Anatomical Knowledge (anatomical + knowledge)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Deep brain stimulation mechanisms: beyond the concept of local functional inhibition

Jean-Michel Deniau
Abstract Deep brain electrical stimulation has become a recognized therapy in the treatment of a variety of motor disorders and has potentially promising applications in a wide range of neurological diseases including neuropsychiatry. Behavioural observation that electrical high-frequency stimulation of a given brain area induces an effect similar to a lesion suggested a mechanism of functional inhibition. In vitro and in vivo experiments as well as per operative recordings in patients have revealed a variety of effects involving local changes of neuronal excitability as well as widespread effects throughout the connected network resulting from activation of axons, including antidromic activation. Here we review current data regarding the local and network activity changes induced by high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and discuss this in the context of motor restoration in Parkinson's disease. Stressing the important functional consequences of axonal activation in deep brain stimulation mechanisms, we highlight the importance of developing anatomical knowledge concerning the fibre connections of the putative therapeutic targets. [source]

Lymph drainage of the mammary glands in female cats

F. Raharison
Abstract The mammary gland is a common site of neoplasms in the female cat. All the malignant tumors metastasize to a lesser or a greater extent through the lymphatic system. However, the anatomical knowledge of this system is not sufficiently well known in cats to develop a reasoned model for the extirpation of these glands in case of malignant tumors. A study of the lymph drainage in 50 female cats was done by indirect injection in vivo of India ink inside the mammary parenchyma. After a waiting interval, mammary glands were extracted and the thoracic cavity opened. All the lymph nodes were examined after clearing. The success rate of the colorations of lymph nodes and lymph vessels was 91.8%. Out of the 100 observed mammary chains, the two intermediate mammary glands (T2, A1) may drain caudally to the superficial inguinal lymph center and/or cranially to the axillary lymph center. The T1 gland always drains exclusively cranially and A2 exclusively caudally. The two mammary glands (T1 and A1) often drain towards the sternal cranial lymph nodes, but 100% of the T2 drain towards it. This research assumes that the limit between the two directions of drainage can exist only between glands T2 and A1. The results obtained with the study of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th mammary glands permit production of new and more complete data of functional significance that will eventually aid block dissection surgical technique in the removal of malignant tumors in cats. J. Morphol. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The role of neuroimaging in mild cognitive impairment

Hiroshi Matsuda
The main purposes of neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been moved from diagnosis of advanced AD to diagnosis of very early AD at a prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment, prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD, and differential diagnosis from other diseases causing dementia. Structural MRI studies and functional studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are widely used in diagnosis of AD. Outstanding progress in diagnostic accuracy of these neuroimaging modalities has been obtained using statistical analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis after spatial normalization of individual scans to a standardized brain-volume template instead of visual inspection or a conventional region of interest technique. In a very early stage of AD, this statistical approach revealed gray matter loss in the entorhinal and hippocampal areas and hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. These two findings might be related in view of anatomical knowledge that the regions are linked through the circuit of Papez. This statistical approach also offers prediction of conversion from MCI to AD. Presence of hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in parietal association areas and entorhinal atrophy at the MCI stage has been reported to predict rapid conversion to AD. [source]

Uro-words making history: Ureter and urethra

THE PROSTATE, Issue 9 2010
Franz Josef Marx
Abstract PURPOSE We comprehensively review the history of the terms "ureter" and "urethra" from 700 BC to the present. MATERIALS AND METHODS Using a case study approach, ancient medical texts were analyzed to clarify the etymology and use of both terms. In addition, selected anatomy textbooks from the 15th to 17th centuries were searched to identify and compare descriptions, illustrations, and various expressions used by contemporary authors to designate the upper and lower parts of the urinary tract. RESULTS The Ancient Greek words "ureter" and "urethra" appear early in Hippocratic and Aristotelian writings. However, both terms designated what we today call the urethra. It was only with increasing anatomical knowledge in Greek medical texts after the 1st century AD that definitions of these words evolved similar to those we employ today. Numerous synonyms were used which served as a basis for translation into Arabic and later Latin during the transfer of ancient knowledge to the cultures of the medieval period. When Greek original texts and their Arabic,Latin version were compared during the Renaissance, this led to terminological confusion which could only be gradually overcome. Around the year 1600, the use of the latinized terms "ureter" and "urethra" became generally accepted. The dissemination of these terms in modern national languages and the emergence of clinical derivatives complete this historical development. CONCLUSIONS The history of the terms "ureter" and "urethra" is exemplary of the difficulties with which the development of a precise urologic terminology had to struggle. The story behind the words also clarifies why even today we still have imprecise or misleading terms. Prostate 70: 952,958, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Anatomical Features of the Carpal Flexor Retinaculum of the Horse

A. Probst
Summary This study aims to elucidate the topographical anatomy of the carpal flexor retinaculum or palmar anular carpal ligament (PACL) in the horse. Ten specimen of the carpus of five healthy horses were studied by dissection in layers. Slices of 5 mm in thickness facilitated observation of the soft tissues. The superficial layer of the PACL subdivides into five compartments: one for the palmar nerve and the arterial and venous branches, one for only the radial artery, one for the radial vein, and one for the tendon of the radial carpal flexor muscle, and finally for the deep layer that supports all tendinous structures located palmar to the carpus, as well as the median artery and palmar medial nerve. The sections of the segmented PACL that are affected by carpal canal syndrome may vary with the aetiology of the space-occupying process. Precise anatomical knowledge of the structures may help in understanding the pathological processes and determining the most appropriate therapy. [source]

The Distribution of the Cardiac Veins in Angora Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

S. Bahar
Summary This study was carried out to describe the ramifications of the cardiac veins of Angora rabbit. For this purpose, a total of 16 adult healthy Angora rabbits of both sexes, 1.5,2 years of age, were used. The great, middle, right cardiac veins ran in a subepicardial course and opened into the left cranial vena cava, but some tributaries of the right cardiac veins sometimes also joined various portions of the right atrium. The smallest cardiac veins followed subendocardially and terminated in the right chambers of the heart. Based on their origin, course and frequency, it was concluded that the smallest cardiac veins are primarily responsible for the drainage of the interventricular septum. Results from this study are thought to shed light on further heart-related medical studies, and to contribute considerably to the present anatomical knowledge of the cardiac veins in this species. [source]


Erik Kent Weitzel
Rhinological heuristics are adapted from common principles within the field of otolaryngology. The most important principle in achieving quality endoscopic sinus surgery is good haemostatic control of the surgical field. Once this is achieved, the surgeon can then begin advancing to other heuristic principles. Thinking one to two moves in advance allows the surgeon to take advantage of the many dually purposed instruments available. Learning to visualize buried structures by their subtle projections quickly follows. Finally, an ergonomically positioned surgeon with intricate anatomical knowledge of the sinonasal cavities permits a second surgeon to assist and greatly expand the limit of what is possible. [source]

The historical Latin and etymology of selected anatomical terms of the larynx

Daniel D. Lydiatt
Abstract The etymological evolution of the anatomical terms larynx, cricoid, glottis, epiglottis, and thyroid (cartilage) dates to antiquity. Human dissection replaced animal in the 16th and 17th centuries and terms evolved. This evolution was recorded in the literature largely in Latin. We translated key studies of laryngeal anatomy from the 16th century to better understand this evolution. We present the Latin with our translations, and historical commentary as essential to this understanding. Vesalius favored the Latin scutiform (shield) for the thyroid cartilage, but recognized peltalis (shield). The Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA) chose the Greek thyroid (,,,,o,,, ) for modern convention. Vesalius used the name "innominate" for the cricoid cartilage, but described its resemblance to a ring, drawn in the margin of the Fabrica. Krikoid, the Greek for ring shaped, was adopted by the BNA. Although the term arytenoid was used for centuries, Vesalius argued the Greek name referred to the spout of a cup or ladle. He recognized the human arytenoids as two separate cartilages as opposed to single in certain animals. The glottis was defined by Vesalius as the vocal fold or rima glottidis of today, and he advanced its function by understanding the paired, mobile arytenoid cartilages. He defined the function of the epiglottis and first described the pre-epiglottic space. Vesalius' student at Padua, Italy, Columbo contributed to anatomical knowledge, but animosity between them clouded the record. Harvey, working 75 years later in England, offers an evolutionary window from Vesalius. Harvey's laryngeal studies preceded by a decade his groundbreaking studies on the circulation of blood. Clin. Anat. 23:131,144, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The evolution of the study of anatomy in Japan

R. Shane Tubbs
Abstract The following review focuses on how the study of anatomy in Japan has evolved throughout the centuries; specifically, we investigate anatomical knowledge during the primitive, ancient, feudal, and early modern periods of Japanese history. Early vague and mythical anatomical concepts derived from China prevailed for many centuries in Japan. Kajiwara wrote one of the earliest anatomical works in 1302. As a science, anatomy was the first basic science to be established in Japan, beginning simplistically during the 1600s and flourishing more recently with the onset of Meiji Restoration. As a result, Japan has produced several of the most influential anatomists of the 20th century, including Buntaro Adachi, who added detail to our knowledge of the vascular system and its variations; and Sunao Tawara, who discovered the atrioventricular node. Herein, we discuss the ways in which Japan has added to and promoted the anatomical sciences. Clin. Anat. 22:425,435, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Surgical anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and its clinical significance in head and neck surgery

Xenophon Kochilas
Abstract Injury of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) increases the morbidity following a variety of neck procedures and can have catastrophic consequences in people who use their voice professionally. Identification and preservation of the EBSLN are thus important in thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, carotid endarterectomy, and anterior cervical spine procedures, where the nerve is at risk. There are large variations in the anatomical course of the EBSLN, which makes the intraoperative identification of the nerve challenging. The topographic relationship of the EBSLN to the superior thyroid artery and the upper pole of the thyroid gland are considered by many authors to be the key point for identifying the nerve during surgery of the neck. The classifications by Cernea et al. ([1992a] Head Neck 14:380,383; [1992b] Am. J. Surg. 164:634,639) and by Kierner et al. ([1998] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124:301,303), as well as clinically important connections are discussed in detail. Along with sound anatomical knowledge, neuromonitoring is helpful in identifying the EBSLN during neck procedures. The clinical signs of EBSLN injury include hoarseness, decreased voice projection, decreased pitch range, and fatigue after extensive voice use. Videostroboscopy, electromyography, voice analysis, and electroglottography can provide crucial information on the function of the EBSLN following neck surgery. Clin. Anat. 21:99,105, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The relationships between learning outcomes and methods of teaching anatomy as perceived by professional anatomists

K.M. Patel
Abstract Changes in the teaching of gross anatomy have often involved decreasing student contact time alongside the use of new methods for teaching. However, there remains controversy over teaching methods and about whether cadaveric dissection by students should remain the preferred method. Furthermore, decisions concerning changes to curricula are more likely to be taken by choosing a method of teaching rather than by proper evaluation of what are the desired learning outcomes for a course in anatomy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of anatomists in Europe towards the methods of teaching best fitting a series of learning outcomes for anatomy and secondarily to test the hypothesis that, from evaluation of learning outcomes, anatomy is best taught by cadaveric dissection by the students. About 113 completed questionnaires were received from anatomists who are employed at higher education institutions that use various teaching methods. Most anatomists (69%) favored the use of cadaveric dissection above other teaching methods when considering the whole series of learning comes, this method seeming to achieve a range of different course aims/objectives, P < 0.001; Kruskal,Wallis). Consequently, these findings are consistent with our initial hypothesis. However, when individual learning outcomes were considered, the relationship was not so clear cut and, for example, little difference was discernible between teaching methods when considering learning outcomes related to the acquisition of anatomical knowledge. The use of human cadaveric dissection gained more approval when the skills-base was considered rather than just the content(knowledge)-base of an anatomical course. Clin. Anat. 21:182,189, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The surgical anatomy of the ansa pectoralis

Marios Loukas
Abstract Detailed anatomical knowledge of the pectoral nerves is of clinical importance in surgeries as diverse as limb neurotization, mastectomy, orthopedic procedures and operations related to trauma. The brachial plexus of 200 cadavers were examined in an attempt to clarify the normal origins, courses and variations of the nerves with special emphasis on the ansa pectoralis (AP). In 75% the MPN arose from the anterior division of the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus and in 25% it arose from the medial cord. In 40% of specimens, the LPN arose from a single contributing nerve (anterior division of the superior trunk, 11%; anterior division of the middle trunk 18%; lateral cord, 11%). In the remaining 60% of specimens, the LPN arose from the fusion of two rootlets derived variably from the anterior divisions of the superior and middle trunks and the lateral cord. A single AP was found to be present bilaterally in 200 (100%) of the specimens. Classification of the AP was based upon its origin from the upper or lower rootlet of the LPN, the LPN itself, or from the deep branch of the LPN. AP-1 (42%) arose from the deep branch of the LPN; AP-2 (28%) arose directly from the LPN; AP-3 (25%), arose from the lower rootlets of the LPN and rarely, the AP arose from the upper rootlet of the LPN and crossed posterior to the lower rootlet to communicate with the MPN (AP-4, 5%). Irrespective of the aforementioned types, the AP was found to be present, crossing the second segment of the axillary artery in 90% of the specimens. These results could prove useful during the preoperative planning of neurotization and other surgical procedures involving the axilla. Clin. Anat. 19:685,693, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]