Anatomical

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Anatomical

  • good anatomical

  • Terms modified by Anatomical

  • anatomical abnormality
  • anatomical anomaly
  • anatomical area
  • anatomical basis
  • anatomical change
  • anatomical character
  • anatomical characteristic
  • anatomical characterization
  • anatomical compartment
  • anatomical concept
  • anatomical connection
  • anatomical connectivity
  • anatomical consideration
  • anatomical correlate
  • anatomical criterioN
  • anatomical data
  • anatomical defect
  • anatomical description
  • anatomical detail
  • anatomical difference
  • anatomical dissection
  • anatomical distribution
  • anatomical evidence
  • anatomical factor
  • anatomical feature
  • anatomical finding
  • anatomical information
  • anatomical knowledge
  • anatomical landmark
  • anatomical level
  • anatomical localization
  • anatomical location
  • anatomical locations
  • anatomical measurement
  • anatomical models
  • anatomical observation
  • anatomical organization
  • anatomical outcome
  • anatomical pathology
  • anatomical position
  • anatomical property
  • anatomical region
  • anatomical regions
  • anatomical relation
  • anatomical relationship
  • anatomical research
  • anatomical result
  • anatomical site
  • anatomical specialization
  • anatomical specimen
  • anatomical structure
  • anatomical studies
  • anatomical study
  • anatomical substrate
  • anatomical therapeutic chemical
  • anatomical trait
  • anatomical variants
  • anatomical variation

  • Selected Abstracts


    Illustrative Hybrid Visualization and Exploration of Anatomical and Functional Brain Data

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2008
    W. M. Jainek
    Abstract Common practice in brain research and brain surgery involves the multi-modal acquisition of brain anatomy and brain activation data. These highly complex three-dimensional data have to be displayed simultaneously in order to convey spatial relationships. Unique challenges in information and interaction design have to be solved in order to keep the visualization sufficiently complete and uncluttered at the same time. The visualization method presented in this paper addresses these issues by using a hybrid combination of polygonal rendering of brain structures and direct volume rendering of activation data. Advanced rendering techniques including illustrative display styles and ambient occlusion calculations enhance the clarity of the visual output. The presented rendering pipeline produces real-time frame rates and offers a high degree of configurability. Newly designed interaction and measurement tools are provided, which enable the user to explore the data at large, but also to inspect specific features closely. We demonstrate the system in the context of a cognitive neurosciences dataset. An initial informal evaluation shows that our visualization method is deemed useful for clinical research. [source]


    GABAB receptor expression and function in olfactory receptor neuron axon growth

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Catherine A. Priest
    Abstract Neurotransmitters have been implicated in regulating growth cone motility and guidance in the developing nervous system. Anatomical and electrophysiological studies show the presence of functional GABAB receptors on adult olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) nerve terminals. Using antisera against the GABAB R1a/b receptor isoforms we show that developing mouse olfactory receptor neurons express GABAB receptors from embryonic day 14 through to adulthood. GABAB receptors are present on axon growth cones from both dissociated ORNs and olfactory epithelial explants. Neurons in the olfactory bulb begin to express glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the synthetic enzyme for GABA, from E16 through to adulthood. When dissociated ORNs were cultured in the presence of the GABAB receptor agonists, baclofen or SKF97541, neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced. Concurrent treatment of the neurons with baclofen and the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP54626 prevented the inhibitory effects of baclofen on ORN neurite outgrowth. These results show that growing ORN axons express GABAB receptors and are sensitive to the effects of GABAB receptor activation. Thus, ORNs in vivo may detect GABA release from juxtaglomerular cells as they enter the glomerular layer and use this as a signal to limit their outgrowth and find synaptic targets in regeneration and development. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 60:154,165, 2004 [source]


    Ovicell structure in Callopora dumerilii and C. lineata (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2003
    A. N. Ostrovsky
    Abstract Anatomical and SEM-studies of the brood-chambers (ovicells) in two bryozoans (Callopora dumerilii and C. lineata) were undertaken to resolve a long-term controversy existing in the literature about the origin of the ovicells. In contrast with the interpretation of Silén (1945), both species investigated possess hyperstomial ovicells with the ooecium formed by the distal (daughter) zooid. The ooecial coelomic cavity communicates with the zooidal coelom through a pore-like canal or canals remaining after the closure of an arch-shaped slit. The slit forms during ovicellogenesis. The communication canals are normally plugged by epithelial cells, however incompletely closed canals were also found in Callopora lineata. SEM-studies of noncleaned, air-dried specimens showed a relationship between membranous and calcified parts during early ovicellogenesis. It starts from a transverse wall as the calcification of the proximal part of the daughter zooid frontal wall, and has the shape of two flat rounded plates. There are no knobs or any other outgrowths. Conditions and phenomenology of hyperstomial ovicell formation are discussed. [source]


    Oral mucosa alterations induced by cyclosporin in mice: morphological features

    JOURNAL OF PERIODONTAL RESEARCH, Issue 6 2002
    A. T. Meller
    Background and objective:, The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cyclosporin A-induced gingival hyperplasia are not well understood. The present work aimed at developing a mouse model with the characteristics of the human process, i.e. time of appearance, dose dependency and the capacity of developing in a variety of genetic backgrounds. This model would present the advantages of using a very well known animal species, small and easy to handle, with a number of experimental reagents (antibodies, etc.) already available against its products. Methods:, Three different strains of mice were used: CBA, F1(C57Bl × DBA), Balb/c. Groups of mice received different concentrations of cyclosporin A (CSA) (10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally five times a week. Anatomical and histological alterations were recorded at various time intervals. Results:, All strains of mice presented gingival hyperplasia after 8 weeks of CSA treatment. A dose-dependency was observed with regard to the time of first appearance of alterations. Increased redness was seen in all animals at the sixth week, independent of the dosage used. Histologic examination exhibited increased vascularization, epithelial and connective tissue thickening, edema and a mononuclear infiltrate. Conclusions:, It was possible to develop CSA-induced gingival hyperplasia in mice with the characteristics described in humans and other species. The use of this animal model may help in the elucidation of the process involved in CSA-induced gingival overgrowth. [source]


    Effect of Microparticulate Diets on Growth and Survival of Spotted Sand Bass Larvae, Paralabrax maculatofasciatus, at Two Early Weaning Times

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
    Roberto Civera-Cerecedo
    Early weaning in spotted sand bass larvae, Paralabrax maculatofasciatus, was evaluated, testing a combination of two weaning times, 17 and 22 d after hatching (d.a.h.), and three different microparticulate diets. Protein in diets was mainly from sardine meal and from 15% squid meal, beef blood meal, or fish protein hydrolysate. Anatomical (standard length), histological (gut development), and biochemical (highly unsaturated fatty acids) parameters were measured in larvae, as well as survival and resistance to a stress test measured 40 d.a.h. For larvae weaned at 17 d.a.h., the best growth and survival were obtained with diets containing fish protein hydrolysates; for larvae weaned at 22 d.a.h., best results were obtained with squid meal and fish protein hydrolysate. Growth and survival were significantly lower when using beef blood meal in both weaning treatments. The best relative and total survival were for larvae weaned at 22 d.a.h. After the resistance test, 100% survival occurred in larvae fed on any microparticulate diet and either weaning treatment. No significant differences in arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in fish fed on any diet occurred. Results suggest that weaning at 22 d.a.h. with diets containing fish protein hydrolysate or squid meal is preferred by this species. [source]


    Sheep embryonic stem-like cells transplanted in full-thickness cartilage defects

    JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, Issue 3 2009
    Maria Dattena
    Abstract Articular cartilage regeneration is limited. Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines provide a source of totipotent cells for regenerating cartilage. Anatomical, biomechanical, physiological and immunological similarities between humans and sheep make this animal an optimal experimental model. This study examines the repair process of articular cartilage in sheep after transplantation of ES-like cells isolated from inner cell masses (ICMs) derived from in vitro -produced (IVP) vitrified embryos. Thirty-five ES-like colonies from 40 IVP embryos, positive for stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs), were pooled in groups of two or three, embedded in fibrin glue and transplanted into osteochondral defects in the medial femoral condyles of 14 ewes. Empty defect (ED) and cell-free glue (G) in the controlateral stifle joint served as controls. The Y gene sequence was used to detect ES-like cells in the repair tissue by in situ hybridization (ISH). Two ewes were euthanized at 1 month post-operatively, three each at 2 and 6 months and four at 12 months. Repairing tissue was examined by biomechanical, macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical (collagen type II) and ISH assays. Scores of all treatments showed no statistical significant differences among treatment groups at a given time period, although ES-like grafts showed a tendency toward a better healing process. ISH was positive in all ES-like specimens. This study demonstrates that ES-like cells transplanted into cartilage defects stimulate the repair process to promote better organization and tissue bulk. However, the small number of cells applied and the short interval between surgery and euthanasia might have negatively affected the results. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 3 2007
    Michael Krings
    Summary ,,The Early Devonian Rhynie chert has been critical in documenting early land plant,fungal interactions. However, complex associations involving several fungi that enter into qualitatively different relationships with a single host plant and even interact with one another have not yet been detailed. ,,Here, we studied petrographic thin sections of the Rhynie chert plant Nothia aphylla. ,,Three fungal endophytes (co)occur in prostrate axes of this plant: narrow hyphae producing clusters of small spores; large spherical spores/zoosporangia; and wide aseptate hyphae that form intercellular vesicles in the cortex. Host responses on attack include bulging of infected rhizoids, formation of encasement layers around intracellular hyphae, and separation of infected from uninfected tissues by secondarily thickened cell walls. ,,A complex simultaneous interaction of N. aphylla with three endophytic fungi was discovered. The host responses indicate that some of the mechanisms causing host responses in extant plants were in place 400 million yr ago. Anatomical and life history features of N. aphylla suggest that this plant may have been particularly susceptible to colonization by fungi. [source]


    Anatomical and functional brain imaging using high-resolution echo-planar spectroscopic imaging at 1.5 Tesla

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 4 2005
    Weiliang Du
    Abstract High-resolution echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) of water resonance (i.e. without water suppression) is proposed for anatomic and functional imaging of the human brain at 1.5,T. Water spectra with a resolution of 2.6,Hz and a bandwidth of 333,Hz were obtained in small voxels (1.7,×,1.7,×,3,mm3) across a single slice. Although water spectra appeared Lorentzian in most of the voxels in the brain, non-Lorentzian broadening of the water resonance was observed in voxels containing blood vessels. In functional experiments with a motor task, robust activation in motor cortices was observed in high-resolution T maps generated from the EPSI data. Shift of the water resonance frequency occurred during neuronal activation in motor cortices. The activation areas appeared to be more localized after excluding the voxels in which the lineshape of the water resonance had elevated T and became more non-Lorentzian during the motor task. These preliminary results suggest that high-resolution EPSI is a promising tool to study susceptibility-related effects, such as BOLD contrast, for improved anatomical and functional imaging of the brain. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Electrophysiological evidence for altered early cerebral somatosensory signal processing in schizophrenia

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Till D. Waberski
    Abstract Various studies have indicated an impairment of sensory signal processing in schizophrenic patients. Anatomical and functional imaging studies have indicated morphological and metabolic abnormalities in the thalamus in schizophrenia. Other results give evidence for an additional role of cortical dysfunction in sensory processing in schizophrenia. Advanced analysis of human median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) reveals a brief oscillatory burst of low-amplitude and high-frequency activity (,600 Hz), the so-called high frequency oscillations (HFOs). The present study explores the behavior of HFOs in a cohort of schizophrenic patients in comparison to a group of controls. HFOs in the group of patients appeared with a delayed latency. In the low-frequency part of the SEPs an increase in amplitude was found. These results are interpreted to reflect a lack of somatosensory inhibition in the somatosensory pathway, either at a thalamic or a cortical level. [source]


    First partial face and upper dentition of the Middle Miocene hominoid Dryopithecus fontani from Abocador de Can Mata (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, NE Spain): Taxonomic and phylogenetic implications

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Salvador Moyà-Solà
    Abstract A well-preserved 11.8-million-years-old lower face attributed to the seminal taxon Dryopithecus fontani (Primates, Hominidae) from the Catalan site ACM/C3-Ae of the Hostalets de Pierola area (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, NE Spain) is described. The new data indicate that D. fontani is distinct at the genus level from Late Miocene European taxa previously attributed to Dryopithecus, which are here reassigned to Hispanopithecus. The new facial specimen also suggests that D. fontani and the Middle Miocene Pierolapithecus catalaunicus are not synonymous. Anatomical and morphometric analyses further indicate that the new specimen shows a combination of lower facial features,hitherto unknown in Miocene hominoids,that resembles the facial pattern of Gorilla, thus providing the first nondental evidence of gorilla-like lower facial morphology in the fossil record. Considering the current evidence, the gorilla-like facial pattern of D. fontani is inferred to be derived relative to previously known stem hominids, and might indicate that this taxon is either an early member of the Homininae or, alternatively, a stem hominid convergent with the lower facial pattern of Gorilla. The biogeographic implications of both alternatives are discussed. This new finding in the Hostalets de Pierola section reinforces the importance of this area for understanding the elusive question of the Middle Miocene origin and early radiation of great apes. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Post-Partum Involution of the Canine Uterus , Gross Anatomical and Histological Features

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 2009
    DC Orfanou
    Contents We aimed to study the normal puerperium in the bitch. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in nine bitches, each at a different day after normal whelping; their genital tract was subject to gross anatomical examination, as well as to histological examination and electron microscopy scanning. Corpora albicans were evenly distributed in the left and right ovaries and placental sites were evenly distributed among left and right uterine horns. Placental sites were initially of dark green to grey colour, later becoming dark brown; their length and height progressively decreased. Height of the myometrium and diameter of the uterine glands progressively decreased. Trophoblast-like cells were consistently observed at the placental sites and on the surface of the interplacental areas, at all time points where hysterectomy had been performed. It is suggested that involution of the canine genital tract can last up to 3 months and is slow. Continuous (up to D84 post-partum) presence of prominent placental sites should be considered a normal feature of canine uterine post-partum involution. [source]


    Atypical Fetal Prostate Development is Associated with Ipsilateral Hypoplasia of the Wolffian Ducts in the ACI Rat

    THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Luke E. Hofkamp
    Abstract For over a half century, the ACI (August × Copenhagen) rat has been a primary model for studying renal agenesis and ipsilateral hypoplasia (IHP) of the Wolffian-derived structures (WDS). Because the ACI rat is also used as a model for prostate research, it is important to examine the relationship of IHP and urogenital sinus (UGS) development. The prostate is dependent on androgens for proper growth and differentiation. Alteration in androgen production and/or delivery to the UGS has the potential to perturbate normal development. In this study, we investigate whether the ipsilateral loss of the WDS is associated with altered prostate development. Digital images of serial-sectioned fetal ACI rat UGS were used to create three-dimensional (3-D) surface-rendered models of the developing prostate, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and utricle on gestational day 21. The number and volume of prostate ducts developing from the UGS were calculated from the 3-D model data. Animals exhibiting IHP had a significant decrease in total fetal prostate volume (40%; P < 0.005) with significant regional specific differences when compared with normal male ACI rats. Anatomical and histological differences in the utricle, abnormal histology of the ipsilateral testes, and a truncation of the ipsilateral Wolffian ductal mesenchyme were also seen in the animals with IHP. Additional research is needed to further understand the mechanisms and consequences of IHP on prostate growth and development. Alterations to normal prenatal development of the male accessory sex organs can have important consequences for the growth and morphology of the adult gland. Anat Rec, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Variations in the structure of the prelunate gyrus in Old World monkeys

    THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
    Estel Van Der Gucht
    Abstract Anatomical and electrophysiological studies have revealed a complex organization in the macaque prelunate gyrus. We investigated the morphology and architecture of the prelunate gyrus in Old World monkeys. In Macaca nemestrina, we observed a sulcus crossing the prelunate gyrus within 2 mm of the vertical meridian representation. In other macaque species and other cercopithecines, we observed substantial variations in sulcal morphology across the prelunate gyrus. We did not find a sulcus in all species, and the location and depth of that indentation on the gyrus varied among species. A deep sulcus was observed in all species that emerged earlier in evolution than macaques, such as guenons, baboons, and colobines. We analyzed the regional and parcellation features of the prelunate gyrus in three macaque species, M. maura, M. mulatta, and M. radiata, and in Erythrocebus patas, with emphasis on the relation of structure to the distribution of prelunate visual areas. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein immunoreactivity permitted the delineation of a novel area in the prelunate gyrus of Old World monkeys, located around the prelunate sulcus. Species-specific patterns were also observed in the prelunate gyrus of the patas monkey compared to macaques. These observations, as well as a cladistic analysis of the data, suggest an expanded and diversified organization of the prelunate gyrus in some cercopithecoids that may reflect adaptation to specific ecological environments. It was, however, progressively lost in most macaques, being retained only in species that diverged early in the evolution of the genus Macaca, such as M. nemestrina and M. maura. Anat Rec Part A, 288A:753,775, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Anatomical and Descriptive Study of the Radial Extensor Muscle (M. Extensor Carpi Radialis)

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 6 2000
    F. Cossu
    Summary The M. extensores carpi radiales have been studied in detail in humans. The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative anatomical study of these muscles using four species , rabbit, cat, dog and sheep , and to propose a ,systematization' in a few standard models according to the morphological variations seen. In these species, there is marked morphological evolution, with two muscles in humans, one in sheep and a more or less distinct division of the muscle in the rabbit, cat and dog. Examination of the vascularization and nerve supply enables us to determine degrees of division in species with similar muscle morphology. Thus we were able to distinguish three morphological types which allow us to infer the morphological evolution of the M. extensores carpi radiales and to estimate the point at which one muscle became two. However, there is a strong chance that some process of convergence may have occurred, and in pentadactyl species many elements represent the plesiomorphis and are therefore of little use in constructing a classification on the basis of evolution. [source]


    Anatomical and physiological characteristics of ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) meat determine its nutritional importance for man

    ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2002
    Ross Gordon COOPER
    ABSTRACT The ostrich is increasingly gaining interest as a livestock animal because of its potential to produce healthy red meat with a low fat content. This article describes the characteristics of ostrich meat that allow it to be marketed as a healthy alternative to beef. The muscles utilized for human consumption include the dorsal Muscularis obturatorius medialis and the hindquarters. The trade names of ostrich muscles are currently not standardized and classification is based on location and scientific nomenclature. Meat cuts of a high commercial value reach as much as 80,90% in the ostrich compared with approximately 45% in other species. Described here are key product characteristics important in its marketing, including fat content, cholesterol, fatty acids, sodium, iron, color, flavor and odor, tenderness, pH and water-holding capacity. [source]


    Relationships between endogenous polyamines, cellular structure and arrested growth of grape berries

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 2 2002
    LYDIA COLIN
    Abstract The condition known as ,millerandage' occurs when the growth of grape berries is interrupted early in their development. By harvest, berries in the same bunch will be different sizes, and some will be particularly small. Anatomical studies have revealed that interrupted growth can occur at different stages of berry development, and hormonal factors might be involved. Polyamines are one class of hormones that play an important role in plant morphogenesis, but analysis of polyamine content and composition indicated that berries of bunches with millerandage had the same polyamine composition as those at different stages of development. However, there were differences in relationships between wall-bound polyamine, especially wall-bound DAP, and arrested growth of berries. One key cytological difference was the negative PAS staining of cell walls in very small and in mid-size berries. In biochemical terms, wall-bound polyamine (and in particular wall-bound DAP content), was higher in berries from bunches with millerandage than in normal berries during their development. The present study therefore clearly demonstrates a positive correlation between wall-bound polyamine, especially wall-bound DAP, and arrested growth of berries in bunches with millerandage. [source]


    Ontogenesis of internal secretory cells in leaves of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae)

    BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 4 2005
    MARIA ZABELÊ DANTAS MOURA
    Internal secretory cells may be morphologically indistinguishable from their neighbours except for the presence of secreted material, or they may differ to such an extent that could be classified as secretory idioblasts. Several authors have reported the presence of glandular trichomes secreting essential oil in Verbenaceae, including Lantana. However, none have reported internal secretory cells. Anatomical and histochemical methods applied to Lantana camara leaves revealed the occurrence of internal secretory cells whose ontogenesis and chemical nature are described in this paper. According to leaf developmental analysis, L. camara secretory cells originated from the ground meristem, started to differentiate in the third node leaves, and were actively secreting in the fourth node leaves. The content of the secretory cells was of a lipidic nature, and a terpenoid essence of their secretion was also identified. Based upon differences in size and shape from neighbouring cells and on detection of nonvolatile terpenes, they were confirmed as true internal secretory idioblasts. © 2005 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2005, 148, 427,431. [source]


    Floral anatomy and systematics of Bretschneidera (Bretschneideraceae)

    BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 1 2002
    LOUIS P. RONSE DE CRAENE FLS
    External morphology and anatomy of the flower and pollen of Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl. are described to clarify the position of the family Bretschneideraceae relative to the Sapindales and the glucosinolate-producing families. Anatomical and micromorphological characters are investigated and sections are used to understand the structure of the flower. Observation of buds and sections reveal that the flower is obliquely monosymmetric, with the symmetry line running from one petal to a sepal. The upper petal shields the stamens and pistil and becomes positioned apically by the partial resupination of the pedicel. The octomerous androecium is characterized by variable empty positions which are related to the variable insertion of the three carpels. The loss of stamens is linked with a displacement of the remaining stamens. Floral anatomy demonstrates the presence of a nectary extending on the hypanthium from the base of the filaments to the base of the gynoecium. Details of floral anatomy are compared with members of Sapindaceae, Hippocastanaceae, Moringaceae, Akaniaceae, Tropaeolaceae and Capparaceae. Comparison with other characters supports a close relationship with Akaniaceae and Tropaeolaceae in an order Tropaeolales, in concordance with macromolecular results, either at the base of the glucosinolate clade, or in remote connection with the Sapindales. A number of floral anatomical characters with a strong phylogenetic signal are highlighted. © 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2002, 139, 29,45. [source]


    Ultrasound contrast enhancing agents in neurosonology: principles, methods,future possibilities

    ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2000
    D. W. Droste
    Objectives, Ultrasound of the brain supplying arteries is a standard diagnostic procedure in patients with suspected and definite acute and chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disease. Anatomical and pathological limitations led to the development of echocontrast agents which are able to survive pulmonary and capillary transit and improve the echogenicity of the flowing blood. Material and Methods, This article reviews present and future applications of echocontrast agents in conjunction with personal experiences. Results, Currently, echocontrast is used for the differentiation of internal carotid artery occlusion and pseudoocclusion, better delineation of the maximal narrowing in high-grade stenoses, and better visualization of the extracranial vertebral artery and its collaterals. Transcranial applications include the insufficient foraminal or temporal window, assessment of arteriovenous malformations, thrombosis of cerebral veins and sinuses, and intracranial aneurysms. The use of echocontrast can have direct diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Harmonic imaging, perfusion imaging, stimulated acoustic emission, and drug delivery are possible future domains of the technique. Discussion, Besides the support of conventional neurovascular ultrasound in poor examination conditions due to the patients' anatomy or pathology, echocontrast agents may allow for novel applications in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular patients. [source]


    Anatomical and functional outcome in brilliant blue G assisted chromovitrectomy

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 5 2010
    Paul B. Henrich
    Abstract. Purpose:, To evaluate the potential of brilliant blue G (BBG) for intraoperative staining of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) with respect to staining properties and surgical outcome. Methods:, In a retrospective, non-comparative clinical case series, we analysed 17 consecutive chromovitrectomy interventions for surgery of macular holes, ERMs, vitreoretinal traction syndromes and cystoid macular oedema. Following complete posterior vitreous detachment, BBG was injected into the vitreous cavity at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml, followed by immediate washout. Main outcome measures were staining properties, visual acuity, central visual field testing and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements over a mean follow-up period of 3 months. Results:, ILM staining was somewhat less intensive for BBG than for average indocyanine green (ICG) chromovitrectomy. However, the ILM was removed successfully without additional ICG in 15/17 patients. Postoperative visual acuity was improved in 16/17 patients and remained unchanged in one patient. Central retinal OCT thickness showed a postoperative reduction, with values ranging from +7 to ,295 ,m (median ,89 ,m). Neither visual field defects nor any other adverse events were recorded. Conclusion:, BBG permits sufficient staining for safe ILM removal. In this short-term study, good anatomical and functional results were achieved and no adverse events were observed. [source]


    Bicanalicular double silicone intubation in external dacryocystorhinostomy and canaliculoplasty for distal canalicular obstruction

    ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 4 2009
    Sang Won Hwang
    Abstract. Purpose:, We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of bicanalicular double silicone intubation in dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and canaliculoplasty for distal or common canalicular obstruction. Methods:, We reviewed the medical records of patients with distal or common canalicular obstruction who had undergone bicanalicular double silicone intubation (insertion of two tubes into each canaliculus) during external DCR and canaliculoplasty. We reviewed the records of subjects who had undergone the same surgery with a bicanalicular single intubation as control material. The tubes were removed at around 6 months after surgery. Anatomical and functional success rates of patients who were followed up for > 2 months after the removal of tube(s) were evaluated. In addition, complications related to the silicone tube were evaluated. Results:, Data for 60 eyes of 45 patients in the double-intubation group and 69 eyes of 65 patients in the single-intubation group were retrieved. The double-intubation group showed higher anatomical success rates (96.5%) than the single-intubation group (85.5%). Functional success was achieved by 53 (88.3%) of 60 eyes in the double-intubation group and 56 (81.2%) of 69 eyes in the single-intubation group. There was no significant difference in complication rates between the two groups. Conclusions:, Bicanalicular double silicone intubation for DCR and canaliculoplasty may be an effective mode of treatment for patients with distal or common canalicular obstruction. [source]


    William Hunter's Gravid Uterus: The specimens and plates

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 4 2002
    N.A. McCulloch
    Abstract William Hunter's collection of anatomical specimens of the pregnant uterus forms one of the finest displays in the Anatomy Museum at the University of Glasgow. We were interested to know which specimens in the Museum matched the plates in Hunter's The Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus Exhibited in Figures (1774). In our investigation we were greatly assisted by Teacher's Catalogue of the Anatomical and Pathological Preparations of Dr William Hunter (1900). Thirteen specimens in the Museum and one from the pathological collection at the Royal Infirmary are represented in Hunter's book. The specimens can be recognized in 25 of its illustrations. A further three specimens may correspond to figures but we could not prove this. With one possible exception, all the specimens matching plates noted in Teacher's catalogue remain in the Museum and one believed missing in Marshall's (1970) revision of the catalogue has been found. Clin. Anat. 15:253,262, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Activation of the basal forebrain by the orexin/hypocretin neurones

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    E. Arrigoni
    Abstract The orexin neurones play an essential role in driving arousal and in maintaining normal wakefulness. Lack of orexin neurotransmission produces a chronic state of hypoarousal characterized by excessive sleepiness, frequent transitions between wake and sleep, and episodes of cataplexy. A growing body of research now suggests that the basal forebrain (BF) may be a key site through which the orexin-producing neurones promote arousal. Here we review anatomical, pharmacological and electrophysiological studies on how the orexin neurones may promote arousal by exciting cortically projecting neurones of the BF. Orexin fibres synapse on BF cholinergic neurones and orexin-A is released in the BF during waking. Local application of orexins excites BF cholinergic neurones, induces cortical release of acetylcholine and promotes wakefulness. The orexin neurones also contain and probably co-release the inhibitory neuropeptide dynorphin. We found that orexin-A and dynorphin have specific effects on different classes of BF neurones that project to the cortex. Cholinergic neurones were directly excited by orexin-A, but did not respond to dynorphin. Non-cholinergic BF neurones that project to the cortex seem to comprise at least two populations with some directly excited by orexin-A that may represent wake-active, GABAergic neurones, whereas others did not respond to orexin-A but were inhibited by dynorphin and may be sleep-active, GABAergic neurones. This evidence suggests that the BF is a key site through which orexins activate the cortex and promote behavioural arousal. In addition, orexins and dynorphin may act synergistically in the BF to promote arousal and improve cognitive performance. [source]


    Cnidarians and the evolutionary origin of the nervous system

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 3 2009
    Hiroshi Watanabe
    Cnidarians are widely regarded as one of the first organisms in animal evolution possessing a nervous system. Conventional histological and electrophysiological studies have revealed a considerable degree of complexity of the cnidarian nervous system. Thanks to expressed sequence tags and genome projects and the availability of functional assay systems in cnidarians, this simple nervous system is now genetically accessible and becomes particularly valuable for understanding the origin and evolution of the genetic control mechanisms underlying its development. In the present review, the anatomical and physiological features of the cnidarian nervous system and the interesting parallels in neurodevelopmental mechanisms between Cnidaria and Bilateria are discussed. [source]


    Disruption of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 signaling results in defects in cellular differentiation, neuronal patterning, and hearing impairment,

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 7 2007
    Chandrakala Puligilla
    Abstract Deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) leads to hearing impairment in mice due to defects in the development of the organ of Corti, the sensory epithelium of the Cochlea. To examine the role of FGFR3 in auditory development, cochleae from Fgfr3,/, mice were examined using anatomical and physiological methods. Deletion of Fgfr3 leads to the absence of inner pillar cells and an increase in other cell types, suggesting that FGFR3 regulates cell fate. Defects in outer hair cell differentiation were also observed and probably represent the primary basis for hearing loss. Furthermore, innervation defects were detected consistent with changes in the fiber guidance properties of pillar cells. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of FGFR3, we examined the expression of Bmp4, a known target. Bmp4 was increased in Fgfr3,/, cochleae, and exogenous application of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) onto cochlear explants induced a significant increase in the outer hair cells, suggesting the Fgf and Bmp signaling act in concert to pattern the cochlea. Developmental Dynamics 236:1905,1917, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Cell proliferation in the Rana catesbeiana auditory medulla over metamorphic development

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Judith A. Chapman
    Abstract During metamorphic development, bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) undergo substantial morphological, anatomical, and physiological changes as the animals prepare for the transition from a fully-aquatic to a semi-terrestrial existence. Using BrdU incorporation and immunohistochemistry, we quantify changes in cell proliferation in two key auditory brainstem nuclei, the dorsolateral nucleus and the superior olivary nucleus, over the course of larval and early postmetamorphic development. From hatchling through early larval stages, numbers of proliferating cells increase in both nuclei, paralleling the overall increase in total numbers of cells available for labeling. Numbers of proliferating cells in the superior olivary nucleus decrease during the late larval and deaf periods, and significantly increase during metamorphic climax. Proliferating cells in the dorsolateral nucleus increase in number from hatchling to late larval stages, decrease during the deaf period, and increase during climax. In both nuclei, numbers of proliferating cells decrease during the postmetamorphic froglet stage, despite increases in the number of cells available for label. Newly generated cells express either glial- or neural-specific phenotypes beginning between 1 week and 1 month post-BrdU injection, respectively, while some new cells express ,-aminobutyric acid within 2 days of mitosis. Our data show that these auditory nuclei dramatically up-regulate mitosis immediately prior to establishment of a transduction system based on atmospheric hearing. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2005 [source]


    Temperature perception and nociception

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Barry G. Green
    Abstract The specificity theory of somesthesis holds that perceptions of warmth, cold, and pain are served by separate senses. Although no longer accepted in all its details, the theory's basic assumptions of anatomical and functional specificity have remained guiding principles in research on temperature perception and its relationship to pain. This article reviews the response characteristics of thermoreceptors, temperature-sensitive nociceptors, and their associated pathways in the context of old and new perceptual phenomena, most of which cannot be satisfactorily explained by the specificity theory. The evidence indicates that throughout most of the perceptual range, temperature sensitivity depends upon coactivation of, and interactions among, thermal and nociceptive pathways that are composed of both specific "labeled lines" and nonspecific, multimodal fibers. Adding to this complexity is evidence that tactile stimulation can influence the way in which thermal stimulation is perceived. It is argued that thermoreception is best defined as a functional subsystem of somesthesis that serves the very different and sometimes conflicting demands of thermoregulation, protection from thermal injury, and haptic perception. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 61: 13,29, 2004 [source]


    Complementary expression and heterophilic interactions between igLON family members neurotrimin and LAMP

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    Orlando D. Gil
    Abstract Neurotrimin (Ntm) and the limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP) are members of the IgLON (LAMP, OBCAM, Ntm) family of glycorylphosphatidylinositol anchored neural cell adhesion molecules. We previously reported that LAMP and Ntm promote adhesion and neurite outgrowth via a homophilic mechanism, suggesting that these proteins promote the formation of specific neuronal circuits by homophilic interactions. In this report, we have further characterized the expression and binding specificity of Ntm. Using a newly generated monoclonal antibody to Ntm, we demonstrated that this protein is largely expressed in a complementary pattern to that of LAMP in the nervous system, with co-expression at a few sites. Ntm is expressed at high levels in sensory-motor cortex and, of particular note, is transiently expressed in neurons of cortical barrel fields and corresponding thalamic "barreloids." Binding of a recombinant, soluble form of Ntm to CHO cells expressing either Ntm or LAMP demonstrates that Ntm and LAMP interact both homophilically and heterophilically. In contrast to conventional growth-promoting activity of Ig superfamily members, LAMP strongly inhibits the outgrowth of Ntm-expressing dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a heterophilic manner. These anatomical and functional data support the concept that homophilic and heterophilic interactions between IgLON family members are likely to play a role in the specification of neuronal projections via growth promoting and inhibiting effects, respectively. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 51: 190,204, 2002 [source]


    Phylogenetic analysis of the pearlfish tribe Carapini (Pisces: Carapidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2000
    E. Parmentier
    Abstract Fishes of the tribe Carapini (Encheliophis and Carapus) share a noteworthy peculiarity: they shelter in holothurian echinoderms or bivalve hosts. Some species are considered parasitic, others commensal. This study focuses on the phylogeny of the tribe, using two other Carapidae species as an outgroup (Snyderidia canina and Onuxodon fowleri). Insofar as possible, the selected anatomical and behavioural characters where chosen in an ecomorphological perspective, as features that could be responses to various lifestyle-related constraints. Our character selection also took into account the fact that some features are (presumably) linked. Such features were grouped together as a single trait to avoid their overvaluation. This methodology enabled commensals to be separated from parasites, the former belonging to Carapus and the latter to Encheliophis. Carapus species reflect in their morphology the constraints imposed by a diet of hard, mobile, elusive prey, showing predator-type features: a strong dentition, a wide mouth opening, a robust food intake apparatus. On the other hand, the endoparasitic Encheliophis species show a generally weaker buccal apparatus and narrow mouth opening, in relation to the different constraints of their lifestyle where the diet constraints are less pronounced: they eat body parts of their host. Changes in both generic diagnoses are proposed and three species are transferred from Encheliophis to Carapus. [source]


    End-to-end jejuno-ileal anastomosis following resection of strangulated small intestine in horses: a comparative study

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2005
    D. I. RENDLE
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Small intestinal resection and anastomosis is a relatively common procedure in equine surgical practice. This study was designed to test objectively the subjective opinions of surgeons at the Liphook Equine Hospital that an end-to-end jejuno-ileal anastomosis (JIA) is an effective and clinically justifiable procedure, contrary to conventional recommendations. Hypothesis: An end-to-end JIA carries no greater risk of morbidity and mortality than an end-to-end jejunojejunal anastomosis (JJA). Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed on a population of 100 horses that had undergone small intestinal resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Two groups were identified; Group 1 (n = 30) had undergone an end-to-end JIA and Group 2 (n = 70) an end-to-end JJA. The 2 populations were tested for pre- and intraoperative comparability and for their equivalence of outcomes. Results: The 2 populations were comparable in terms of their distributions of preoperative parameters and type of lesion present. The observations used as outcome parameters (incidence risk of post operative colic, incidence risk of post operative ileus, duration of post operative ileus, rates of functioning original anastomoses at the time of discharge and at 12 months, survival rates at 6 months and 12 months) were equivalent between the 2 groups. Conclusion: End-to-end JIA carries no greater risk of morbidity and mortality than an end-to-end JJA. Potential relevance: Surgeons faced with strangulating obstructions involving the jejuno-ileal junction in which there remains an accessible length of viable terminal ileum may reasonably perform an end-to-end JIA. This has the potentially significant advantage over a jejunocaecal anastomosis of preserving more anatomical and physiological normality to the intestinal tract. The study was, however, relatively small for an equivalence study and greater confidence would be gained with higher numbers. [source]