Anatomical Relations (anatomical + relation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Conformation and Anatomical Relations of the Liver of Llama (Lama glama)

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2 2009
A. N. C. Castro
Summary Morphological studies of the liver of the llama are structural supportive to the clinical practice, surgery and specific diagnostic techniques. The aims of this study were first to determine the location of the organ and the direction of its major axis to project it to the abdominal wall, identifying visible and palpable bony references. Secondly, to characterize and determine anatomical relations of the surfaces, borders and angles of the llama liver, as well as, of its lobulation. Twenty adult llamas of both sexes and two foetuses of 6.5- and 7-month-old were used. Llama liver is a post-diaphragmatic organ located in the cranial abdominal region, in the right hypochondrium, in relationship with the last six ribs. Dorsally, it can exceeds the last (twelfth) rib. Its major axis presents a cranio-ventral bent. Its shape is irregularly triangular. It presents two surfaces (parietal and visceral), three borders (cranial, caudal and ventral) and three angles (dorsal, cranial and caudal). [source]


Changes in adipocytes and dendritic cells in lymph node containing adipose depots during and after many weeks of mild inflammation

JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 6 2005
Dawn Sadler
Abstract The time course and cellular basis for inflammation-induced hypertrophy of adipose tissue were investigated over 20 weeks in mature male rats. Mild inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20 g lipopolysaccharide into one hind-leg three times/week for 4 or 8 weeks, followed by up to 12 weeks ,rest' without intervention. Mean volume and frequency of apoptosis (TUNEL assay) were measured in adipocytes isolated from sites defined by their anatomical relations to lymph nodes, plus numbers of CCL21-stimulated lymph node-derived and adipose tissue-derived dendritic cells. Experimental inflammation increased dendritic cells and adipocyte apoptosis in the locally stimulated popliteal depot and the lymphoid tissue-associated regions of the contralateral popliteal and mesentery and omentum. Responses declined slowly after inflammation ended, but all measurements from the locally stimulated popliteal depot, and the omentum, were still significantly different from controls after 12 weeks rest. The locally stimulated popliteal adipose tissue enlarged by 5% within 4 weeks and remained larger than the control. We conclude that prolonged inflammation induces permanent enlargement, greater adipocyte turnover and increased dendritic cell surveillance in the adjacent adipose tissue and the omentum. The experiment suggests a mechanism for selective hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue-associated adipose tissue in chronic stress and inflammatory disorders, including impaired lymph drainage, Crohn's disease and HIV-associated lipodystrophy, and a link between evolutionary fitness, sexual selection and aesthetically pleasing body symmetry. It would be useful for further study of molecular mechanisms in inflammation-induced local hypertrophy of adipose tissue and development of specific therapies that avoid interference with whole-body lipid metabolism. [source]


A gastrointestinal role for the amphibian ,diaphragm' of Xenopus laevis

JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
Mark Pickering
Abstract The ,diaphragm' of Xenopus laevis has close anatomical relations to the lower end of the oesophagus. In mammals, the crural diaphragm acts as a pinch valve at the gastro-oesophageal junction and is an important component of the gastro-oesophageal reflux barrier. The present study analysed the effect of amphibian ,diaphragm' contraction on oesophageal pressure using a superfused in situ oesophago-diaphragmatic preparation of large female Xenopus. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the oesophageal pressure profile was performed using four-port oesophageal infusion manometry. Bilateral electrical stimulation of the nerves supplying the ,diaphragm' of Xenopus increased the pressure volume vector of 5 mm of oesophagus (centred around the insertions of the diaphragm) from 20.4 16 to 553.6 232 mm mmHg2 (mean SD). This was a statistically significant increase and statistically significantly higher than that evoked by electrical stimulation of both vagi (28.1 30.7 mmmmHg2). The amphibian ,diaphragm' seems to be functionally similar to the mammalian crural diaphragm. By analogy, we suggest that the original role of the diaphragm was not respiratory but gastrointestinal. [source]


Conformation and Anatomical Relations of the Liver of Llama (Lama glama)

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2 2009
A. N. C. Castro
Summary Morphological studies of the liver of the llama are structural supportive to the clinical practice, surgery and specific diagnostic techniques. The aims of this study were first to determine the location of the organ and the direction of its major axis to project it to the abdominal wall, identifying visible and palpable bony references. Secondly, to characterize and determine anatomical relations of the surfaces, borders and angles of the llama liver, as well as, of its lobulation. Twenty adult llamas of both sexes and two foetuses of 6.5- and 7-month-old were used. Llama liver is a post-diaphragmatic organ located in the cranial abdominal region, in the right hypochondrium, in relationship with the last six ribs. Dorsally, it can exceeds the last (twelfth) rib. Its major axis presents a cranio-ventral bent. Its shape is irregularly triangular. It presents two surfaces (parietal and visceral), three borders (cranial, caudal and ventral) and three angles (dorsal, cranial and caudal). [source]