peroneal artery, and the proximal and distal sections supplied by the posterior tibial artery. The midsection of the Achilles tendon was markedly more hypovascular that the rest of the tendon. The Achilles tendon is at highest risk of rupture and surgical complications at its midsection. Individuals with particularly poor supply of the midsection may be at increased risk of tendon rupture, and approaches to the tendon operatively should consider the route of supply by the peroneal artery to this susceptible part of the tendon. Clin. Anat. 22:377,385, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Anatomical study to investigate the feasibility of pedicled nerve, free vessel gastrocnemius muscle transfer for restoration of biceps function

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 4 2001
Lucy Katharine Cogswell
Abstract A challenging problem is the patient with a total brachial plexus injury with nerve root avulsions. In these patients nerve repair is not possible and no local functioning muscles are available for transfer. Current techniques involve either nerve repair using donor nerves from the contralateral limb or free muscle transfer neurotized by intercostal nerves. The problem with both these techniques is that they are dependent on neural regeneration, which is imperfect. To overcome the problem we propose a technique of transferring a distant muscle whilst retaining its neural supply. Gastrocnemius is a strong muscle and one suitable for free tissue transfer. This study assessed the possibility of transferring gastrocnemius on its neural supply by determining the length of nerve available and whether it was possible to dissect the nerve to gastrocnemius from the main body of the sciatic nerve. We found that the latter was possible, and that the length of dissected nerve would allow transfer of the innervated muscle from the calf to the axilla. Clin. Anat. 14:242,245, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


An anatomical study of the rostral part of the equine oral cavity with respect to position and size of a snaffle bit

EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, Issue 3 2003
E. Engelke
First page of article [source]


Soft tissue landmark for ultrasound identification of the sciatic nerve in the infragluteal region: the tendon of the long head of the biceps femoris muscle

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 7 2009
J. BRUHN
Background and objectives: The sciatic nerve block represents one of the more difficult ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Easy and reliable internal ultrasound landmarks would be helpful for localization of the sciatic nerve. Earlier, during ultrasound-guided posterior approaches to the infragluteal sciatic nerve, the authors recognized a hyperechoic structure at the medial border of the long head of biceps femoris muscle (BFL). The present study was performed to determine whether this is a potential internal landmark to identify the infragluteal sciatic nerve. Methods: The depth and the thickness of this hyperechoic structure, its relationship with the sciatic nerve and the ultrasound visibility of both were recorded in the proximal upper leg of 21 adult volunteers using a linear ultrasound probe in the range of 7,13 MHz. The findings were verified by an anatomical study in two cadavers. Results: The hyperechoic structure at the medial border of the BFL extended in a dorsoventral direction between 1.4±0.6 cm (mean±SD) and 2.8±0.8 cm deep from the surface, with a width of 2.2±0.9 mm. Between 2.6±0.9 and 10.0±1.5 cm distal to the subgluteal fold, the sciatic nerve was consistently identified directly at the ventral end of the hyperechoic structure in all volunteers. The anatomical study revealed that this hyperechoic structure corresponds to tendinous fibres inside and at the medial border of the BFL. Conclusion: The hyperechoic BFL tendon might be a reliable soft tissue landmark for ultrasound localization of the infragluteal sciatic nerve. [source]


Twitch and nontwitch motoneuron subgroups in the oculomotor nucleus of monkeys receive different afferent projections

THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Richard Wasicky
Abstract Motoneurons in the primate oculomotor nucleus can be divided into two categories, those supplying twitch muscle fibers and those supplying nontwitch muscle fibers. Recent studies have shown that twitch motoneurons lie within the classical oculomotor nucleus (nIII), and nontwitch motoneurons lie around the borders. Nontwitch motoneurons of medial and inferior rectus are in the C group dorsomedial to nIII, whereas those of inferior oblique and superior rectus lie near the midline are in the S group. In this anatomical study, afferents to the twitch and nontwitch subgroups of nIII have been anterogradely labeled by injections of tritiated leucine into three areas and compared. 1) Abducens nucleus injections gave rise to silver grain deposits over all medial rectus subgroups, both twitch and nontwitch. 2) Laterally placed vestibular complex injections that included the central superior vestibular nucleus labeled projections only in twitch motoneuron subgroups. However, injections into the parvocellular medial vestibular nucleus (mvp), or Y group, resulted in labeled terminals over both twitch and nontwitch motoneurons. 3) Pretectal injections that included the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), and the olivary pretectal nucleus (OLN), labeled terminals only over nontwitch motoneurons, in the contralateral C group and in the S group. Our study demonstrates that twitch and nontwitch motoneuron subgroups do not receive identical afferent inputs. They can be controlled either in parallel, or independently, suggesting that they have basically different functions. We propose that twitch motoneurons primarily drive eye movements and nontwitch motoneurons the tonic muscle activity, as in gaze holding and vergence, possibly involving a proprioceptive feedback system. J. Comp. Neurol. 479:117,129, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The Superior Petrosal Triangle as a Constant Anatomical Landmark for Subtemporal Middle Fossa Orientation,

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 8 2003
Robert Sean Miller MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis Anatomical landmarks including the arcuate eminence and the superficial petrosal nerve serve as orienting landmarks for middle fossa dissection. However, because of considerable variation among patients, these landmarks are not always readily identifiable. We expand on a previously described method for identifying the head of the malleus as a constant anatomical landmark to optimize exposure when employing a middle fossa approach. Methods We completed an anatomical study using 10 preserved human cadaveric temporal bones to define the anatomical relationship among the root of the zygoma, the posterior,lateral lip of the foramen spinosum, and the bony tegmen over the head of the malleus. Subsequently, 5 fresh whole human cadaveric heads (10 temporal bones) were dissected using a surgically oriented anterior petrosectomy,middle fossa approach to evaluate the consistency of localizing the head of the malleus. Results We defined the superior petrosal triangle as a stable anatomical relationship. Our cadaveric data demonstrated that the distance from the root of the zygoma to the head of the malleus was 18.7 mm (SD = 1.7 mm) and the distance from the foramen spinosum to the head of the malleus was 19.2 mm (SD = 1.0 mm). The intersection of an arc transcribed 19 mm from the root of the zygoma and an arc transcribed 19 mm from the foramen spinosum localized the head of the malleus within 2.5 mm (SD = 2.4 mm). Conclusions The landmarks defined by the superior petrosal triangle represent a means to localize the bony tegmen over the head of the malleus. Identification of the head of the malleus as a landmark in middle fossa surgery when other landmarks are not recognizable optimizes patient safety and surgeon confidence during complex surgical procedures. [source]


Is There a Two-Humped Stage in the Embryonic Development of the Dromedary?

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 5 2010
J. Kinne
Summary It has been postulated that the one-humped (Arabian) dromedary and the two-humped (Bactrian) camel originated from a single ancestor. Consequently, the dromedary was considered a breed of the two-humped camel, based on an anatomical study by Lombardini L, 1879: Ann. Del. Universita Toscane, 259, 147, who described a reduced second hump like structure in foetal and adult dromedaries. To resolve this lingering issue, we analysed dromedary foetuses and calves. In contrast to the situation in two-humped camels, we never observed any rudimentary second hump in the dromedary foetuses or calves. [source]


Anatomical and Descriptive Study of the Radial Extensor Muscle (M. Extensor Carpi Radialis)

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 6 2000
F. Cossu
Summary The M. extensores carpi radiales have been studied in detail in humans. The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative anatomical study of these muscles using four species , rabbit, cat, dog and sheep , and to propose a ,systematization' in a few standard models according to the morphological variations seen. In these species, there is marked morphological evolution, with two muscles in humans, one in sheep and a more or less distinct division of the muscle in the rabbit, cat and dog. Examination of the vascularization and nerve supply enables us to determine degrees of division in species with similar muscle morphology. Thus we were able to distinguish three morphological types which allow us to infer the morphological evolution of the M. extensores carpi radiales and to estimate the point at which one muscle became two. However, there is a strong chance that some process of convergence may have occurred, and in pentadactyl species many elements represent the plesiomorphis and are therefore of little use in constructing a classification on the basis of evolution. [source]


Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia: A five-hundred year-long lesson

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 7 2010
Francesco Cappello
Abstract Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia was born five centuries ago in Regalbuto, a small town in the center of Sicily. After his medical course in Padua, under the guidance of Vesalius and Fallopius, he gained international fame as a physician and was recruited as a Professor of human anatomy in Naples and later in Palermo. He is remembered as "the new Galen" or "the Sicilian Hippocrates." He contributed to the knowledge of human anatomy through the description of single bones rather than the whole skeleton. In particular, he was the first to describe the "stapes," the "lesser wings of the sphenoid" and various other structures in the head (probably the pharyngotympanic tube) as well as in the reproductive system (corpora cavernosa and seminal vesicles). He was also a pioneer in the study of forensic medicine, hygiene, surgical pathology, and teratology. As Protomedicus of Sicily, he developed the scientific culture in this country. During those years, he faced the spread of malaria and plague with competence and authoritativeness. Indeed, he was one of the first physicians to suppose that certain diseases could be transmitted between individuals, therefore, introducing revolutionary measures of prevention. He is remembered for his intellectual authority and honesty. Five-hundred years after his birth, his teaching is still alive. In this article, we survey the life and contribution of this pioneer of early anatomical study. Clin. Anat. 23:743,749, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Anatomic study of the prechiasmatic sulcus and its surgical implications

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 6 2010
Bharat Guthikonda
Abstract To address a lack of anatomical descriptions in the literature regarding the prechiasmatic sulcus, we conducted an anatomical study of this sulcal region and discuss its clinical relevance to cranial base surgery. Our systematic morphometric analysis includes the variable types of chiasmatic sulcus and a classification schema that has surgical implications. We examined the sulcal region in 100 dry skulls; bony relationships measured included the interoptic distance, sulcal length/width, planum sphenoidale length, and sulcal angle. The varied anatomy of the prechiasmatic sulcii was classified as four types in combinations of wide to narrow, steep to flat. Its anterior border is the limbus sphenoidale at the posterior aspect of the planum sphenoidale. The sulcus extends posteriorly to the tuberculum sellae and laterally to the posteromedial aspect of each optic strut. Averages included an interoptic distance (19.3 ± 2.4 mm), sulcal length (7.45 ± 1.27 mm), planum sphenoidale length (19 ± 2.35 mm), and sulcal angle (31 ± 14.2 degrees). Eighteen percent of skulls had a chiasmatic ridge, a bony projection over the chiasmatic sulcus. The four types of prechiasmatic sulcus in our classification hold potential surgical relevance. Near the chiasmatic ridge, meningiomas may be hidden from the surgeon's view during a subfrontal or pterional approach. Preoperative evaluation by thin-cut CT scans of this region can help detect this ridge. Clin. Anat. 23:622,628, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


An anatomical study of the muscles that attach to the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 8 2009
Kosuke Matsunaga
Abstract The masticatory muscles are generally described as the muscles that originate from the cranium and insert on the mandible. Some of the masticatory muscles also insert into the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint. Although there are numerous reports of studies on the attachment of the fibers to the disc, most reports discuss only one muscle. We have shown that the masticatory muscles are not simply a group of clearly independent muscles, but that these muscles contain various transitional muscle bundles among the major muscles. From this point of view, we carried out minute dissection of the collective muscles and muscle bundles surrounding the temporomandibular joint. We dissected 40 head halves of 20 Japanese cadavers (10 males, 10 females: average 79.6 yr). After complete removal of the bony elements, the structures surrounding the temporomandibular joint were investigated en-block. In all specimens, the superior surface of the upper head of lateral pterygoid and the midmedial muscle bundle were attached to the disc. In some specimens, the discotemporal bundle, zygomaticomandibularis, and masseter were attached to the anterior surface of the disc. The total vector of these muscles pulls the disc anteriorly. In contrast, the vector of the muscles to the condylar processes of the mandible pulls the mandible medially. From these observations, it seems that the fibers, which attach to the disc act to steady the disc against the masticatory movement. Clin. Anat. 22:932,940, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The arterial anatomy of the Achilles tendon: Anatomical study and clinical implications

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2009
Tony M. Chen
Abstract The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon in the lower limb and accounts for almost 20% of all large tendon injuries. Despite numerous published studies describing its blood supply, there has been no uniformity in describing its topography. The current study comprises a detailed anatomical study of both the intrinsic and extrinsic arterial supply of the Achilles tendon, providing the detail sought from studies calling for improved planning of surgical procedures where damage to the vascularity of the Achilles tendon is likely. A dissection, microdissection, histological, and angiographic study was undertaken on 20 cadaveric lower limbs from 16 fresh and four embalmed cadavers. The Achilles tendon is supplied by two arteries, the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. Three vascular territories were identified, with the midsection supplied by the peroneal artery, and the proximal and distal sections supplied by the posterior tibial artery. The midsection of the Achilles tendon was markedly more hypovascular that the rest of the tendon. The Achilles tendon is at highest risk of rupture and surgical complications at its midsection. Individuals with particularly poor supply of the midsection may be at increased risk of tendon rupture, and approaches to the tendon operatively should consider the route of supply by the peroneal artery to this susceptible part of the tendon. Clin. Anat. 22:377,385, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Avulsion of ascending lumbar and iliolumbar veins in anterior spinal surgery: An anatomical study

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 5 2007
G. Sivakumar
Abstract To expose the disc between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae in anterior spinal surgery, left to right retraction of inferior vena cava and aorta is required. This manoeuvre can be complicated by venous haemorrhage that, in most cases, is due to avulsion of the left ascending lumbar vein (ALV) or the left iliolumbar vein (ILV). We dissected 23 embalmed cadavers to assess the factors that contribute to the risk of tearing these two veins during retraction. We describe a triangular region that should help surgeons in identifying the ALV and ILV. This triangle is defined by the lateral border of the common iliac vein, the medial border of the psoas major muscle, and the superior end-plate of the L5 vertebral body. We observed that 3 cm between the termination of the left ALV, or a common stem with the ILV, and the termination of the common iliac vein is the critical distance, less than which the risk of venous avulsion is highest. Although the sample considered is small, our study seems to suggest that male patients tend to have a higher risk of venous avulsion than female patients. Clin. Anat. 20:553,555, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Restoration of motor function of the deep fibular (peroneal) nerve by direct nerve transfer of branches from the tibial nerve: An anatomical study,

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 3 2004
Kale D. Bodily
Abstract Traction injuries of the common fibular (peroneal) nerve frequently result in significant morbidity due to tibialis anterior muscle paralysis and the associated loss of ankle dorsiflexion. Because current treatment options are often unsuccessful or unsatisfactory, other treatment approaches need to be explored. In this investigation, the anatomical feasibility of an alternative option, consisting of nerve transfer of motor branches from the tibial nerve to the deep fibular nerve, was studied. In ten cadaveric limbs, the branching pattern, length, and diameter of motor branches of the tibial nerve in the proximal leg were characterized; nerve transfer of each of these motor branches was then simulated to the proximal deep fibular nerve. A consistent, reproducible pattern of tibial nerve innervation was seen with minor variability. Branches to the flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus muscles were determined to be adequate, based on their branch point, branch pattern, and length, for direct nerve transfer in all specimens. Other branches, including those to the tibialis posterior, popliteus, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were not consistently adequate for direct nerve transfer for injuries extending to the bifurcation of the common fibular nerve or distal to it. For neuromas of the common fibular nerve that do not extend as far distally, branches to the soleus and lateral head of the gastrocnemius may be adequate for direct transfer if the intramuscular portions of these nerves are dissected. This study confirms the anatomical feasibility of direct nerve transfer using nerves to toe-flexor muscles as a treatment option to restore ankle dorsiflexion in cases of common fibular nerve injury. Clin. Anat. 17:201,205, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Anatomical variations of the sural nerve

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 4 2002
Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh
Abstract An anatomical study of the formation of the sural nerve (SN) was carried out on 76 Thai cadavers. The results revealed that 67.1% of the SNs were formed by the union of the medial sural cutaneous nerve (MSCN) and the lateral sural cutaneous nerve (LSCN); the MSCN and LSCN are branches of the tibial and the common fibular (peroneal) nerves, respectively. The site of union was variable: 5.9% in the popliteal fossa, 1.9% in the middle third of the leg, 66.7% in the lower third of the leg, and 25.5% at or just below the ankle. One SN (0.7%) was formed by the union of the MSCN and a different branch of the common fibular nerve, running parallel and medial to but not connecting with the LSCN, which joined the MSCN in the lower third of the leg. The remaining 32.2% of the SNs were a direct continuation of the MSCN. The SNs ranged from 6,30 cm (mean = 14.41 cm) in length with a range in diameter of 3.5,3.8 mm (mean = 3.61 mm), and were easily located 1,1.5 cm posterior to the posterior border of the lateral malleolus. The LSCNs were 15,32 cm long (mean = 22.48 cm) with a diameter between 2.7,3.4 mm (mean = 3.22 mm); the MSCNs were 17,31 cm long (mean = 20.42 cm) with a diameter between 2.3,2.5 mm (mean = 2.41 mm). Clinically, the SN is widely used for both diagnostic (biopsy and nerve conduction velocity studies) and therapeutic purposes (nerve grafting) and the LSCN is used for a sensate free flap; thus, a detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the SN and its contributing nerves are important in carrying out these and other procedures. Clin. Anat. 15:263,266, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Review of the anatomic concepts in relation to the retrorectal space and endopelvic fascia: Waldeyer's fascia and the rectosacral fascia

COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 3 2008
J. García-Armengol
Abstract Objective, A precise anatomical study of the fascias within the retrorectal space is reported, analyzing and clarifying the anatomical concepts previously employed to describe Waldeyer's and the rectosacral fascia. Method, The pelvis was dissected in 15 cadavers (10 males and five females). All specimens were divided in the median sagittal plane including the middle axis of the anal canal, to allow a correct visualization of and access to the retrorectal space. Results, The retrorectal space was limited anteriorly by the rectum and posterior mesorectum covered by a fine visceral fascia, and posteriorly by the sacrum covered by the parietal presacral fascia. The rectosacral fascia divided the retrorectal space into inferior and superior portions in 80% of the male and 100% of the female specimens. It originated from the presacral parietal fascia at the level of S2 in 15%, S3 in 38% and S4 in 46% of specimens. In all cases it passed caudally to join the rectal visceral fascia 3,5 cm above the anorectal junction. As described by Waldeyer, the floor of the retrorectal space is formed by the fusion of the presacral parietal fascia and the rectal visceral fascia and lies above the levator ani muscle at the level of the anorectal junction. Conclusion, The rectosacral fascia divides the retrorectal space into inferior and superior portions. This must be differentiated from Waldeyer's description of the fascia lying in the inferior limit of the retrorectal space, formed by the fusion of the rectal visceral and parietal fascias. [source]