Analysis Determined (analysis + determine)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Higher Education Classroom Fail to Meet Needs of Faculty and Students

Lennie Scott-Webber Ph.D.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine differences between faculty and student opinions about university classrooms when the User's Environmental Interaction Framework (UEIF) model's quadrants were considered together, (2) to determine the positive, negative, and different effects between these populations within each UEIF quadrant, and (3) to determine faculty and student use. RESEARCH DESIGN: The User's Environmental Framework (UEIF) guided the research at a large university. This framework has four quadrants: environmental/value dimensions, and behavioral/internal responses, prox-emics concepts, and interactional influences. The study had two parts: (1) a 48-question questionnaire, and (2) behavioral observations surveying both faculty and students (120 subjects) who used 15 general purpose classrooms. ANALYSIS: Stepwise Discriminant Analysis determined which subset of questions best separates student from faculty responses. Canonical Discriminant Analysis further explained relationships. KEY FINDINGS: Return rate was 67% and four observations of each classroom were conducted. Faculty and students agreed on the majority of the items. Subjects felt lighting, air quality, maintenance, equipment, and general comfort were adequate. There was a lack of commitment to the classrooms and subjects had little desire to stay in these rooms. Faculty and students disagreed on 10 questions. Faculty felt the classrooms did not convey a positive experience relating to noise control, seating flexibility, and lacked provision for social interaction. Students found signage inadequate and felt classrooms were uninspiring, nonanticipatory, and lacking symbolic meaning. Behavioral observations supported these concerns. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that general purpose classrooms on this campus do not meet all needs of faculty or students. Problem areas can be addressed through thoughtful knowledge-based interior design solutions. "I have to use a lecture format because I can't change the seating around to include group discussion." "I have to send students out into the hallway if I want to utilize a team approach in my teaching, because the seating is fixed." "I have to move the furniture at the front of the room out of my way as it looks like a used furniture store." "Technology is not integrated, nor easily accessible. It is provided ad hoc, and looks it." [source]

Metagenomic signatures of 86 microbial and viral metagenomes

Dana Willner
Summary Previous studies have shown that dinucleotide abundances capture the majority of variation in genome signatures and are useful for quantifying lateral gene transfer and building molecular phylogenies. Metagenomes contain a mixture of individual genomes, and might be expected to lack compositional signatures. In many metagenomic data sets the majority of sequences have no significant similarities to known sequences and are effectively excluded from subsequent analyses. To circumvent this limitation, di-, tri- and tetranucleotide abundances of 86 microbial and viral metagenomes consisting of short pyrosequencing reads were analysed to provide a method which includes all sequences that can be used in combination with other analysis to increase our knowledge about microbial and viral communities. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering showed definitive groupings of metagenomes drawn from similar environments. Together these analyses showed that dinucleotide composition, as opposed to tri- and tetranucleotides, defines a metagenomic signature which can explain up to 80% of the variance between biomes, which is comparable to that obtained by functional genomics. Metagenomes with anomalous content were also identified using dinucleotide abundances. Subsequent analyses determined that these metagenomes were contaminated with exogenous DNA, suggesting that this approach is a useful metric for quality control. The predictive strength of the dinucleotide composition also opens the possibility of assigning ecological classifications to unknown fragments. Environmental selection may be responsible for this dinucleotide signature through direct selection of specific compositional signals; however, simulations suggest that the environment may select indirectly by promoting the increased abundance of a few dominant taxa. [source]

A molecular assessment of the iron stress response in the two phylogenetic clades of Trichodesmium

P. Dreux Chappell
Summary Trichodesmium spp. play key roles in global carbon and nitrogen budgets and thus defining what controls their productivity is important for understanding climate change. While iron availability has been shown to be an important chemical factor for controlling both growth and nitrogen fixation rates in Trichodesmium, all culture experiments to date have focused solely on representatives from one clade of Trichodesmium. Genomic sequence analysis determined that the Trichodesmium erythraeum (IMS101) genome contains many of the archetypical genes involved in the prokaryotic iron stress response. Focusing on three of these genes, isiB, idiA and feoB, we found that all three showed an iron stress response in axenic T. erythraeum (IMS101), and their sequences were well conserved across four species in our Trichodesmium culture collection [consisting of two T. erythraeum strains (IMS101 and GBRTRLI101), two Trichodesmium tenue strains (Z-1 and H9-4), Trichodesmium thiebautii and Trichodesmium spiralis]. With clade-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers for one of these genes, isiB, we found that high isiB expression at low Fe levels corresponded to specific reductions in N2 fixation rates in both major phylogenetic clades of Trichodesmium (the T. erythraeum clade and T. tenue clade). With regard to the two clades, the most significant difference determined was temperature optima, while more subtle differences in growth, N2 fixation rate and gene expression responses to Fe stress were also observed. However the apparent conservation of the Fe stress response in the Trichodesmium genus suggests that it is an important adaptation for their niche in the oligotrophic ocean. [source]

Projected population-level effects of thiobencarb exposure on the mysid, Americamysis bahia, and extinction probability in a concentration-decay exposure system

Sandy Raimondo
Abstract Population-level effects of the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to varying thiobencarb concentrations were estimated using stage-structured matrix models. A deterministic density-independent matrix model estimated the decrease in population growth rate (,) with increasing thiobencarb concentration. An elasticity analysis determined that survival of middle stages provided the largest contribution to ,. Decomposing the effects of , in terms of changes in the matrix components determined that reduced reproduction had a large influence on population dynamics at lower thiobencarb concentrations, whereas reduced survivorship had the largest impact on populations at higher concentrations. A simulation model of a concentration-decay system was developed to demonstrate the importance of integrating chemical half-life and management practices in determining population viability. In this model, mysids were originally exposed to a high thiobencarb concentration (300 ,g/L) that decayed an order of magnitude in the number of mysid generations corresponding to thiobencarb half-life values under three different exposure regimes. Environmental stochasticity was added to the model to estimate the cumulative extinction probability of mysids exposed to fluctuating concentrations of thiobencarb in random environments. The cumulative extinction probability increased with thiobencarb half-life, stochasticity, and concentration present at the time of a new exposure. The model demonstrated the expansion of population projection models in determining the ecological impact of a population exposed to pesticides. [source]

The isochronic band hypothesis and climbing fibre regulation of motricity: an experimental study

Masaji Fukuda
Abstract The dynamic organization of the olivocerebellar afferent input to Purkinje cells was examined in rat cerebellar cortex. The distribution of synchronous Purkinje cell complex spike activity was characterized, bilaterally, utilizing multiple electrode recordings in crus IIa folium under ketamine anaesthesia. The results confirmed the existence of rostrocaudal complex spike isochronicity bands with a mediolateral width of 500 m. For a given band, no finer spatial submicrostructures could be discerned at a first-order approximation (two-dimensional projection). Closer analysis determined that isochronicity between bands is not continuous in space but demonstrates discrete discontinuities at the mediolateral boundaries. Principal component multivariate analysis revealed that the first principal component of the spatio-temporal variance is synchronicity along the rostrocaudal band with a decreased level of coupling in the mediolateral direction at the band boundary. Furthermore, this discrete banding isochronicity is organized by the distribution of feedback inhibition from the cerebellar nuclei on to the inferior olive nucleus. The usual multiple band structure can be dynamically altered to a single wide-band dynamic architecture, or to other patterns of activity, as may be required by movement coordination. [source]

A review of pharmaceutical scheduling processes in six countries and the effect on consumer access to medicines

Andrew Gilbert Director, Professor
Objective This analysis determined and compared pharmaceutical scheduling arrangements in six selected countries and explored how these different scheduling arrangements affect the availability of medicines to the public for self-medication. Method A comparison of the pharmaceutical scheduling requirements for medicines in six countries was undertaken in September 2003. The six countries of comparison were Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand (NZ), the United States (US), and the United Kingdom (UK). The World Self-Medication Industry website, in September 2003, listed 216 medicines available in 27 countries. Of these, 104 medicines were available in each of the six countries selected for the study. As different scheduling arrangements pertain to different forms (external, internal) or doses and pack sizes, the total number of medicines and medicine forms for comparison was 119. The scheduling of each of the 119 products was determined and compared across the six countries. Results Of the 119 medicines and medicine forms available, Australia and NZ have 38 and 34 ,prescription-only' medicines and 81 and 85 medicines available without a prescription respectively. UK, Canada and France have 47, 53, and 55 ,prescription-only' medicines and 72, 66 and 64 medicines available without a prescription. US, which has only two schedules, ,prescription-only' and ,general sale', has the highest number of ,prescription-only' drugs (66) and the least number of medicines available without a prescription (53). Conclusion The results indicate that there is a tendency for more products to be made available without a prescription in countries that have schedules with pharmacy involvement (Australia, NZ, Canada, France and UK) and a matching tendency for preparations to be held in ,prescription-only' schedules in the USA where ,pharmacy-only' schedules do not exist. The presence of ,pharmacy-only' schedules provides a structure whereby greater consumer access to medication is available. [source]

Correlation Between Atrial ZnT-1 Expression and Atrial Fibrillation in Humans: A Pilot Study

Background: Until recently, the membrane protein ZnT-1 was studied mainly in the context of zinc homeostasis. However, new findings indicate that it acts as an inhibitor of L-type calcium channels. We recently found that acute rapid pacing of the rat atria in vivo augments the expression of ZnT-1, while knockdown of ZnT-1 in culture can oppose the inhibition of L-type calcium channels following rapid pacing. This pilot study, the first to assess cardiac ZnT-1 in humans, was designed to look for possible correlation between the atrial expression of ZnT-1 and atrial fibrillation. Methods: Right atrial appendage tissue was collected from 39 patients (27 with sinus rhythm and 12 with atrial fibrillation; 6-permanent, 6- paroxysmal or persistent) undergoing open-heart surgery. The expression of ZnT-1 was analyzed by Western blot utilizing ,-actin as an internal loading control and a standard rat heart sample (STD) for inter-blot comparison. Results: Overall atrial fibrillation patients (n = 12) had median ZnT-1/,-actin of 1.80 STD (inter-quartile range 1.26 to 2.85) versus 0.73 STD (0.24 to 1.64) in the sinus rhythm group (P = 0.002). No association was found between ZnT-1 level and most other clinical parameters tested. Multivariate analysis determined that atrial fibrillation and increased body mass index were the only independent variables clearly associated with higher ZnT-1 levels (Standardized coefficients Beta = 0.62, 0.31; P = 0.002, P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions: This pilot study provides evidence for increased ZnT-1 expression in the atria of patients with atrial fibrillation. [source]

Fungistatic Activity of Heat-Treated Flaxseed Determined by Response Surface Methodology

Y. Xu
ABSTRACT:, The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the fungistatic activity of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. The radial growth of Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from moldy noodles, as well as the mold count of fresh noodle enriched with heat treated flaxseed, were used to assess antifungal activity. A central composite design in the response surface methodology was used to predict the effect of heating temperature and time on antifungal activity of flaxseed flour (FF). Statistical analysis determined that the linear terms of both variables (that is, heating temperature and time) and the quadratic terms of the heating temperature had significant (P < 0.05) effects on the radial growth of all 3 test fungi and the mold count log-cycle reduction of fresh noodle. The interactions between the temperature and time were significant for all dependent variables (P < 0.05). Significant reductions in antifungal activities were found when FF was subjected to high temperatures, regardless of heating time. In contrast, prolonging the heating time did not substantially affect the antifungal activities of FF at low temperature. However, 60% of the antifungal activity was retained after FF was heated at 100 C for 15 min, which suggests a potential use of FF as an antifungal additive in food products subjected to low to mild heat treatments. [source]

Analysis of the effect of mixing vane geometry on the flow in an annular centrifugal contactor

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 9 2009
Kent E. Wardle
Abstract The annular centrifugal contactor is a compact mixer/centrifuge developed for solvent extraction processes for recycling used nuclear fuel. This research effort couples computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling with a variety of experimental observations to provide a valid detailed analysis of the flow within the centrifugal contactor. CFD modeling of the free surface flow in the annular mixing zone using the volume-of-fluid method combined with large eddy simulation of turbulence was found to have very good agreement with the experimental measurements. A detailed comparative analysis of the flow and mixing with different housing vane geometries (four straight vanes, eight straight vanes, and curved vanes) was performed. Two additional variations on the eight straight vane geometry were also simulated. This analysis determined that at the simulated moderate flow rate the four straight mixing vane geometry has greater mixing and fluid residence time as compared to the other mixing vane configurations. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Ileovesicostomy for adults with neurogenic bladders: Complications and potential risk factors for adverse outcomes,,

Hung-Jui Tan
Abstract Aims Risk factors for complications following ileovesicostomy have not been well defined. This study's purpose was to examine outcomes following ileovesicostomy in adults and identify possible risk factors that may contribute to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective database review identified ileovesicostomy procedures from August 1999 to September 2003. Demographic, pre-operative, and post-operative data were extracted. Statistical analysis determined whether risk factors influenced outcomes of urethral continence, re-operation, and post-operative complications. Factors included age, tobacco use, diabetes, neurogenic bladder etiology, body mass index, pre-operative indwelling catheterization, or simultaneous procedures including pubovaginal sling/urethral closure. Results 50 adults status-post ileovesicostomy were identified. At last follow-up, 36 patients (72%) were continent per urethra. The incidence of complications decreased significantly from 3.38 per patient to 1.16 post-operatively (P,<,0.0001). Twenty-seven averaged 1.52 inflammatory or infectious post-operative complications per patient, 19 averaged 1.47 stomal complications, and 11 averaged 2.09 ileovesicostomy mechanical obstructions. Overall, 27 required 2.85 re-operations or additional procedures following ileovesicostomy. Sub-group analysis identified BMI (P,=,0.0569) as a possible risk factor. Differences in outcomes based on age, tobacco use, diabetes, neurogenic bladder etiology, pre-operative indwelling catheterization, or urethral closure were not significant. Conclusions Ileovesicostomy is a valuable management option for adults with neurogenic bladder unable to perform intermittent catheterization. The incidence of urinary tract comorbid events significantly decreased following ileovesicostomy though the onset of other complications should be considered. The morbidity associated with ileovesicostomy requires careful patient selection, close long-term follow-up, and potential subsequent interventions to address post-operative complications. Neurourol. Urodynam. 27:238,243, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Rapid mass spectrometric analysis of 15N-Leu incorporation fidelity during preparation of specifically labeled NMR samples

Stephanie M.E. Truhlar
Abstract Advances in NMR spectroscopy have enabled the study of larger proteins that typically have significant overlap in their spectra. Specific 15N-amino acid incorporation is a powerful tool for reducing spectral overlap and attaining reliable sequential assignments. However, scrambling of the label during protein expression is a common problem. We describe a rapid method to evaluate the fidelity of specific 15N-amino acid incorporation. The selectively labeled protein is proteolyzed, and the resulting peptides are analyzed using MALDI mass spectrometry. The 15N incorporation is determined by analyzing the isotopic abundance of the peptides in the mass spectra using the program DEX. This analysis determined that expression with a 10-fold excess of unlabeled amino acids relative to the 15N-amino acid prevents the scrambling of the 15N label that is observed when equimolar amounts are used. MALDI TOF-TOF MS/MS data provide additional information that shows where the "extra" 15N labels are incorporated, which can be useful in confirming ambiguous assignments. The described procedure provides a rapid technique to monitor the fidelity of selective labeling that does not require a lot of protein. These advantages make it an ideal way of determining optimal expression conditions for selectively labeled NMR samples. [source]

Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

Ao Cheng
Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30,nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38,kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9,kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2, resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5,. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV. [source]

Maternal Position at Midwife-Attended Birth and Perineal Trauma: Is There an Association?

BIRTH, Issue 3 2005
Barbara Soong RM, IBCLC
ABSTRACT:,Background: Most women will sustain some degree of trauma to the genital tract after vaginal birth. This study aimed to examine the association between maternal position at birth and perineal outcome in women who had a midwife-attended, spontaneous vaginal birth and an uncomplicated pregnancy at term. Methods: Data from 3,756 births in a major public tertiary teaching hospital were eligible for analysis. The need for sutures in perineal trauma was evaluated and compared for each major factor studied (maternal age, first vaginal delivery, induction of labor, not occipitoanterior, use of regional anesthesia, deflexed head and newborn birthweight >3,500 g). Birth positions were compared against each other. Subgroup analysis determined whether birth positions mattered more or less in each of the major factors studied. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: Most women (65.9%) gave birth in the semi-recumbent position. Of the 1,679 women (44.5%) who required perineal suturing, semi-recumbent position was associated with the need for perineal sutures, whereas all-fours was associated with reduced need for sutures; these associations were more marked in first vaginal births and newborn birth weight over 3,500 g. When regional anesthesia was used, semi-recumbent position was associated with a need for suturing, and lateral position associated with a reduced need for suturing. The four major factors significantly related to perineal trauma included first vaginal birth, use of regional anesthesia, deflexed head, and newborn weight more than 3,500 g. Conclusions: Women should be given the choice to give birth in whatever position they find comfortable. Maternity practitioners have a responsibility to inform women of the likelihood of perineal trauma in the preferred birth position. Ongoing audit of all clinicians attending births is encouraged to further determine effects of maternal birth position and perineal trauma, to investigate women's perception of comfortable positioning at birth, and to measure changes to midwifery practice resulting from this study. [source]