Analysis Programme (analysis + programme)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2007
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory pottery provenance group developed standards and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods that are used at many archaeometry laboratories around the world. The background and development of ,Standard Pottery' and of methods for INAA are described. Early pottery provenance studies are described, and other research programmes, involving obsidian and magmatic mixing, the origin of the stone used for the Colossi of Memnon, and the ,Plate of Brass', are mentioned. Research work by the Laboratory included the discovery of the world-wide iridium anomaly and extensive subsequent research on what has come to be known as the ,Asteroid Impact Theory'. Characteristics of the analytical programme for pottery provenance work, including overall aims, precision and accuracy, intercalibration, and irradiation and measurement protocols, are discussed. New research areas developed in the past 15 years, to broaden the usefulness of chemical compositional data for archaeological investigation, and examples of recent work, are described. This research, which makes use of high-precision X-ray fluorescence analysis in addition to INAA measurements on sample splits, includes distinguishing the products of different workshops located at the same production site, studies on the significance of the distribution of silver in archaeological pottery and the use of high-precision chemical compositional data as an aid for making chronological distinctions. [source]

Percentage of filled canal area in mandibular molars after conventional root-canal instrumentation and after a noninstrumentation technique (NIT)

C. N. Ardila
Abstract Aim, To compare the percentage of filled canal area in mandibular molar roots after using conventional root-canal hand instrumentation or after a noninstrumentation technique (NIT). Methodology, Forty mandibular molars were used shortly after extraction. The root canals of 20 molars in the manual group were conventionally prepared using hand instruments and then filled with warm vertical compaction of gutta-percha. The 20 teeth in the second group were cleaned and obturated by NIT. In each case, the entire molar, including the crown and the roots, was embedded in an acrylic resin cylinder before NIT. Horizontal sections were cut at 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm from the apex. Images of the sections were taken using a microscope at 40 magnification and a digital camera; the images were scanned as Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) images into a PC. The cross-sectional area of the canal with the filling materials was measured using an image analysis programme. The percentage of filled area was calculated. The difference in the percentage of filled canal area between the two groups was analysed using a Student's t -test. Results, At all levels, 93,100% of the canal area was filled in both groups. No significant difference was found between the manual technique and the NIT technique at any level (P > 0.05). Conclusions, Within the limitations of this study, following the cleaning and filling of root canals using NIT, the percentage of filled root canal was similar to that using warm vertical compaction of gutta-percha after conventional root-canal instrumentation. [source]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues in the sediments of a dune lake as a result of power boating

Thorsten D. Mosisch
Abstract The potential chemical effects of motorized recreational activities (power boating, water skiing, jet skiing) on Brown Lake, an Australian perched, acid dune lake, were investigated. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) that may have accumulated in the water and/or the organic bottom sediments of the test lake as a result of the operation of powered recreational watercraft, and to evaluate any risk to aquatic biota. To achieve this, a detailed sampling and analysis programme of the lake water and sediments was implemented. Basic water quality, ionic and nutrient data gave no indication of any deterioration in the water quality of the lake, which was attributable to human usage in general or motorized recreational activities in particular. However, analysis of samples taken from the organic bottom sediments of the lake revealed the presence of 10 PAH, including benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene and pyrene, which are known to be indicative of fossil fuel combustion processes. Three PAH compounds were found at all survey sites: benzo(a)pyrene (in 46% of samples), fluoranthene (in 53% of samples) and pyrene (in 44% of samples). Results of the analyses were compared with values from published guidelines for residues in freshwaters and sediments, as well as with previous studies dealing with the effects of fossil fuel combustion products on lakes. The highest PAH concentrations in sediments were recorded for benzo(a)pyrene, with three values (830, 955 and 1070 ,g kg,1 dryweight) exceeding the upper threshold recommended in the draft Canadian freshwater sediment quality guidelines. Benzo(a)pyrene also exceeded the lower Canadian sediment threshold in 51 (40%) samples. These results indicate a significant level of chemical contamination of Brown Lake as a consequence of four decades of motorized recreational activities and present a significant risk to aquatic biota, particularly benthic and littoral invertebrates associated with the contaminated sediments. [source]

Effects of unilateral laser-assisted ventriculocordectomy in horses with laryngeal hemiplegia

Summary Reasons for performing study: Recent studies have evaluated surgical techniques aimed at reducing noise and improving airway function in horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). These techniques require general anaesthesia and are invasive. A minimally invasive transnasal surgical technique for treatment of RLN that may be employed in the standing, sedated horse would be advantageous. Objective: To determine whether unilateral laser-assisted ventriculocordectomy (LVC) improves upper airway function and reduces noise during inhalation in exercising horses with laryngeal hemiplegia (LH). Methods: Six Standardbred horses were used; respiratory sound and inspiratory transupper airway pressure (Pui) measured before and after induction of LH, and 60, 90 and 120 days after LVC. Inspiratory sound level (SL) and the sound intensities of formants 1, 2 and 3 (F1, F2 and F3, respectively), were measured using computer-based sound analysis programmes. In addition, upper airway endoscopy was performed at each time interval, at rest and during treadmill exercise. Results: In LH-affected horses, Pui, SL and the sound intensity of F2 and F3 were increased significantly from baseline values. At 60 days after LVC, Pui and SL had returned to baseline, and F2 and F3 values had improved partially compared to LH values. At 90 and 120 days, however, SL increased again to LH levels. Conclusions: LVC decreases LH-associated airway obstruction by 60 days after surgery, and reduces inspiratory noise but not as effectively as bilateral ventriculocordectomy. Potential relevance: LVC may be recommended as a treatment of LH, where reduction of upper airway obstruction and respiratory noise is desired and the owner wishes to avoid risks associated with a laryngotomy incision or general anaesthesia. [source]