Anatomical Measurements (anatomical + measurement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prenatal and early postnatal morphogenesis and growth of human laryngotracheal structures

Pierre Fayoux
Abstract Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in increased care of fetal and neonatal airways. These advances have required an exhaustive knowledge of fetal airway anatomy and development. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomical development of laryngotracheal structures during the fetal and immediate postnatal period and to correlate these observations with other fetal biometric parameters to estimate developmental particularities of the fetal airway. An anatomical prospective study was based on examination of larynx and trachea from 300 routine autopsies of fetuses and infants, free of malformation and never intubated. Anatomical measurements of cricoid cartilage, thyroid cartilage, glottis, arytenoid cartilage and trachea were performed using a precision calliper and precision divider. Statistical analysis was performed to represent the growth of anatomical structures and to evaluate the correlation with biometric data. Raw data and 10th and 90th percentile curves were fitted satisfactorily with a linear model for gestational age. A linear relationship between laryngotracheal measurement and body weight and height was observed except for glottis length, interarytenoid distance and anterior cricoid height. The diameter of the cricoid lumen was significantly less than that of the trachea and glottis lumen. A sexual dysmorphism was noted for thyroid cartilage measurements and interarytenoid distance, with measurements significantly smaller in females. This study reports the anatomical development of normal laryngotracheal structures during the fetal period. Despite the fact that this study was performed during postmortem examination, these observations can be useful to develop criteria, materials and surgical procedures adapted to fetal and neonatal airways as well as for the purposes of early diagnosis and management of laryngotracheal malformations. [source]

Simple anatomical measurements do not correlate significantly to individual peripheral nerve stimulation thresholds as measured in MRI gradient coils

Blaine A. Chronik PhD
Abstract Purpose To examine peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) thresholds for normal human subjects in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gradient coils, and determine if observed thresholds could be predicted based on gross physiologic measurements. Materials and Methods PNS thresholds for 21 healthy normal subjects were measured using a whole-body gradient coil. Subjects were exposed to a trapezoidal echo-planar imaging (EPI) gradient waveform and the total change in gradient strength (,G) required to cause PNS as a function of the duration of the gradient switching time (,) were measured. Correlation coefficients and corresponding P values were calculated for the PNS threshold measurements against simple physiologic measurements taken of the subjects, including weight, height, girth, and average body fat percentage, in order to determine if there were any easily observable dependencies. Results No convincing correlations between threshold parameters and gross physiologic measurements were observed. Conclusion These results suggest it is unlikely that a simple physiologic measurement of subject anatomy can be used to guide the operation of MRI scanners in a subject-specific manner in order to increase gradient system performance while avoiding PNS. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2003;17:716,721. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Measurement of lesion area and volume by three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo MR imaging in osteonecrosis of the femoral head

Yuki Kishida
Abstract The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the diagnostic ability of three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo (3D SPGR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in cases of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), and to determine the accuracy of 3D SPGR imaging in area and volume measurement of ONFH. T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) and 3D SPGR imaging were performed on 20 femoral heads obtained from patients with ONFH. After MR imaging, the femoral heads were cut parallel to the imaging plane and were evaluated histologically. Areas and volumes of necrotic lesions were measured with a computer program and the deviation between MR images and anatomical measurements was evaluated. A low signal intensity band on 3D SPGR MR images was observed in all femoral heads and corresponded histologically to repaired marrow with viable fibrous mesenchymal tissue. The area proximate to the low band area coincided with the necrotic region. Both area and volume measurements by T1-weighted SE and 3D SPGR images showed a strong correlation to histological measurements. The discrepancies between histological and imaging results were minimal in 3D SPGR imaging, especially at the anterior and posterior portions of the femoral head. Three-dimensional SPGR imaging provides more accurate measurements of the area and volume of a necrotic lesion than T1-weighted SE imaging. 2003 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery: a New Method of Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

E. Cam
The study in Wistar rats attempted to improve the occlusion technique of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) as a precise method for initiating stroke. In a first part it was necessary to study the exact anatomy of blood vessels of the brain in seven rats of 170-410 g body weight by corrosion cast. The lengths and diameters of defined locations of the blood vessels were measured. The temporary as well as the permanent methods were refined or replaced. The first one was completed in main training the physiological blood flow after temporary occlusion, while the permanent occlusion was performed by positioning a silicone cap in the MCA. A filament guide was introduced from the common carotid artery (CCA) via internal carotid artery (ICA) to guide the silicon cap at the branch of the MCA. Histological sections of the brain of rats showed 24 h after the permanent occlusion a reproducible infarct in the brain. This area corresponded very well with the supply of the MCA. The new occlusion method with a silicon cap was compared with the occlusion methods of CCA route and external carotid artery (ECA) route. The total infarct volume was significantly larger in the CCA route and ECA route groups than in the silicon cap group (means: CCA route 261 mm3; ECA route 191 mm3 vs. 128 mm3 silicon cap group; P < 0,05). It could be demonstrated that the new silicon cap occlusion technique imitates the pathological situation of a cerebral infarct in man. Moreover it is less invasive for the animals and more precise and reproducible regarding the infarcted area in comparison to the other occlusion methods. Based on anatomical measurements of the blood vessels the described silicon cap method can be recommended for rats of a body weight between 340,370 g. [source]