Anatomical Observations (anatomical + observation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Do tracheid microstructure and the presence of minute crystals link Nymphaeaceae, Cabombaceae and Hydatellaceae?

Original scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations are presented for stems of Brasenia schreberi and Cabomba caroliniana of Cabombaceae and three species of Trithuria of Hydatellaceae. End walls of stem tracheids of Brasenia have the same peculiar microstructure that we have reported in Barclaya, Euryale, Nuphar, Nymphaea (including Ondinea) and Victoria of Nymphaeaceae. This feature unites Cabombaceae with Nymphaeaceae. The minute rhomboidal crystals on the surfaces of stellate parenchyma cells of Brasenia reported by Solereder (1906. Oxford: University Press), but not noticed since, are figured. They are like the minute crystals of the often-mentioned astrosclereids of Nymphaeaceae. Neither of these two features has been observed in Hydatellaceae. If the absence of these two features can be confirmed, the reason may be more related to ecology, development, habit and anatomical organization than to degree of phylogenetic relationship as shown by molecular studies. Anatomical observations on the stem anatomy of Trithuria are offered on the basis of paraffin sections prepared for a paper by Cheadle & Kosakai (1975. American Journal of Botany62: 1017,1026); that study is notable for a discrepancy between an illustration of a specialized vessel element on the one hand and tabular data indicating long scalariform perforation plates on the other. Long scalariform perforation plates are mostly found in scalariformly pitted vessels of monocots, whereas the tracheary elements of Trithuria mostly have helical or annular thickenings. We were unable to demonstrate the presence of vessels in Hydatellaceae. 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 159, 572,582. [source]

Anatomical observations of the moderator band

Marios Loukas
Abstract Apical ventricular septal defects are rare pathologies of the ventricular septum. The moderator band, or other large trabeculations, is the major obstacle for the repair of such defects. The aim of our study was to identify and describe variations in the size and anatomy of the moderator band. We studied the right ventricular apical trabeculations in 100 adult human cadavers. Overall, we identified the moderator band in 92% of hearts. In just over two-fifths (42%), the band was a short and thick trabeculation, whereas, in one-eighth (12%), it was long and thick. In just under one-quarter of the hearts (24%), the band was short and thin, whereas it was long and thin in 14% of the hearts. In the remaining eight hearts, we were unable to identify the moderator band. The mean thickness of the band was 4.5 1.8 mm, and its mean length was 16.23 2.3 mm, ranging from 11.3 to 24.3 mm. According to these measurements, we were able to classify the band as originating less than 45% of the distance from the tricuspid valve to the apex (closer to tricuspid valve), seen in 12 hearts, between 45 and 55% of the distance from the valve to the apex, seen in 45 hearts, and greater than 55% of this distance (closer to the apex), seen in 39 specimens. We present these data that may prove useful in the setting of the surgical repair of apical ventricular septal defects through the right atrium. Clin. Anat. 23:443,450, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A Comparative Study of Intraplacental Villous Arteries by Latex Cast Model in vitro and Color Doppler Flow Imaging in vivo,

Junwu Mu
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether color Doppler sonogram can accurately depict the placental vascular structures using a latex cast model of the placental vessels, and to make a nomogram of several blood flow parameters according to the vascular structures. Methods: First, we made 9 latex cast models of placental arteries and performed morphologic observation and measurement. Second, the comparative anatomical observation of placental vessels by color flow mapping was performed for all 9 patients from whom the latex models were made. Third, a total of 102 uncomplicated pregnant women between 18 and 40 weeks gestation were examined by color Doppler imaging. The resistance indices (RI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) were measured. Results: In the latex cast model of placentas, cotyledons could be differentiated by the presence of independent vascular structure units. First, second, third and fourth branches were noted in one cotyledon. Cotyledons were easily identified and counted by color Doppler imaging. Each cotyledon contained only one first branch of the intraplacental villous artery (IPVA). The number of IPVA-1 on color Doppler imaging was equal to the number of the cotyledon calculated from the latex model. RI exhibited a negative, and PSV a positive correlation with gestational age (p < 0.05 in both cases). At any given gestational age, both RI and PSV in the peripheral arteries were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than those in the upstream arteries. Conclusions: Color Doppler flow sonography is a valuable tool for detecting the blood flow of intraplacental villous arteries in vivo and the images agree with the vascular anatomy of placenta in vitro. These results may also provide the basic parameters for future studies of some complicated pregnancies. [source]

Origin and phylogeny of Guyniidae (Scleractinia) in the light of microstructural data

LETHAIA, Issue 1 2000
Jaros, aw Stolarski
The set of skeletal characters of the Recent azooxanthellate coral Guynia annulata Duncan, 1872 is unique among extant scleractinians and encompasses: (a) undifferentiated septal calcification centers (in most extant scleractinians calcification centers are clearly separated); (b) completely smooth septal faces (septa of almost all extant scleractinians bear granular ornamentation); (c) deeply recessed septa in respect to the epithecal rim in the adult coralla (in adults of the majority of extant scleractinians the relationships between septa and wall are the reverse); and (d) an aseptal part of the initial ontogenetic stage, just above the basal plate (almost all known scleractinians have a septate initial coralla). Skeletal features of five other extant traditional guyniids are typical of other caryophylliines (and of Scleractinia). However, the wall types present in different species of traditional guyniids exceed limits traditionally attributed to one caryophylliine family: i.e., Stenocyathus and Truncatoguynia have a marginothecal wall like the Flabellidae, whereas Schizocyathus and Temnotrochus usually have an entirely epithecal wall, as in Gardineriidae (Volzeioidea). Moreover, Pourtalocyathus and Schizocyathus show intraspecific variation in distribution of septal calcification centers (separated vs. non-separated) and in wall types (epithecal vs. consisting of large spherulite-like bodies). These major differences in skeletal architecture form the basis for a new, threefold taxonomical subdivision of the traditional guyniids: (1) Guyniidae Hickson, 1910, containing only monospecific Guynia with an epithecal wall, and septa with non-separated calcification centers; (2) Schizocyathidae fam.n., groups Microsmilia Schizocyathus, Pourtalocyathus, Temnotrochus, which have an epithecal wall and septa with usually well-separated calcification centers; and (3) Stenocyathidae fam.n. with Stenocyathus and Truncatoguynia which have a marginothecal wall and septa with well-separated calcification centers. Despite differences in the basic architecture of the skeleton, all taxa attributed to these families have ,thecal pores' formed by selective dissolution of the skeleton. I propose two hypotheses for evolutionary relationships among Guyniidae, Schizocyathidae, and Stenocyathidae: (1) Hypothesis A: the three families are not phylogenetically related and ,pores' originated independently in different scleractinian lineages: e.g., Guyniidae may represent distant zardinophyllid or gigantostyliid descendants, Schizocyathidae may be a volzeioid offshoot, whereas Stenocyathidae may be a flabellid descendant; (2) Hypothesis B: the three families are phylogenetically related and ,thecal pores' are synapomorphic for the clade (superfamily Guynioidea). Additional approaches, such as anatomical observations, molecular studies on guyniid DNA sequences, and in-depth studies on scleractinian biomineralization will be necessary to test these hypotheses. [source]

Dynamics of heterorhizic root systems: protoxylem groups within the fine-root system of Chamaecyparis obtusa

Takuo Hishi
Summary ,,To understand the physiology of fine-root functions in relation to soil organic sources, the heterogeneity of individual root functions within a fine-root system requires investigation. Here the heterogeneous dynamics within fine-root systems are reported. ,,The fine roots of Chamaecyparis obtusa were sampled using a sequential ingrowth core method over 2 yr. After color categorization, roots were classified into protoxylem groups from anatomical observations. ,,The root lengths with diarch and triarch groups fluctuated seasonally, whereas the tetrarch root length increased. The percentage of secondary root mortality to total mortality increased with increasing amounts of protoxylem. The carbon : nitrogen ratio indicated that the decomposability of primary roots might be greater than that of secondary roots. The position of diarch roots was mostly apical, whereas tetrarch roots tended to be distributed in basal positions within the root architecture. ,,We demonstrate the heterogeneous dynamics within a fine-root system of C. obtusa. Fine-root heterogeneity should affect soil C dynamics. This heterogeneity is determined by the branching position within the root architecture. [source]

A unique mode of parasitism in the conifer coral tree Parasitaxus ustus (Podocarpaceae)

ABSTRACT Almost all parasitic plants, including more than 3000 species, are angiosperms. The only suggested gymnosperm exception is the New Caledonian conifer, Parasitaxus ustus, which forms a bizarre graft-like attachment to the roots of another conifer Falcatifolium taxoides. Yet, the degree of resource dependence of Parasitaxus on Falcatifolium has remained speculative. Here we show that Parasitaxus is definitively parasitic, but it displays a physiological habit unlike any known angiosperm parasite. Despite possessing chloroplasts, it was found that the burgundy red shoots of Parasitaxus lack significant photosynthetic electron transport. However unlike non-photosynthetic angiosperm parasites (holoparasites), tissues of Parasitaxus are considerably enriched in 13carbon relative to its host. In line with anatomical observations of fungal hyphae embedded in the parasite/host union, stable carbon isotopic measurements indicate that carbon transport from the host to Parasitaxus most likely involves a fungal partner. Therefore, Parasitaxus parallels fungus-feeding angiosperms (mycoheterotrophs) that steal carbon from soil mycorrhizal fungi. Yet with its tree-like habit, association with fungi residing within the host union, high stomatal conductance, and low water potential, it is demonstrated that Parasitaxus functions unlike any known angiosperm mycoheterotroph or holoparasite. Parasitaxus appears to present a unique physiological chimera of mistletoe-like water relations and fungal-mediated carbon trafficking from the host. [source]

Necrosis of the long process of the incus following stapes surgery: New anatomical observations,,

Imre Gerlinger MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: The most frequent complication (generally recognized during revision procedures) following seemingly successful stapedotomies and stapedectomies is necrosis of the long process of the incus. This is currently ascribed to a malcrimped stapes prosthesis or to a compromised blood supply of the incus. The two-point fixation can cause a mucosal injury with a resulting toxic reaction, and also osteoclastic activity. An important aspect in the engineering of ideal stapes prostheses is that they should be fixed circularly to the long process of the incus with appropriate strength. The objective of this study was to compare current knowledge relating to the blood supply of the ossicular chain with the present authors' observations on cadaver incudes. Most of the papers dealing with this issue appeared in the mid-20th century. Methods: The published data were compared with the authors' findings gained from photodocumentation on 100 cadaver incudes. The photos were taken with a Canon EOS 20 digital camera (Canon, Inc., Lake Success, NY) with a 5:1 macro-objective. The long processes of the incudes were examined from four directions under a Leica surface-analyzing microscope (Leica Microsystems GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). Results: Analysis of the positions of the entrances of the feeding arteries (nutritive foramina) on the incudes revealed 1-4 nutritive foramina on the long processes of 48% (24) of the left-sided incudes and 56% (28) of the right-sided incudes. The positions of these foramina differed, however, from those previously described in the literature. They were mostly located not on the medial side of the incus body or on the short process or on the cranial third of the long processes, but antero-medially, mostly on the middle or cranial third. In 48% of all the incudes examined, an obvious foramen was not observed either in the body or in the long process of the incus. No relationship was discerned between the chronological age of the incus specimens and the numbers and/or locations of the nutritive foramina. In each case, the opening of the foramen was the beginning of a tunnel running obliquely and medially upward through the corticalis of the long process of the incus. The foramina are thought to be capable of ensuring a richer blood supply between the surface and the inside of the long process, allowing the arteries to run in and out. Conclusions: These observations indicate that conclusions drawn from classical anatomical works appear to need reconsideration. The present authors consider that the reason for the necrosis of the long process of the incus is not a compromised blood supply, except in some exceptional anatomical situations. They discuss the possible reasons why malcrimping may lead to necrosis of the long process of the incus. To prevent such malcrimping, attention is paid to the new generation of prostheses. Laryngoscope, 2009 [source]

Immunolocalization of Gastrin-Releasing Peptide (GRP) in the Uteroplacenta of the Mouse Deer

J. Kimura
Summary The considerable phylogenetical differences between mouse deer and other ruminants have been established by means of DNA sequence analysis and anatomical observations. To clarify the physiological role of the uteroplacenta of the mouse deer, immunohistochemical observation was attempted by using GRP, which has been suggested as a novel regulatory peptide in the female reproductive tract, as an indicator to compare with other ruminants. Strong positive reactions for the GRP were detected in the uterine glands of the pregnant animals, but not in the non-pregnant ones. Although the placenta of the mouse deer is categorized as a diffuse placenta that is different from other ruminants' polycotyledonary placenta, in terms of GRP immunoreactivity, the mouse deer placenta can be classified as a synepithecholial placenta like the other ruminants'. The secretion of GRP from the uterine glands is of some importance to the fetus in the mouse deer. [source]