Analysis Need (analysis + need)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Rietveld quantitative amorphous content analysis

A. G. De La Torre
A procedure for Rietveld quantitative amorphous content analysis (RQACA) is outlined, in which the effects of systematic errors in the powder patterns are studied. The method derives the amorphous content from the small overestimation of an internal crystalline standard in a Rietveld refinement of an appropriate mixture. Of several standards studied, Al2O3 gave the best results. The statistical analysis of standard mixtures with a known amount of amorphous content indicated that this is a precise and accurate tool. It enables the measurement of the amorphous content with an accuracy close to 1%. Sample preparation and Rietveld analysis need to be optimized in order to minimize the systematic errors. The analysis of samples with phases displaying strong preferred orientation effects gives very high errors in the amorphous content. Samples with different absorption coefficients have also been studied in order to evaluate the importance of microabsorption. This plays an important role but it can be adequately corrected if the absorption coefficients of the standard and the sample are not very different. RQACA has been applied to tricalcium silicate, C3S, which is the main component of Portland cement. The average amorphous content of C3S, after microabsorption correction using two standards of higher and lower absorption coefficients, was found to be 19%. [source]

Multi-block and path modelling procedures

Agnar Höskuldsson
Abstract The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one or more intermediate data blocks. The output data blocks are those that are at the ends of the paths and have no succeeding data blocks. The optimisation procedure finds weights for the input data blocks so that the size of the total loadings for the output data blocks are maximised. When the optimal weight vectors have been determined, the score and loading vectors for the data blocks in the path are determined. Appropriate adjustment of the data blocks is carried out at each step. Regression coefficients are computed for each data block that show how the data block is estimated by data blocks that lead to it. Methods of standard regression analysis are extended to this type of modelling. Three types of ,strengths' of relationship are computed for each set of two connected data blocks. First is the strength in the path, second the strength where only the data blocks leading to the last one are used and third if only the two are considered. Cross-validation and other standard methods of linear regression are carried out in a similar manner. In industry, processes are organised in different ways. It can be useful to model the processes in the way they are carried out. By proper alignment of sub-processes, overall model can be specified. There can be several useful path models during the process, where the data blocks in a path are the ones that are actual or important at given stages of the process. Data collection equipments are getting more and more advanced and cheap. Data analysis need to ,catch up' with the challenges that these new technology provides with. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Highly automated and fast determination of raffinose family oligosaccharides in Lupinus seeds using pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

David Bansleben
Abstract BACKGROUND: Taking into account several requirements for the determination of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) from Lupinus seeds,e.g., conducting plant breeding projects or food product development,a reasonable combination of efficient automated sample preparation and reliable analysis need to be developed and validated. RESULTS: In this regard pressurized liquid extraction was applied to extract the RFOs from ground and defatted lupin flour. Compared to many other publications, no further pretreatment, such as protein precipitation, was necessary to obtain satisfactory results applying ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The oligosaccharide content for the examined Lupinus albus samples were in the range 5.19,9.25 g kg,1 and for Lupinus angustifolius RFOs 3.49,4.75 g kg,1. Stachyose has always been the main component followed by raffinose and verbascose. CONCLUSION: The developed sample preparation and analytical method is suited to quantify raffinose, stachyose, verbascose and the disaccharide sucrose and, owing to a high degree of automation for sample preparation and relatively short analysis times by pretty peak separation, particularly high sample numbers can be accomplished. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Optimization of Volumetric Computed Tomography for Skeletal Analysis of Model Genetic Organisms

Sergio X. Vasquez
Abstract Forward and reverse genetics now allow researchers to understand embryonic and postnatal gene function in a broad range of species. Although some genetic mutations cause obvious morphological change, other mutations can be more subtle and, without adequate observation and quantification, might be overlooked. For the increasing number of genetic model organisms examined by the growing field of phenomics, standardized but sensitive methods for quantitative analysis need to be incorporated into routine practice to effectively acquire and analyze ever-increasing quantities of phenotypic data. In this study, we present platform-independent parameters for the use of microscopic x-ray computed tomography (microCT) for phenotyping species-specific skeletal morphology of a variety of different genetic model organisms. We show that microCT is suitable for phenotypic characterization for prenatal and postnatal specimens across multiple species. Anat Rec, 291:475,487, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]