Anatomical Outcomes (anatomical + outcome)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Therapeutic effects of complex rearing or bFGF after perinatal frontal lesions

Wendy Comeau
Abstract We investigated the effects of an enriched environment and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on recovery from neonatal frontal injury in rats. Rats received medial frontal lesions, or sham surgery, on postnatal day (P) 2/3. In the first set of experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), rats were housed in enriched environments that consisted of a large enclosure with multiple objects (or standard housing) for 90 days beginning at weaning (P22) or in adulthood (P110). In Experiment 3, the rats either received 7 days of subcutaneous bFGF beginning on the day after surgery or bFGF plus enriched housing beginning at weaning. After the 90-day housing period, the animals were tested on a spatial navigation task and a skilled reaching task. Early lesions of the medial frontal cortex caused severe impairments in spatial learning but this deficit was markedly reduced with enriched housing, bFGF, or a combination of both, with the latter being most effective. The housing effects varied with age, however: the earlier the experience began, the better the outcome. Enriched housing increased dendritic length in cortical pyramidal neurons, an effect that was greater in the lesion than the control animals, and enriched housing reversed the lesion-induced decrease in spine density. Enriched environment increased the thickness of the cortical mantle in both lesion and controls whereas bFGF had no effect. Experience thus can affect functional and anatomical outcome after early brain injury but the effects vary with age at experience and may be facilitated by treatment with bFGF. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 50: 134,146, 2008. [source]

1233: How to choose the best surgical procedure?

Purpose Dealing to the localization and sealing retinal breaks, the surgical success rate for the cure of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment greatly changed with the introduction of scleral buckling (SB), intraocular gas injection, and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Methods In localized cases, pneumatic retinopexy and scleral buckling surgery (SB) remains the most popular surgical methods. Complicated cases with PVR grade B or C, giant tears, or macular holes are most commonly treated with primary pars plana vitrectomy. A large group of rhegmatogenous RDs with medium severity that comprise about 30% of all primary rhegmatogenous RDs in the Scleral Buckling versus Primary Vitrectomy in Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment recruitment study, were treated by SB and PPV. Advances in vitrectomy instrumentation and wideangle imaging systems have increased the popularity of PPV. Results The decision by the surgeon to use scleral buckling rather than PPV depends on a number of factors, including the lens status, size and location of breaks, patient compliance, and individual experience. Initial PPV may be successful for phakic patients. However, the SPR study shows a benefit of SB in phakic eyes with respect to BCVA improvement. Although no difference in BCVA was demonstrated in the pseudophakic trial, PPV was recommend for pseudophakic RD based on a better anatomical outcome. Conclusion There was a significant trend towards more frequently employing primary PPV (with or without SB) for the management of primary RRD. A significant improvement in the primary success rates for RD, were shown for all retinal surgical modalities applied for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. [source]

In vitro antimicrobial effect of vitreous endotamponading substances

Purpose To demonstrate the in vitro bactericidal, bacteriostatic or inert role of endotamponading substances. Methods Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sp were cultured on blood agar plates in sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)and perfluoropropane (C3F8)atmospheres and under silicone oil (SO) and liquid perfluorocarbon (LPFC). The same germs were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic atmospheres as controls. Results SO, SF6 and C3F8 did not significantly inhibit the growth of anaerobic bacteria but markedly reduced the growth of aerobic germs, as compared with aerobic conditions. The growth of the bacteria under SO and SF6 and C3F8 was very similar to that observed under anaerobic conditions. LPFC did not affect the growth of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. Conclusion Endotamponading gases and liquids seem to improve the visual and anatomical outcome of infected eyes and may limit the proliferation of aerobic germs in vitro. It is not known to what extent the antimicrobial effect of these substances would appear in vivo since oxygen diffusion from the blood could allow the growth of aerobic germs. [source]

Patient reported and anatomical outcomes after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse,,

Ahmed S. El-Azab
Abstract Aim Primary aim was to modify Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ) to assess pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Arabic Muslim women. Secondary aim was to compare functional and anatomical outcomes of POP repair. Methods Questionnaire. A characteristic (prayer) was added to PFIQ. Linguistic validation of questionnaires was then done. Twenty cases were enrolled in a pilot study to test internal consistency and reliability. Subsequent study. Prospective study included women with symptomatic POP,,,stage II. History, examination by POP-Q, and administration of PFDI and PFIQ, were done before and 6 months after surgery. Results Questionnaire. Internal consistency of added question was good (Cronbach ,,=,0.78). Test,retest reliability of individual PFIQ items was variable. Subsequent Study. Between September 2004 and February 2007, 78 consecutive women were included. Cystocele, rectocele, and no site predominated in 74.4%, 17.9% and 7.7% of cases, respectively. Preoperatively 19.2%, 15.4% and 47.4% reported stress, urge, and mixed incontinence, respectively. Overall and individual urinary symptoms scores improved significantly after surgery. There were significant improvements in individual symptoms of constipation, splint to defecate and losing not well formed stools. Low self-esteem was most negative impact of prolapse on quality of life (QoL) followed by prayer. After surgery 90% of subjects had anatomical cure. After surgery, QoL issues are significantly related to anatomic location of prolapse as determined by POP-Q. Conclusions Modified PFIQ and PFDI are suitable to assess POP among Muslim women. Postoperatively, many prolapse-related symptoms and QoL significantly improve after surgery on the short term with an anatomic cure rate of 90%. Neurourol. Urodynam. 28:219,224, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration using a treatment regimen based on optical coherence tomography: 6- and 12-month results

Christina Leydolt
Abstract. Purpose:, To study the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab therapy on visual and anatomical outcomes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) within a follow-up period of 6 and 12 months. Methods:, A retrospective analysis of 102 eyes of 102 consecutive patients with neovascular AMD evaluated repeated intravitreal bevacizumab (1 or 2.5 mg) injections. Retreatment was performed following an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based regimen. Ophthalmic examination included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), dilated fundus examination and OCT imaging. Data were analysed at baseline, 6 months (24 weeks) and 12 months (48 weeks) after treatment initiation. Results:, BCVA remained stable at 6 months (mean: 0.00 ± 0.41 logMAR; p = 0.95) and 12 months (mean: +0.02 ± 0.43 logMAR; loss of , 1 letter; p = 0.70) after the first treatment. OCT retinal thickness decreased by a mean of ,37.8 ± 101.6 ,m (p < 0.05) compared to baseline at month 6 and ,38.6 ± 93.3 ,m (p < 0.05) at month 12. A mean of 2.6 ± 1.2 injections were needed to obtain absence of fluid by OCT, and the time to recurrence was 23 ± 11 weeks thereafter. There was no difference in BCVA and OCT outcomes between treatment-naive eyes and eyes that had undergone prior treatment. Conclusion:, The 6- and 12-month follow-up of repeated intravitreal bevacizumab therapy in eyes with neovascular AMD demonstrated stabilization of vision and no safety concerns. An OCT-based retreatment strategy appears appropriate in the management of patients treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. [source]

Stanford University Network for Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (SUNDROP): 24-month experience with telemedicine screening

Yohko Murakami
Abstract. Purpose:, To report the 24-month experience of the Stanford University Network for Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (SUNDROP) telemedicine initiative. Methods:, Retrospective analysis of the SUNDROP archival data gathered between 1 December 2005 and 30 November 2007 to evaluate this diagnostic technology for ROP screening. One hundred and sixty consecutively enrolled infants meeting ROP examination criteria were screened with the RetCam II and evaluated by the SUNDROP reading centre at Stanford University. Nurses obtained five or six images in each eye. All patients also received a dilated examination within 1 week of discharge. Outcomes included treatment-warranted retinopathy of prematurity (TW-ROP) and anatomical outcomes. Results:, In the initial 24-month period, the SUNDROP telemedicine initiative has not missed any TW-ROP. A total of 160 infants (320 eyes) were imaged, resulting in 669 exams and 7556 images. Seven infants were identified with TW-ROP; six underwent laser photocoagulation and one regressed spontaneously. The sensitivity was 100%, with specificity of 99.4%. No patient progressed to retinal detachment or other adverse outcomes. Conclusion:, The SUNDROP telemedicine screening initiative for ROP has been proven to have a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for the identification of treatment-warranted disease. All cases of treatment-warranted disease were captured. There were no adverse outcomes. [source]

Intravitreal pegaptanib sodium (Macugen®) for diabetic macular oedema

Giuseppe Querques
Abstract. Purpose:, To report the functional and anatomical outcomes resulting from the use of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium (Macugen®) in patients with diabetic macular oedema (DMO). Methods:, We conducted a retrospective outcome analysis, by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), of eyes with DMO treated with intravitreal pegaptanib sodium. Moreover, we evaluated the foveal transverse photoreceptor (PR) band integrity in the OCT images at the time of the last follow-up visit. Results:, Sixty-three eyes of 48 patients with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up were included for analysis. Intravitreal pegaptanib was found to produce significant improvements in mean BCVA (p = 0.019) and reductions in mean central macular thickness (CMT) (p < 0.001) as soon as the 6-week follow-up. Most eyes (60/63) required a mean of 3.03 ± 0.9 repeated treatments, over a mean follow-up period of 6.7 ± 1.2 months, to achieve significant improvements in mean BCVA (p < 0.001) and mean CMT (p < 0.001). In our series, the lower visual acuities tended to congregate in the group with the less-defined PR band (p < 0.001) and the lower CMT tended to congregate in the group with the best-defined PR band (p = 0.04), even though the higher CMT did not tend to congregate in the group with the less-defined PR band. Conclusion:, Our findings demonstrate that selective inhibition by intravitreal pegaptanib sodium of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-165 may produce a clinically meaningful and statistically significant benefit in the treatment of DMO. [source]