Analytic Framework (analytic + framework)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Solidarity and the Common Good: An Analytic Framework

William Rehg
First page of article [source]

Linearity in rhetorical organisation: a comparative cross-cultural analysis of newstext from the People's Republic of China and Australia

Guy RamsayArticle first published online: 3 APR 200
Second or foreign language teachers would be familiar with student comments such as, "I can't follow what they're saying!", "What are they getting at?", or "What's their point?", particularly when reading L2 texts of considerable length. This paper seeks to address the issues premised by such comments made by L2 learners of Modern Standard Chinese, within the rubric of contrastive rhetoric studies. Such studies to date have produced equivocal evidence of variation in rhetorical organisation across culturo-linguistic groups. In order to contribute to this continuing debate, this study employs the Rhetorical Structure Theory analytic framework to produce pictorial representations of lengthy Chinese and Australian news journal text. Results obtained clearly demonstrate the feasibility of using the RST framework in this kind of analysis. While the small size of the newstext corpus severely limits the generality of other findings, they give tentative support to the contrastive rhetoric hypothesis. Pedagogical implications include the benefits of promoting awareness of such cross-cultural variation within the L2 classroom. [source]

"Grab the Signatures and Run": Federal Unity Strategy in Canada from the Referendum to Patriation

Neal Carter
Whether as a traumatic event or great accomplishment, the legacy of the First Ministers' Conference of 1981 lives on in Canadian politics. Constitutional negotiations among the prime minister and provincial premiers in 1981 produced the only "packaged" agreement since Confederation to achieve even the minimal support necessary to achieve ratification. The resulting Constitution Act of 1982, which included the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, remains in place and is the principal manifestation of intergovernmental bargaining from over two decades ago. This study reevaluates the strategic interaction and conflict processes that took place between Ottawa and the provinces in negotiations leading up to that fateful November 1981 conference. We apply the sociological framework for assessment of the dynamics of identity contention adopted from McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly (2001) and find tentative support for its propositions. After an overview of the article's agenda, we present an analytic framework for the study of conflict processes. Second, the background to the constitutional crisis of 1980-81 is summarized. Using the analytic framework, the third section focuses on the federal strategy in the crisis as suggested by minutes from cabinet meetings, and the fourth section examines key events of the First Ministers Conference of November 1981. Fifth, and finally, the contributions of the preceding sections are summed up and ideas are put forward for further research. [source]

John Heron's six-category intervention analysis: towards understanding interpersonal relations and progressing the delivery of clinical supervision for mental health nursing in the United Kingdom

Graham Sloan BSc DipN RMN RGN DipCogPsychotherapy
John Heron's six-category intervention analysis: towards understanding interpersonal relations and progressing the delivery of clinical supervision for mental health nursing in the United Kingdom Aims.,This paper provides a critique of how Heron's six-category intervention analysis framework has been adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom (UK) as a theoretical framework in nursing research and model for clinical supervision. From this, its merits as an analytic framework and model for clinical supervision in nursing are discussed. Background.,Heron's six-category intervention analysis has been acknowledged as a means by which nursing could develop its therapeutic integrity. It has also been used as a theoretical framework in nursing research focusing on nurses' perceptions of their interpersonal style. More recently descriptions of this framework have been proposed as a structure for clinical supervision. However, its use as a theoretical framework to underpin research investigating the interpersonal skills of nurses and as a model of clinical supervision must firstly be scrutinized. Findings.,Returning to Heron's original description and comparing this with its current adoption in the UK, misconceptions of this framework can be identified. Its value as an analytic tool investigating interpersonal relations in nursing has still to be evaluated. Furthermore, nursing's emphasis on certain intervention categories has undermined the potential potency of this framework and its contribution as a model for clinical supervision in nursing. Conclusion.,We argue that Heron's six-category intervention analysis as a framework to investigate the interpersonal competence of nurses, particularly mental health nurses, requires investigation. This, in turn, would provide an opportunity to challenge the framework's theoretical standpoint. In addition to its value as an analytic tool, all six categories of Heron's framework have equal relevance to its contribution in nursing as a supervision model. [source]

Using private demand studies to calculate socially optimal vaccine subsidies in developing countries

Joseph Cook
Although it is well known that vaccines against many infectious diseases confer positive economic externalities via indirect protection, analysts have typically ignored possible herd protection effects in policy analyses of vaccination programs. Despite a growing literature on the economic theory of vaccine externalities and several innovative mathematical modeling approaches, there have been almost no empirical applications. The first objective of the paper is to develop a transparent, accessible economic framework for assessing the private and social economic benefits of vaccination. We also describe how stated preference studies (for example, contingent valuation and choice modeling) can be useful sources of economic data for this analytic framework. We demonstrate socially optimal policies using a graphical approach, starting with a standard textbook depiction of Pigouvian subsidies applied to herd protection from vaccination programs. We also describe nonstandard depictions that highlight some counterintuitive implications of herd protection that we feel are not commonly understood in the applied policy literature. We illustrate the approach using economic and epidemiological data from two neighborhoods in Kolkata, India. We use recently published epidemiological data on the indirect effects of cholera vaccination in Matlab, Bangladesh (Ali et al., 2005) for fitting a simple mathematical model of how protection changes with vaccine coverage. We use new data on costs and private demand for cholera vaccines in Kolkata, India, and approximate the optimal Pigouvian subsidy. We find that if the optimal subsidy is unknown, selling vaccines at full marginal cost may, under some circumstances, be a preferable second-best option to providing them for free. 2009 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]

A hierarchical modelling framework for identifying unusual performance in health care providers

David I. Ohlssen
Summary. A wide variety of statistical methods have been proposed for detecting unusual performance in cross-sectional data on health care providers. We attempt to create a unified framework for comparing these methods, focusing on a clear distinction between estimation and hypothesis testing approaches, with the corresponding distinction between detecting ,extreme' and ,divergent' performance. When assuming a random-effects model the random-effects distribution forms the null hypothesis, and there appears little point in testing whether individual effects are greater or less than average. The hypothesis testing approach uses p -values as summaries and brings with it the standard problems of multiple testing, whether Bayesian or classical inference is adopted. A null random-effects formulation allows us to answer appropriate questions of the type: ,is a particular provider worse than we would expect the true worst provider (but still part of the null distribution) to be'? We outline a broad three-stage strategy of exploratory detection of unusual providers, detailed modelling robust to potential outliers and confirmation of unusual performance, illustrated by using two detailed examples. The concepts are most easily handled within a Bayesian analytic framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, but the basic ideas should be generally applicable. [source]

Interpersonal Expectations as the Building Blocks of Social Cognition: An Interdependence Theory Perspective

John G. Holmes
In this paper I use interdependence theory as an analytic framework for depicting the logically interconnected network of expectations that determines social interaction. The framework focuses on expectations about a partner's goals (B) relevant to particular interdependence situations (S), and suggests that expectations about these two elements define the social situation that activates a person's own goals (A). Together, these elements determine interaction behavior (I). This SABI framework is complementary to Mischel and Shoda's (1995) CAPS theory of personality in its logic. It depicts a person's interpersonal dispositions as having profiles or signatures dependent on both the expected features of situations and the expected dispositions of partners. A taxonomic theory for classifying both situations and the functionally relevant goals of interaction partners is outlined. Research on attachment theory and trust is used to illustrate the model. Finally, I suggest that people's expectations about partners' prosocial motivations,their perceived responsiveness toward the self,play an imperial role in social cognition, and, further, that complex SABI models can be seen as detailing a set of security operations that serve as a program for social action. SABI models detail the set of mechanisms that constitute the basic survival kit of interpersonal relations. [source]

Presidential Leadership: Skill in Context

POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 2 2002
Erwin C. Hargrove
The essay illustrates the value of studying individual presidents consecutively across time in order to compare and assess the relative importance of personal political skill in political and historical contexts. The presidency is the primary source of moral agency in American politics, and policy and agency occur in the leadership of individuals. An analytic framework to compare presidents encompasses the historical context; the skill factor; leadership strategies and tactics; and the assessment of results of skill in contexts. Use of the framework will permit systematic comparison of presidents in relation to the ad hoc ahistorical comparisons that permeate journalism and some scholarship. Narratives of leadership in domestic, economic, and foreign policy are presented for presidents Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton. This approach achieves an understanding of presidential leadership that cannot be achieved by work that bemoans the small N and focuses on pieces of the presidential institution, without including the president, because the dynamics of leadership shape the institution more than the reverse. Among the conclusions are that skill and context reinforce each other in policy achievement; skill can be effective at the margins, even in unfavorable contexts; ineptness makes a difference for the worse; and cumulative presidents may resolve policy problems across time as each contributes a step on the way. [source]