Anatomical Relationship (anatomical + relationship)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The para-aortic ridge plays a key role in the formation of the renal, adrenal and gonadal vascular systems

Sumio Isogai
Abstract Renal, adrenal, gonadal, ureteral and inferior phrenic arteries vary in their level of origin and in their calibre, number and precise anatomical relationship to other structures. Studies of the origin and early development of these arteries have evoked sharp disputes. The ladder theory of Felix, which states that ,All the mesonephric arteries may persist; from them are formed the phrenic, suprarenal, renal and internal spermatic arteries' has been generally quoted in the anatomical textbooks without rigorous verification for 100 years. In this study, we re-examined this theory by performing micro-injection of dye and resin into rat (Rattus norvegicus) embryos. Our results revealed that most of the mesonephric arteries had degenerated before the metanephros started its ascent. The definitive renal, adrenal, gonadal, ureteral and inferior phrenic arteries appeared as new branches from the gonadal artery and/or directly from the abdominal aorta to the para-aortic ridge. Coincidental to this, the anatomical architecture of the inter-renal vascular cage, which consists of the interlobar and arcuate arteries and their collateral veins, was completed within the developing metanephros. We demonstrated that the delicate renal vascular cage switched from the primary renal artery to the definitive renal artery and that the route of venous drainage changed from the posterior cardinal vein to the inferior (caudal) vena cava. [source]

Serotonergic and Catecholaminergic Interactions with Co-Localised Dopamine-Melatonin Neurones in the Hypothalamus of the Female Turkey

S. W. Kang
Serotonin and catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine) have important roles as neurotransmitters in avian reproduction, but their anatomical relationship to the neuroendocrine circuitry that regulates reproduction is poorly understood. Our previous studies have shown that co-localised dopamine-melatonin (DA-MEL) neurones in the avian premammillary nucleus (PMM) are active during periods of photoresponsiveness and, therefore, are potentially photosensitive neurones. Because serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurotransmitters are important regulators of reproductive function in the female turkey, we hypothesised that the serotonergic/catecholaminergic neurones within the brainstem might interact with PMM DA-MEL neurones and constitute an important circuit for reproductive function. To examine this possible interaction, the retrograde fluorescent tract tracer, 1,1,dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3,-tetramethyleindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was injected into the PMM, and combined with serotonin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine ,-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenyl N -methyltransferse (PNMT) immunocytochemistry to reveal neuroanatomical connections. Changes in the activities of serotonergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic and noradrenergic neuronal systems projecting to the PMM were measured at different reproductive states with in situ hybridisation (ISH) techniques, using tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and TH mRNA expression, respectively. Cells labelled with DiI were found in anatomically discrete areas in or near the hypothalamus and the brainstem. Double immunocytochemistry confirmed that there were serotonin, DBH and PNMT fibres in close apposition to DA-MEL neurones. TPH2 mRNA expression in serotonin neurones was found in several nuclei, and its most abundant mRNA expression was seen in the nucleus Locus ceruleus of laying and incubating hens. TH mRNA expression levels in the six catecholaminegic areas labelled with DiI was measured across the different reproductive states. In the nucleus tractus solitarius (adrenergic), the highest level of TH mRNA expression was found in photorefractory hens and the lowest level in incubating hens. These observed patterns of serotonin/catecholamine neuronal distribution and their variable interactions with PMM DA-MEL neurones during different reproductive states may offer a significant neuroanatomical basis for understanding the control of avian reproductive seasonality. [source]

Morphological Evidence for Direct Interaction Between Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Neurones and Astroglial Cells in the Human Hypothalamus

M. Baroncini
In rodents, there is compelling evidence indicating that dynamic cell-to-cell communications involving cross talk between astroglial cells (such as astrocytes and specialised ependymoglial cells known as tanycytes) and neurones are important in regulating the secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neurohormone that controls both sexual maturation and adult reproductive function. However, whether such astroglial cell,GnRH neurone interactions occur in the human brain is not known. In the present study, we used immunofluorescence to examine the anatomical relationship between GnRH neurones and glial cells within the hypothalamus of five women. Double-staining experiments demonstrated the ensheathment of GnRH neurone perikarya by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocyte processes in the periventricular zone of the tuberal region of the hypothalamus. GFAP immunoreactivity did not overlap that of GnRH at the GnRH neurone's projection site (i.e. the median eminence of the hypothalamus). Rather, human GnRH neuroendocrine fibres were found to be closely associated with vimentin or nestin-immunopositive radial gial processes likely belonging to tanycytes. In line with these light microscopy data, ultrastructural examination of GnRH-immunoreactive neurones showed numerous glial cells in direct apposition to pre-embedding-labelled GnRH cell bodies and/or dendrites in the infundibular nucleus, whereas postembedding immunogold-labelled GnRH nerve terminals were often seen to be enwrapped by glial cell processes in the median eminence. GnRH nerve button were sometimes visualised in close proximity to fenestrated pituitary portal blood capillaries and/or evaginations of the basal lamina that delineate the pericapillary space. In summary, these data demonstrate that GnRH neurones morphologically interact with astrocytes and tanycytes in the human brain and provide evidence that glial cells may contribute physiologically to the process by which the neuroendocrine brain controls the function of GnRH neurones in humans. [source]

The Hypothalamic Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor and Its Relationship to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormones Neurones During Postnatal Development

S. S. Daftary
Abstract Reproduction in vertebrates is controlled by hypophysiotropic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. Pulsatile GnRH release increases during reproductive development, resulting in the onset and progression of puberty and, ultimately, the acquisition and maintenance of adult reproductive function. These changes in GnRH release are largely due to inputs to GnRH cells from other factors, including the neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Here, molecular studies were undertaken to quantify expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) and mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH)-median eminence (ME), the sites of GnRH perikarya and neuroterminals, respectively. Immunocytochemical studies were also carried out to study the anatomical relationship between the IGF-1R and GnRH neurones. Experiments were performed in a developmental context using neonatal (P5), peripubertal (,P30) and adult (P60) male and female mice. We found that IGF-1R mRNA levels in the POA-AH were significantly different among all age groups, with levels higher at P60 then P5 or ,P30. Levels of IGF-1R mRNA in the MBH-ME were lower at P5 than ,P30 or P60. Qualitative observations suggested that IGF-1R immunoreactivity in POA-AH increased from P5 through P60. Quantitative double-label immunocytochemistry studies showed that GnRH perikarya expressed IGF-1R. Taken together, the results demonstrate expression of, and developmental changes in, IGF-1R gene and protein in brain regions containing GnRH and other neuroendocrine cells. Moreover, the novel finding that the IGF-1R is expressed on GnRH perikarya in vivo suggests a potential direct anatomical locus where IGF-1 can regulate reproductive development and function. [source]

Glial,Neuronal,Endothelial Interactions are Involved in the Control of GnRH Secretion

Vincent PrevotArticle first published online: 8 APR 200
Abstract In recent years compelling evidence has been provided that cell,cell interactions involving non-neuronal cells, such as glial and endothelial cells, are important in regulating the secretion of GnRH, the neuropeptide that controls both sexual development and adult reproductive function. Modification of the anatomical relationship that exist between GnRH nerve endings and glial cell processes in the external zone of the median eminence modulates the access of GnRH nerve terminals to the portal vasculature during the oestrous cycle. The establishment of direct neuro-haemal junctions between GnRH neuroendocrine terminals and the portal vasculature on the day of pro-oestrus may be critical for the transfer of GnRH upon its release into the fenestrated capillaries of the median eminence. Notwithstanding the importance of these plastic rearrangements, glial and endothelial cells also regulate GnRH neuronal function via specific cell,cell signalling molecules. While endothelial cells of the median eminence use nitric oxide to effect this regulatory control, astrocytes employ several growth factors, and in particular those of the EGF family and their erbB receptors to facilitate GnRH release during sexual development. Loss of function of each of these erbB receptors involved in the astroglial control of GnRH secretion leads to delayed sexual development. It is clear that regulation of GnRH secretion by cell,cell communication mechanisms other than transsynaptic inputs is an important component of the central neuroendocrine process controlling mammalian reproduction. [source]

Segmental Pulmonary Vein Ablation: Success Rates with and without Exclusion of Areas Adjacent to the Esophagus

Background: Catheter ablation has become the first line of therapy in patients with symptomatic recurrent, drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). The occurrence of an atrioesophageal fistula is a rare but serious complication after AF-ablation procedures. This risk is even present during segmental pulmonary vein (PV) ablation procedures because the esophagus does frequently have a very close anatomical relationship to the right or left PV ostia. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the exclusion of areas adjacent to the esophagus does have a significant effect on the success rates after segmental pulmonary vein ablation procedures. Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF were enrolled in this study. In all patients, a segmental PV ablation procedure was performed. The procedures were facilitated by a 3D real-time visualization of the circumferential mapping catheter placed in the pulmonary veins using the NavX system (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA; open irrigated tip ablation catheter; 43C; 30 W). In 21 patients, a complete ostial PV isolation was attempted regardless of the anatomical relationship between the ablation sites and the esophagus (group A). In the remaining 22 patients, the esophagus was marked by a stomach tube and areas adjacent to the esophagus were excluded from the ablation procedure (group B). After discharge, patients were scheduled for repeated visits at the arrhythmia clinic at 1, 3, and 6 months after the ablation procedure. Results: The segmental pulmonary vein ablation procedure could be performed as planned in all patients. In group A, all pulmonary veins could be isolated successfully in 14 out of 21 patients (67%). A mean number of 3.7 pulmonary veins (SD 0.5 PVs) were isolated per patient. The main reasons for an incomplete PV isolation were: small diameter of the PVs, side branches close to the ostium, or poorly accessible PV ostia. In group B, all PVs could be isolated successfully in only 12 out of 22 patients (55%; P = 0.54). A mean number of 3.2 PVs (SD 0.9 PVs) were isolated per patient (P = 0.05). This was mostly due to a close anatomical relationship to the esophagus. The ablation strategy had to be modified in 16/22 patients in group B because of a close anatomical relationship between the left (n = 10) or right (n = 6) PV ostia and the esophagus. After 3 months, the percentage of patients free from an AF recurrence was not significantly different between the two groups (90% vs 95%; P = 0.61). After 6 months, there was no significant difference between the success rates either (81% vs 82%; P = 1.0). There were no major complications in both groups. Conclusions: The exclusion of areas adjacent to the esophagus results in a moderately higher percentage of incompletely isolated PVs. However, it does not have a significant effect on the AF recurrence rate during short-term and mid-term follow-up. [source]

The Superior Petrosal Triangle as a Constant Anatomical Landmark for Subtemporal Middle Fossa Orientation,

Robert Sean Miller MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis Anatomical landmarks including the arcuate eminence and the superficial petrosal nerve serve as orienting landmarks for middle fossa dissection. However, because of considerable variation among patients, these landmarks are not always readily identifiable. We expand on a previously described method for identifying the head of the malleus as a constant anatomical landmark to optimize exposure when employing a middle fossa approach. Methods We completed an anatomical study using 10 preserved human cadaveric temporal bones to define the anatomical relationship among the root of the zygoma, the posterior,lateral lip of the foramen spinosum, and the bony tegmen over the head of the malleus. Subsequently, 5 fresh whole human cadaveric heads (10 temporal bones) were dissected using a surgically oriented anterior petrosectomy,middle fossa approach to evaluate the consistency of localizing the head of the malleus. Results We defined the superior petrosal triangle as a stable anatomical relationship. Our cadaveric data demonstrated that the distance from the root of the zygoma to the head of the malleus was 18.7 mm (SD = 1.7 mm) and the distance from the foramen spinosum to the head of the malleus was 19.2 mm (SD = 1.0 mm). The intersection of an arc transcribed 19 mm from the root of the zygoma and an arc transcribed 19 mm from the foramen spinosum localized the head of the malleus within 2.5 mm (SD = 2.4 mm). Conclusions The landmarks defined by the superior petrosal triangle represent a means to localize the bony tegmen over the head of the malleus. Identification of the head of the malleus as a landmark in middle fossa surgery when other landmarks are not recognizable optimizes patient safety and surgeon confidence during complex surgical procedures. [source]

Anatomical considerations of the deep peroneal nerve for biopsy of the proximal fibula in Thais

S. Chompoopong
Abstract The present research aims to study the anatomical relationship between the deep peroneal nerve and the neighboring structures in the proximal fibula of Thais, with special regard to define the boundaries of a "safe" area when performing a biopsy of the proximal fibula. The proximal parts of 118 legs of 59 formalin-embalmed adult cadavers (31 males, 28 females) were investigated. The distance from the apex of the fibular head to the point of origin of the deep peroneal nerve, the distance from the most lateral prominence of the fibular head to the anterior intermuscular septum, and the angle between the deep peroneal nerve and the fibula axis were measured. The results showed that the mean distances from the apex of the fibular head to the point of origin of the deep peroneal nerve was 28.4 4.8 mm and from the most lateral prominence of the fibular head to the anterior intermuscular septum was 14.9 2.0 mm. The mean angle between the deep peroneal nerve and the fibular axis was 28.1 7.2. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a "safe" area for bone biopsy in the proximal fibula of Thais is palpable anterior to the fibular head and downward laterally, not lower than 28 mm or 8% of the fibular length and from the most lateral prominence transverse medially not further than 14 mm. The inferior boundary of this area is an oblique line of the deep peroneal nerve about 28 from the fibular axis. Clin. Anat. 22:256,260, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Mushroom cloud appearance of hemorrhage into the superficial anterior abdominal wall associated with an underlying rectus sheath hematoma

Nadim Gulamhuseinwala
Abstract We present a case of rectus sheath hematoma compounded by anterior abdominal wall haemorrhage. Its clinical and anatomical relationship is discussed. Clin. Anat. 18:141,145, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]