Analytic Procedures (analytic + procedure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Antecedents and outcomes of workplace incivility: Implications for human resource development research and practice

Thomas G. Reio Jr.
This cross-sectional, correlational study (N = 402) examined the relationships among select demographics, workplace adaptation, employee affect, and incivility and physical health and job satisfaction. The paper-and-pencil survey battery consisted of nine scales. The hypotheses were tested through correlational, factor analytic, and hierarchical regression analytic procedures. Younger males engaged more frequently in uncivil behavior. After statistically controlling for the demographic variables, high negative affect and low degree of establishing relationships with coworkers and supervisors (adaptation) predicted more incivility. For the physical health model, establishing relationships with coworkers and positive affect positively contributed to perceived physical health, while organizational incivility negatively contributed to the dependent variable. As for the job satisfaction model, establishing relationships with coworkers and supervisors and positive affect positively predicted satisfaction, whereas negative affect and incivility made negative contributions to the regression equation. In all cases, the magnitude of effect ranged from medium to large, supporting the theoretical, empirical, and practical relevance of understanding the detrimental effects of uncivil behaviors on organizational outcomes. HRD researchers and professionals are highlighted as possible means for reducing uncivil workplace behaviors and improving organizational performance. [source]

Finding the Findings in Qualitative Studies

Margarete Sandelowski
Purpose: To describe the challenges of finding the findings in qualitative studies. Method: Review of literature on representation in qualitative research and analysis of 99 reports of qualitative studies of women with HIV infection. Findings: Factors complicating finding the findings in qualitative studies include varied reporting styles, misrepresentation of data and analytic procedures as findings, misuse of quotes and theory, and lack of clarity concerning pattern and theme. Theses and dissertations present special challenges because they often contain several of these problems. Conclusions: Given the varied beliefs about findings among qualitative researchers, the challenge is to find ways to present findings that will make them discernible to the diverse audiences for whom they are intended, including researchers and practitioners. [source]

Practitioner Review: The assessment of language pragmatics

Catherine Adams
Background: The assessment of pragmatics expressed in spoken language is a central issue in the evaluation of children with communication impairments and related disorders. A developmental approach to assessment has remained problematic due to the complex interaction of social, linguistic, cognitive and cultural influences on pragmatics. Method: A selective review and critique of current formal and informal testing methods and pragmatic analytic procedures. Results: Formal testing of pragmatics has limited potential to reveal the typical pragmatic abnormalities in interaction but has a significant role to play in the assessment of comprehension of pragmatic intent. Clinical assessment of pragmatics with the pre-school child should focus on elicitation of communicative intent via naturalistic methods as part of an overall assessment of social communication skills. Assessments for older children should include a comprehensive investigation of speech acts, conversational and narrative abilities, the understanding of implicature and intent as well as the child's ability to employ contextual cues to understanding. Practical recommendations are made regarding the choice of a core set of pragmatic assessments and elicitation techniques. The practitioner's attention is drawn to the lack of the usual safeguards of reliability and validity that have persisted in some language pragmatics assessments. Conclusions: A core set of pragmatic assessment tools can be identified from the proliferation of instruments in current use. Further research is required to establish clearer norms and ranges in the development of pragmatic ability, particularly with respect to the understanding of inference, topic management and coherence. [source]

Subgrouping of fibromyalgia patients on the basis of pressure-pain thresholds and psychological factors

Thorsten Giesecke
Objective Although the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for fibromyalgia are used to identify individuals with both widespread pain and tenderness, individuals who meet these criteria are not a homogeneous group. Patients differ in their accompanying clinical symptoms, as well as in the relative contributions of biologic, psychological, and cognitive factors to their symptom expression. Therefore, it seems useful to identify subsets of fibromyalgia patients on the basis of which of these factors are present. Previous attempts at identifying subsets have been based solely on psychological and cognitive features. In this study, we attempt to identify patient subsets by incorporating these features as well as the degree of hyperalgesia/tenderness, which is a key neurobiologic feature of this illness. Methods Ninety-seven individuals meeting the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia finished the same battery of self-report and evoked-pain testing. Analyzed variables were obtained from several domains, consisting of 1) mood (evaluated by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [for depression] and the State-Trait Personality Inventory [for symptoms of trait-related anxiety]), 2) cognition (by the catastrophizing and control of pain subscales of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire), and 3) hyperalgesia/tenderness (by dolorimetry and random pressure-pain applied at suprathreshold values). Cluster analytic procedures were used to distinguish subgroups of fibromyalgia patients based on these domains. Results Three clusters best fit the data. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that each variable was differentiated by the cluster solution (Wilks' , [degrees of freedom 6,89] = 0.123, P < 0.0001), with univariate ANOVAs also indicating significant differences (all P < 0.05). One subgroup of patients (n = 50) was characterized by moderate mood ratings, moderate levels of catastrophizing and perceived control over pain, and low levels of tenderness. A second subgroup (n = 31) displayed significantly elevated values on the mood assessments, the highest values on the catastrophizing subscale, the lowest values for perceived control over pain, and high levels of tenderness. The third group (n = 16) had normal mood ratings, very low levels of catastrophizing, and the highest level of perceived control over pain, but these subjects showed extreme tenderness on evoked-pain testing. Conclusion These data help support the clinical impression that there are distinct subgroups of patients with fibromyalgia. There appears to be a group of fibromyalgia patients who exhibit extreme tenderness but lack any associated psychological/cognitive factors, an intermediate group who display moderate tenderness and have normal mood, and a group in whom mood and cognitive factors may be significantly influencing the symptom report. [source]

Advanced Statistics: Missing Data in Clinical Research,Part 1: An Introduction and Conceptual Framework

Jason S. Haukoos MD
Missing data are commonly encountered in clinical research. Unfortunately, they are often neglected or not properly handled during analytic procedures, and this may substantially bias the results of the study, reduce study power, and lead to invalid conclusions. In this two-part series, the authors will introduce key concepts regarding missing data in clinical research, provide a conceptual framework for how to approach missing data in this setting, describe typical mechanisms and patterns of censoring of data and their relationships to specific methods of handling incomplete data, and describe in detail several simple and more complex methods of handling such data. In part 1, the authors will describe relatively simple approaches to handling missing data, including complete-case analysis, available-case analysis, and several forms of single imputation, including mean imputation, regression imputation, hot and cold deck imputation, last observation carried forward, and worst case analysis. In part 2, the authors will describe in detail multiple imputation, a more sophisticated and valid method for handling missing data. [source]

Are normal and complicated grief different constructs?

A confirmatory factor analytic test
Nowadays, much debate in the bereavement domain is directed towards the inclusion of Complicated Grief (CG) as a separate category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Important within this discussion is the conceptual relationship between CG reactions and normal grief (NG) reactions. This study aims at elucidating this relationship by using data from 456 bereaved young adults, aged 17 to 25 years. We examined the structural distinctiveness of CG and NG reactions, using two criteria sets. The first set ties in with previous research in bereaved adults on the distinctiveness of CG and NG and allows to test the replicability of earlier findings. The second set links up with the recently revised criteria for CG and permits to investigate whether earlier findings hold for the new criteria. For both sets, two models for NG and CG were compared using confirmatory factor analytic procedures. These analyses revealed that CG and NG reactions can be distinguished by their very nature, except for one CG reaction (viz. ,yearning'), that loaded on both factors.,Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]