Anatomical Research (anatomical + research)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Diffusion of innovations: Anatomical informatics and iPods

Robert B. Trelease
Abstract Over the course of many centuries, evolving scientific methods and technologies have advanced the study of anatomy. More recently, such dissemination of innovations has been formally studied in multidisciplinary psychosocial contexts, yielding useful knowledge about underlying principles and processes. We review these precepts and show how diffusion of innovations theory and principles apply to the development and dissemination of anatomical information methods and resources. We consider the factors affecting the late-20th-century dissemination of personal computers and World Wide Web hypermedia into widespread use in anatomical research and instruction. We report on the results of a small experiment in applied diffusion, the development and Internet-based distribution of learning resources for a popular, widely distributed personal media player. With these wearable microcomputer devices already in use by a variety of students, new opportunities exist for widespread dissemination of anatomical information. The continuing evolution of wearable computing devices underscores the need for maintaining anatomical information transportability via standardized data formats. Anat Rec (Part B: New Anat) 289B:160,168, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Connections of eye-saccade-related areas within mesencephalic reticular formation with the optic tectum in goldfish

Maria A. Luque
Abstract Physiological studies demonstrate that separate sites within the mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) can evoke eye saccades with different preferred directions. Furthermore, anatomical research suggests that a tectoreticulotectal circuit organized in accordance with the tectal eye movement map is present. However, whether the reticulotectal projection shifts with the gaze map present in the MRF is unknown. We explored this question in goldfish, by injecting biotin dextran amine within MRF sites that evoked upward, downward, oblique, and horizontal eye saccades. Then, we analyzed the labeling in the optic tectum. The main findings can be summarized as follows. 1) The MRF and the optic tectum were connected by separate axons of the tectobulbar tract. 2) The MRF was reciprocally connected mainly with the ipsilateral tectal lobe, but also with the contralateral one. 3) The MRF received projections chiefly from neurons located within intermediate and deep tectal layers. In addition, the MRF projections terminated primarily within the intermediate tectal layer. 4) The distribution of labeled neurons in the tectum shifted with the different MRF sites in a manner consistent with the tectal motor map. The area containing these cells was targeted by a high-density reticulotectal projection. In addition to this high-density topographic projection, there was a low-density one spread throughout the tectum. 5) Occasionally, boutons were observed adjacent to tectal labeled neurons. We conclude that the organization of the reticulotectal circuit is consistent with the functional topography of the MRF and that the MRF participates in a tectoreticulotectal feedback circuit. J. Comp. Neurol. 500:6,19, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Evaluating anatomical research in surgery: a prospective comparison of cadaveric and living anatomical studies of the abdominal wall

Warren M. Rozen
Abstract Background:, Cadaveric research has widely influenced our understanding of clinical anatomy. However, while many soft-tissue structures remain quiescent after death, other tissues, such as viscera, undergo structural and functional changes that may influence their use in predicting living anatomy. In particular, our understanding of vascular anatomy has been based upon cadaveric studies, in which vascular tone and flow do not match the living situation. Methods:, An angiographic analysis of the abdominal wall vasculature was performed using plain film and computed tomography angiography in 60 cadaveric hemi-abdominal walls (from 31 cadavers) and 140 living hemi-abdominal walls (in 70 patients). The deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and all of its perforating branches larger than 0.5 mm were analysed for number, calibre and location. Results:, Both large, named vessels and small calibre vessels show marked differences between living anatomy and cadaveric specimens. The DIEA was of larger diameter (4.2 mm versus 3.1 mm, P < 0.01) and had more detectable branches in the cadaveric specimens. Perforators were of greater calibre (diameter 1.5 mm versus 0.8 mm, P < 0.01) and were more plentiful (16 versus 6, P < 0.01) in cadaveric specimens. However, the location of individual vessels was similar. Conclusions:, Cadaveric anatomy displays marked differences to in vivo anatomy, with the absence of living vascular dynamics affecting vessel diameters in cadaveric specimens. Blood vessels are of greater measurable calibre in cadaveric specimens than in the living. Consequently, cadaveric anatomy should be interpreted with consideration of post-mortem changes, while living anatomical studies, particularly with the use of imaging technologies, should be embraced in anatomical research. [source]

A review of the thoracic splanchnic nerves and celiac ganglia

Marios Loukas
Abstract Anatomical variation of the thoracic splanchnic nerves is as diverse as any structure in the body. Thoracic splanchnic nerves are derived from medial branches of the lower seven thoracic sympathetic ganglia, with the greater splanchnic nerve comprising the more cranial contributions, the lesser the middle branches, and the least splanchnic nerve usually T11 and/or T12. Much of the early anatomical research of the thoracic splanchnic nerves revolved around elucidating the nerve root level contributing to each of these nerves. The celiac plexus is a major interchange for autonomic fibers, receiving many of the thoracic splanchnic nerve fibers as they course toward the organs of the abdomen. The location of the celiac ganglia are usually described in relation to surrounding structures, and also show variation in size and general morphology. Clinically, the thoracic splanchnic nerves and celiac ganglia play a major role in pain management for upper abdominal disorders, particularly chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Splanchnicectomy has been a treatment option since Mallet-Guy became a major proponent of the procedure in the 1940s. Splanchnic nerve dissection and thermocoagulation are two common derivatives of splanchnicectomy that are commonly used today. Celiac plexus block is also a treatment option to compliment splanchnicectomy in pain management. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided celiac injection and percutaneous methods of celiac plexus block have been heavily studied and are two important methods used today. For both splanchnicectomies and celiac plexus block, the innovation of ultrasonographic imaging technology has improved efficacy and accuracy of these procedures and continues to make pain management for these diseases more successful. Clin. Anat. 23:512,522, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Letter in response to Winkelmann and Schagen and Hildebrandt regarding: Hermann Stieve's clinical anatomical research and the history of anatomy in the Third Reich

William E. Seidelman
No abstract is available for this article. [source]