Analysis Approach (analysis + approach)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Analysis Approach

  • content analysis approach
  • data envelopment analysis approach
  • envelopment analysis approach
  • image analysis approach

  • Selected Abstracts


    The African industrial structure is characterized by firm-size heterogeneity with the coexistence of small, if not micro, enterprises in the informal sector and large formal organizations operating with modern technology. In this paper, using the Data Envelopment Analysis production frontier methodology, we investigate the technical efficiency of Ivorian manufacturing firms in four sectors of economic activity: textiles and garments, metal products, food processing, and wood and furniture. Efficiency scores are adjusted to take into account the impact of the external operating environment. These scores are then broken down into three elements: the purely managerial effect, the impact of the scale of production, and a technological effect capturing the potential gain that could result from the adoption of modern technology by small informal organizations. Not only formal activities prove to be more efficient in scaling their production but also, they greatly benefit from their modem technology. [source]

    Productive efficiency of English football teams,a data envelopment analysis approach

    Dieter J. HaasArticle first published online: 15 MAY 200
    This paper investigates how close to their potential English Premier League Clubs play. Using a deterministic Data Envelopment Analysis Approach, the productive efficiency of 20 teams in the 2000/2001 season is measured and weaknesses of individual teams are disclosed. The sensitivity of results is analyzed with regard to different model specifications and variable combinations. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Essence of Linkage-based Imprinting Detection: Comparing Power, Type 1 Error, and the Effects of Confounders in Two Different Analysis Approaches

    David A. Greenberg
    Summary Imprinting is critical to understanding disease expression. It can be detected using linkage information, but the effects of potential confounders (heterogeneity, sex-specific penetrance, and sex-biased ascertainment) have not been explored. We examine power and confounders in two imprinting detection approaches, and we explore imprinting-linkage interaction. One method (PP) models imprinting by maximising lod scores w.r.t. parent-specific penetrances. The second (DRF) approximates imprinting by maximising lods over differential male-female recombination fractions. We compared power, type 1 error, and confounder effects in these two methods, using computer-simulated data. We varied heterogeneity, penetrance, family and dataset size, and confounders that might mimic imprinting. Without heterogeneity, PP had more imprinting-detecting power than DRF. PP's power increased when parental affectedness status was ignored, but decreased with heterogeneity. With heterogeneity, type 1 error increased dramatically for both methods. However, DRF's power also increased under heterogeneity, more than was attributable to inflated type 1 error. Sex-specific penetrance could increase false positives for PP but not for DRF. False positives did not increase on ascertainment through an affected "mother". For PP, non-penetrant individuals increased information, arguing against using affecteds-only methods. The high type 1 error levels under some circumstances means these methods must be used cautiously. [source]

    Determination of adsorption isotherms by means of HPLC: Adsorption mechanism elucidation and separation optimization

    Nicola Marchetti
    Abstract The purpose of this review is to illustrate the most important techniques for isotherm determination by means of HPLC. Starting on the traditional Frontal Analysis approach, Frontal Analysis by Characteristic Point, Elution by Characteristic Point, Perturbation Method in its different applications will be considered to conclude with the most recent Inverse Method approach. Since many of these techniques are based on the fundamentals of nonlinear chromatography, a short overview of the theory of nonlinear chromatography is presented. Emphasis is given to the most recent applications of these techniques for pharmaceutical applications, characterization of binding mechanisms, bioaffinity studies, molecular and chiral recognition processes. [source]


    O16; O47; R11 Financial development might lead to productivity improvement in developing countries. In the present study, based on the Data Envelopment Analysis approach, we use the Malmquist index to measure China's total factor productivity change and its two components (i.e., efficiency change and technical progress). We find that China has recorded an increase in total factor productivity from 1993 to 2001, and that productivity growth was mostly attributed to technical progress, rather than to improvement in efficiency. Moreover, using panel dataset covering 29 Chinese provinces over the period from 1993 to 2001 and applying the Generalized Method of Moment system estimation, we investigate the impact of financial development on productivity growth in China. Empirical results show that, during this period, financial development has significantly contributed to China's productivity growth, mainly through its favorable effect on efficiency. [source]

    Dying at home: community nurses' views on the impact of informal carers on cancer patients' place of death

    B. JACK phd, bsc (econ), head of research, scholarship
    JACK B. & O'BRIEN M. (2010) European Journal of Cancer Care19, 636,642 Dying at home: community nurses' views on the impact of informal carers on cancer patients' place of death Giving patients with cancer a choice in where they want to die including the choice to die at home if they so wish, underpin the recent UK government policies and is embedded in the End of Life Care Programme. However, this presents increasing challenges for the informal carers particularly with an increasingly aging population. Despite the policy initiatives, there remain a persistent number of patients with cancer who had chosen to die at home being admitted to hospital in the last days and hours of life. A qualitative study using two focus group interviews with community nurses (district nurses and community specialist palliative care nurses) was undertaken across two primary care trusts in the north-west of England. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The results indicated that informal carer burden was a key reason for prompting hospital admission. Recommendations for the development of a carer assessment tool with appropriate supportive interventions are made. [source]

    Dress-Related Responses to the Columbine Shootings: Other-Imposed and Self-Designed

    Jennifer Paff Ogle
    In 1999, two students at Columbine High School (CHS) used gunfire to claim their lives and those of 13 others. Media writers devoted considerable attention to this crime, drawing linkages between the shootings and dress. The purpose of this study was to explore this media dialogue, particularly the dress-related responses proposed and/or adopted in reaction to the shootings, who advanced/opposed these responses, and why. Theories of identity, social power, and symbolic interaction guided the authors' work. An inductive content analysis approach was used to examine dress-related text published in The Denver Post and The Rocky Mountain News concerning the shootings. Analyses revealed two major dress-related responses: (a) other-imposed regulation aimed at protecting students and deterring them from expressing hatred against others and (b) self-designed/selected creative acts of resistance for grieving, memorializing, and unifying. Arguments in support of and against these responses are discussed, and theoretical implications are considered. [source]

    An analysis of the reasons for the asymmetries surrounding earnings benchmarks

    ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 3 2010
    Bruce K. Bennett
    C89; G10; M41 Abstract Several studies report an asymmetry in the distribution of earnings around specified benchmarks. However, doubt has arisen over whether the observed ,kink' in the distribution of earnings is solely caused by earnings management. We use a ratio analysis approach to examine a range of specific accruals for evidence of earnings management. We find little evidence that firms immediately above the benchmark have abnormal receivables, inventories or provisions. However, they do increase cash-from-customers and reduce inventory. Thus, our results support the recent research that suggests that firms engage in real actions to meet earnings benchmarks. [source]

    A new index of habitat alteration and a comparison of approaches to predict stream habitat conditions

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
    Summary 1. Stream habitat quality assessment complements biological assessment by providing a mechanism for ruling out habitat degradation as a potential stressor and provides reference targets for the physical aspects of stream restoration projects. This study analysed five approaches for predicting habitat conditions based on discriminant function, linear regressions, ordination and nearest neighbour analyses. 2. Quantitative physical and chemical habitat and riparian conditions in minimally-impacted streams in New Hampshire were estimated using United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program protocols. Catchment-scale descriptors were used to predict segment-scale stream channel and riparian habitat, and the accuracy and precision of the different modelling approaches were compared. 3. A new assessment index comparing and summarizing the degree of correspondence between predicted and observed habitat based on Euclidean distance between the standardized habitat factors is described. Higher index scores (i.e. greater Euclidean distance) would suggest a greater deviation in habitat between observed conditions and expected reference conditions. As in most biotic indices, the range in index scores in reference sites would constitute a situation equivalent to reference conditions. This new index avoids the erroneous prediction of multiple, mutually exclusive habitat conditions that have confounded previous habitat assessment approaches. 4. Separate linear regression models for each habitat descriptor yielded the most accurate and precise prediction of reference conditions, with a coefficient of variation (CV) between predictions and observations for all reference sites of 0.269. However, for a unified implementation in regions where a classification-based approach has already been taken for biological assessment, a discriminant analysis approach, that predicted membership in biotic communities and compared the mean habitat features in the biotic communities with the observed habitat features, was similar in prediction accuracy and precision (CV = 0.293). 5. The best model had an error of 27% of the mean index value for the reference sites, indicating substantial room for improvement. Additional catchment characteristics not readily available for this analysis, such as average rainfall or winter snow-pack, surficial geological characteristics or past land-use history, may improve the precision of the predicted habitat features in the reference streams. Land-use history in New Hampshire and regional environmental impacts have greatly impacted stream habitat conditions even in streams considered minimally-impacted today; thus as regional environmental impacts change and riparian forests mature, reference habitat conditions should be re-evaluated. [source]

    Source density-driven independent component analysis approach for fMRI data

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 3 2005
    Baoming Hong
    Abstract Independent component analysis (ICA) has become a popular tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. Conventional ICA algorithms including Infomax and FAST-ICA algorithms employ the underlying assumption that data can be decomposed into statistically independent sources and implicitly model the probability density functions of the underlying sources as highly kurtotic or symmetric. When source data violate these assumptions (e.g., are asymmetric), however, conventional ICA methods might not work well. As a result, modeling of the underlying sources becomes an important issue for ICA applications. We propose a source density-driven ICA (SD-ICA) method. The SD-ICA algorithm involves a two-step procedure. It uses a conventional ICA algorithm to obtain initial independent source estimates for the first-step and then, using a kernel estimator technique, the source density is calculated. A refitted nonlinear function is used for each source at the second step. We show that the proposed SD-ICA algorithm provides flexible source adaptivity and improves ICA performance. On SD-ICA application to fMRI signals, the physiologic meaningful components (e.g., activated regions) of fMRI signals are governed typically by a small percentage of the whole-brain map on a task-related activation. Extra prior information (using a skewed-weighted distribution transformation) is thus additionally applied to the algorithm for the regions of interest of data (e.g., visual activated regions) to emphasize the importance of the tail part of the distribution. Our experimental results show that the source density-driven ICA method can improve performance further by incorporating some a priori information into ICA analysis of fMRI signals. Hum Brain Mapping, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mutation analysis in nephronophthisis using a combined approach of homozygosity mapping, CEL I endonuclease cleavage, and direct sequencing,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 3 2008
    Edgar A. Otto
    Abstract Nephronophthisis (NPHP), an autosomal recessive kidney disease, is the most frequent genetic cause of chronic renal failure in the first three decades of life. Mutations in eight genes (NPHP1,8) have been identified. We here describe a combined approach for mutation screening of NPHP1, NPHP2, NPHP3, NPHP4, and NPHP5 in a worldwide cohort of 470 unrelated patients with NPHP. First, homozygous NPHP1 deletions were detected in 97 patients (21%) by multiplex PCR. Second, 25 patients with infantile NPHP were screened for mutations in inversin (NPHP2/INVS). We detected a novel compound heterozygous frameshift mutation (p.[Q485fs]+[R687fs]), and a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.R899X). Third, 37 patients presenting with NPHP and retinitis pigmentosa (Senior-Løken syndrome [SLS]) were screened for NPHP5/IQCB1 mutations by direct sequencing. We discovered five different (three novel) homozygous premature termination codon (PTC) mutations (p.F142fsX; p.R461X; p.R489X; p.W444X; and c.488,1G>A). The remaining 366 patients were further investigated for mutations in NPHP1, NPHP3, and NPHP4. We applied a "homozygosity only" strategy and typed three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers at the respective loci. A total of 32, eight, and 14 patients showed homozygosity, and were screened by heteroduplex crude celery extract (CEL I) endonuclease digests. The sensitivity of CEL I was established as 92%, as it detected 73 out of 79 different known mutations simply on agarose gels. A total of 10 novel PTC mutations were found in NPHP1 (p.P186fs, p.R347X, p.V492fs, p.Y509X, and c.1884+1G>A), in NPHP3 (c.3812+2T>C and p.R1259X), and in NPHP4 (p.R59X, p.T1004fs, and p.V1091fs). The combined homozygosity mapping and CEL I endonuclease mutation analysis approach allowed us to identify rare mutations in a large cohort of patients at low cost. Hum Mutat 29(3), 418,426, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Determining controller benefits via probabilistic optimization

    Y. Zhou
    Abstract For the most part, process control research has focussed on the synthesis and tuning of controllers, which has provided a plethora of techniques that can address virtually any application. With each new control technique, a steady stream of ,successful' application results are generated and reported. Recently, a considerable number of control researchers have turned their attention to assessing the performance of installed control systems and to the diagnosis of controller performance problems. Despite successes in the areas of controller synthesis, tuning and performance analysis, almost no research has addressed the fundamental issue of determining whether the economic performance gains that are expected accrue from a proposed process control project are sufficient to justify its execution. The work presented here proposes an optimization-based technique for calculating the expected economic performance of a given control system; a method, which is analogous to analysis of variance, for determining the expected economic benefit that will arise from a particular controller improvement effort; and a sensitivity analysis approach for determining the effect of specific assumptions on control system improvement decisions. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Visuospatial impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease: a process analysis approach

    Martine Simard
    Abstract Background Reports of differential impairments on visual-construction tasks in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are sometimes controversial, whereas visual-perceptual data are lacking. The existence of different clinical sub-groups of DLB has been hypothesized to explain the discrepancies among the cognitive results. The goal of this study was to compare the visual-perceptual performance of subjects with DLB with predominant psychosis, DLB with predominant parkinsonian features and AD. Methods This is a cross-sectional neuropsychological study with between diagnostic group comparisons. The Benton Judgement Line Orientation (BJLO) test was administered to four DLB patients with predominant psychosis (DLB-psy), four DLB subjects with predominant parkinsonian features (DLB-PD), and 13 patients with AD. An analysis of error types was applied to the results of the BJLO with QO1, QO2, QO3, QO4 (visual attention) errors, as well as VH, IQO, IQOV, and IQOH (visual-spatial perception) errors. Results A MANOVA showed significant differences between the DLB, and AD groups on the number of VH (F,=,6.049, df,=,1,19, p,=,0.024), IQOH (F,=,4.645, df,=,1,19, p,=,0.044) and QO1 (F,=,4.491, df,=,1,19, p,=,0.047) errors, but no difference on the total score of the BJLO. Another MANOVA and post hoc Student,Newman,Keuls analyses demonstrated that the DLB-psy sub-group made significantly more VH and IQOH errors than AD and the DLB-PD subjects. Conclusions Subjects with DLB and psychosis have more severe visual-perception (VH errors) impairments than subjects with DLB and predominant parkinsonian features, and AD subjects. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Consensus problem of high-order multi-agent systems with external disturbances: An H, analysis approach

    Yang Liu
    Abstract This paper is devoted to the output consensus problem of directed networks of multiple high-order agents with external disturbances, and proposes a distributed protocol using the neighbors' measured outputs. By defining an appropriate controlled output and conducting a model transformation in two steps, consensus performance analysis of the multi-agent system under the proposed protocol is transformed into a normal H, problem. Then using H, theory of linear systems, conditions are derived to ensure the consensus performance with a prescribed H, index for networks with fixed and switching topologies, respectively. A numerical example of the formation control application is included to validate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Job Requirements Biodata as a Predictor of Performance in Customer Service Roles

    Elizabeth Allworth
    A job requirements approach to biodata item specification, similar to the content-valid job analysis approach developed by Pannone (1984), is used to predict customer service. Applicants rate the extent to which their current and previous jobs involve tasks and behaviours that have been identified through an analysis of the target job. On a sample of 245 employees in an international hotel, the criterion-related validity of job requirements biodata compares favourably with traditional construct-oriented biodata measures of customer service, cognitive ability and personality (Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Extroversion). The job requirements approach provides a simple, direct and content-valid method of biodata item specification. As the approach can also be tailored for particular jobs or organizations, validity is also potentially optimized. [source]

    Destination product characteristics as useful predictors for repeat visiting and recommendation segmentation variables in tourism: a CHAID exhaustive analysis

    Chris A. Vassiliadis
    Abstract The present paper constitutes a segmentation research with the use of the exhaustive chi-squared automatic interaction detection tree analysis approach which, through the characteristics of a tourist destination, aims at the illustration of the English and German tourist groups and more specifically, (i) those who are repeat visitors of several tourist destinations and (ii) those who express a willingness to urge other people to visit geographic tourist destinations that the former have already visited. The results of the research help the tourism managers to apprehend the characteristics of the destination products that best describe the visitors. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A model of wine tourist behaviour: a festival approach

    Jingxue (Jessica) Yuan
    Abstract The study constructs a temporal model of wine tourist behaviour on the basis of the social psychologist' theory of consumer attitudes and related concepts with regard to past behaviour, satisfaction, perceived value and behavioural intentions. More importantly, this study added two dimensions to this model by proposing that satisfaction and perceived value had an impact on the attendees' intentions (i) to visit a local winery and (ii) to buy local wine products. Using a path analysis approach and data collected from the attendees at a regional wine festival, the study examined the above relationships. The results of this path analysis can be summarised as: (i) past behaviour influenced the intention to revisit and the level of perceived value, but had no effect on the level of satisfaction; (ii) perceived value strongly affected the level of satisfaction; (iii) satisfaction had a strong impact on future intentions to revisit and also an effect on intentions to visit local wineries and to buy local wine products; and (iv) perceived value affected the intentions to revisit the festival and to visit local wineries but did not influence the intentions to buy local wines. It is believed that the results of the present study will be useful to organisers of wine festivals and/or wine tourism developers. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Development of the Nursing Outcome (NOC) Label: Hyperactivity Level

    Carol L. Caldwell MS
    TOPIC:,Hyperactivity, a persistent, severe pattern of inattention or impulsivity, places children at risk for impaired functioning in many developmental areas. This behavior is characterized by short attention span, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, distractibility, and increased physical activity. Responses from multiple sources in the child's environment must be monitored to manage childhood hyperactivity. PURPOSE:,Success at school, in peer relationships, and parent-child interactions is frequently affected by hyperactivity. Using a focus group approach, a Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) label, definition, and indicators were developed for Hyperactivity Level. SOURCES:,Review of the literature allowed for a content analysis approach and conceptualization of hyperactivity at several levels. CONCLUSION:,Twenty three (23) measurable indicators were formulated and refined into conceptually and clinically coherent outcomes. Clinical relevance and utility were presented through a case study approach. [source]

    Undergraduate nursing students attitude to mental health nursing: a cluster analysis approach

    Karla Gough
    Aims., The use of cluster analysis to determine if specific groups of students could be identified based on their attitudes towards mental health nursing following the completion of a clinical experience in a mental health setting. Background., Research suggests that nursing students generally have a negative image of mental health nursing. This can be improved following clinical exposure in mental health settings, however, specific aspects of clinical experience that might facilitate attitudinal change have been under-researched. Design., Survey. Methods., A survey was administered to students (n = 703) immediately after completion of their clinical experience. Cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings within the study cohort. Results., Three distinct clusters were identified. Cluster 1 demonstrated more positive attitudes, greater confidence and viewed mental health more positively than students in the other two Clusters. They were more likely to be male, have spent at least 30 minutes per shift with a preceptor and have completed shifts of eight hours rather than seven hours. Conclusions., Attitudes to mental health nursing may be influenced by specific demographic characteristics of students and by specific aspects of their clinical experience. Relevance to clinical practice., The nursing workforce is an essential element of quality mental health service delivery. Knowledge about factors influencing more positive attitudes is important for structuring clinical experience and designing effective recruitment strategies to attract more students into this field of practice. [source]

    Comparing the perceived causes of the second Iraq war: a network analysis approach

    Umbereen Rafiq
    Abstract The objective of this research was to examine the representation by British students of 11 perceived causes of the invasion of Iraq. We used network analysis to develop a network of the pattern of causes that are involved. Overall most participants identified a nexus of causes that reciprocally linked religious prejudice, racism and the history of conflict in the Middle East. They identified a reciprocal link between religious prejudice and September 11th, indicating that it was a cause and effect of religious prejudice. They also supported a link between the personalities of Bush and Saddam and economic gain, and acknowledged the effect of the first Gulf war on Saddam. We also found that Muslim participants were significantly less in favour of the invasion than Christian participants, and produced different networks of the links between causes. The study demonstrates that network analysis can be used to compare and contrast representations of a political event, and thus extends its use in the study of social representations. Aggr. Behav. 32:321,329, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Promoting development and use of systematic reviews in a developing country

    Reza Yousefi-Nooraie MD
    Abstract Introduction, One major barrier to develop health systems is the limited capacity for conducting research and implementation of research findings. We assessed the views of researchers, decision makers and research policy makers on how the development and usage of evidence from systematic reviews can be promoted in a country with limited resources. Methods, We surveyed 131 participants in six systematic review workshops for their views on important items influencing the production and usage of systematic reviews in a developing country. They were also asked to propose interventions to deal with potential barriers. We analysed the quantitative data using multidimensional scaling methods, and the qualitative data using content analysis approach. Results, We identified seven clusters of items that contribute to the promotion of conducting and using systematic reviews. For each cluster a set of interventions are proposed that health care decision makers and research policy makers may use for promoting conduct and use of systematic reviews. The clusters are ,importance for policy makers', ,access to international research', ,priority and support for systematic reviews', ,competency and willingness of researchers to conduct reviews', ,importance for end-users', ,quality of local primary research' and ,visibility and access to local research'. Discussion, The proposed interventions focus on national level initiatives for making the systematic reviews ,wanted' and improving the capacity to conduct research. Our findings emphasize the essential role of policy makers for promoting systematic reviews. They demonstrate that many barriers stem from the lower quality of and lack of access to primary research originating from developing countries. [source]

    What determines the management of anxiety disorders and its improvement?

    Mirrian Smolders MSc
    Introduction, Although anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, lack of correct diagnosis and related concerns about treatment are serious clinical problems. Several factors affect, positively or negatively, management of anxiety and its improvement. A literature review and thematic analysis was executed to obtain an overview of the types of determinants of anxiety care and its improvement. Methods, Literature was identified from electronic database searching (January 1995,March 2006), contact with authors of studies, and searching of websites of organizations concerned with mental health. By using a template analysis approach, a set of strong themes relating to determinants of anxiety care and its improvement was identified. Results, The 15 eligible studies identified 43 factors that impeded or facilitated optimal anxiety care and its improvement. Individual characteristics of both patients (n = 13) and professionals (n = 6) were most frequently reported as determinants of anxiety care and its improvement. A considerable number of factors were related to the organizational context (n = 12), such as practice type and location. Some factors related to the social context (n = 4), the economic context (n = 2), or to the innovation itself (n = 6) were identified. Conclusion, The findings show that there is a multitude of barriers and facilitators to optimal anxiety care and its improvement. Some determinants are modifiable, and thus responsive to interventions. Examples are collaboration within and between organizations, financial resources and assignment of both an opinion leader and responsible staff. The quality of anxiety care can be improved by systematically designing innovation strategies which are tailored to a selection of the determinants identified in this study. [source]

    Predictors of academic attainments of young people with Down's syndrome

    S. Turner
    Abstract Background Earlier studies of young people with Down's syndrome have investigated a relatively limited range of variables which may influence their academic attainment. The relative strength of such influences and how they may vary during the school career, has also been under-researched. Aims The aim of the paper is to identify the contemporary and antecedent predictors of the level of academic attainment achieved by a representative sample of young people with Down's syndrome. Sample The paper reports data from three studies of 71 young people with Down's syndrome and their families. Mean IQ at the time of the first study (t1) was 40.4. Mean chronological age was 9 years at t1, 14 at t2, and 21 at t3, when all the young people had left school. Methods The outcome measure was the 58-item Academic Attainments Index (AAI), comprising three sub-scales covering reading, writing and numeracy. Predictors of the outcome were derived from questionnaires and interviews from tutors, mothers and fathers. A path analysis approach was used to investigate the pattern of predictors of the outcome over the three studies. Results Factors predicting greater progress in this measure between t2 and t3 were lower chronological age and attendance at mainstream school. Progress from t1 to t2 was also associated with attendance at mainstream school, as well as with higher t1 mental age, mother's practical coping style and higher child attentiveness. Background factors predicting higher t1 AAI scores were higher mental age, attendance at mainstream school and father's internal locus of control. The path analysis model predicted 48% of the variance in t3 outcome scores. Severity of intellectual impairment was by far the most significant predictor. Conclusion Limitations to the study include evidence of attrition bias towards more able children, and the need to obtain the t3 outcome measure from tutors for some young people and parents for others. Parents may have over-estimated abilities. Results are broadly in agreement with other studies, and confirm the pattern reported earlier with this group. Mainstream school attendance had a modest beneficial effect on AAI scores throughout the school career of the children, independently of level of intellectual disability. Identification of predictors of attainment levels and of improvement over time may help parents, teachers and other professionals involved with families of children and young people with Down's syndrome optimise the attainment of such skills. [source]

    Optimization of multicomponent photopolymer formulations using high-throughput analysis and kinetic modeling

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2010
    Peter M. Johnson
    Abstract While high throughput and combinatorial techniques have played an instrumental role in materials development and implementation, numerous problems in materials science and engineering are too complex and necessitate a prohibitive number of experiments, even when considering high throughput and combinatorial approaches, for a comprehensive approach to materials design. Here, we propose a unique combination of high throughput experiments focused on binary formulations that, in combination with advanced modeling, has the potential to facilitate true materials design and optimization in ternary and more complex systems for which experiments are never required. Extensive research on the development of photopolymerizable monomer formulations has produced a vast array of potential monomer/comonomer, initiator and additive combinations. This array dramatically expands the range of material properties that are achievable; however, the vast number of potential formulations has eliminated any possibility of comprehensive materials design or optimization. This limitation is addressed by maximizing the benefits and unique capabilities of high throughput experimentation coupled with predictive models for material behavior and properties. The high throughput experimentation-model combination is useful to collect a limited amount of data from as few as 11 experiments on binary combinations of 10 analyzed monomers, and then use this limited data set to predict and optimize formulation properties in ternary resins that would have necessitated at least 1000 high throughput experiments and several orders of magnitude greater numbers of traditional experiments. A data analysis approach is demonstrated, and the model development and implementation for one model application in which a range of material properties are prescribed, and an optimal formulation that meets those properties is predicted and evaluated. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2010 [source]

    Narrating the Power of Non-Standard Employment: The Case of the Israeli Public Sector*

    Orly Benjamin
    abstract Applying a critical discourse analysis approach, this study shows how the argument equating non-standard employment (NSE) with organizational efficiency gains dominance over the contesting argument that views NSE as reducing organizational efficiency. We interviewed 24 senior-level HR managers in the Israeli public sector, where NSE is used extensively, in order to shed light on the discursive order and the power struggle between these contesting arguments. Findings point to two story-lines that helped discredit the argument in which NSE reduces organizational efficiency: (1) a statement of loyalty to organizational efficiency, accompanied by a gesture of concern for employees in non-standard arrangements; and (2) subordinating an implied preference for eliminating NSE to organizational constraints. [source]

    Multivariate analysis approach to the plasma protein profile of patients with advanced colorectal cancer,

    Eugenio Ragazzi
    Abstract The aim of the present study was to identify the pattern of plasma protein species of interest as markers of colorectal cancer (CRC). Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), the plasma protein profile was determined in nine stage IV CRC patients (study group) and nine clean-colon healthy subjects (control group). Multivariate analysis methods were employed to identify distinctive disease patterns at protein spectrum. In the study and control groups, cluster analysis (CA) on the complete MALDI-MS spectra plasma protein profile showed a distinction between CRC patients and healthy subjects, thus allowing the identification of the most discriminating ionic species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) yielded similar grouping results. LDA with leave-one-out cross validation achieved a correct classification rate of 89% in both the patients and the healthy subjects. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The measurement of tooth whiteness by image analysis and spectrophotometry: a comparison

    Y. H. GUAN
    summary, Digital image capturing and analysis techniques have been used to measure the colour of teeth and to compare with spectrophotometric results and visual observations. A non-linear image analysis approach was developed and, for the colour range of human teeth, allows device-dependant digital camera colour data to be quantitatively transformed to Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) colorimetric values. With reference to a CIE standard illuminant, two different lighting arrays have been used. For flat and non-translucent white and yellow surfaces, spectrophotometric results showed that this transformation achieves required accuracy. It was found, in all of the present studies, which included measurements on the VITA Lumin® Vacuum shade guide and extracted teeth, that spectrophotometry invariably underestimated values of the CIE whiteness index. However, the results from these two types of measurement correlated well. There was also a reasonably good correlation between earlier data obtained by visual assessment and the present data by the two instrumental methods. For extracted teeth, both instrumental methods used in this work did not confirm a whitening effect for 2-min brushing with toothpaste, but did show significant whitening results for bleaching with 15% hydrogen peroxide. [source]

    The importance of gel properties for mucoadhesion measurements: a multivariate data analysis approach

    Helene Hägerström
    ABSTRACT In this study we used tensile strength measurements and a recently developed interpretation procedure to evaluate the mucoadhesive properties of a large set of gel preparations with diverse rheological properties. Multivariate data analysis in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square projection to latent structures (PLS) was applied to extract useful information from the rather large quantities of data obtained. PCA showed that the selected series of gels was heterogeneous. Some groupings could be detected but none of the gels was identified as an outlier. By using PLS we investigated the relations between the rheological properties of a gel and the parameters defining the cohesiveness, as measured with the texture analyser used for the mucoadhesion measurements. The rheological properties proved to be important for the results of both the mucoadhesion and the cohesiveness measurements. Furthermore, by using PLS two different measurement configurations were evaluated and it was concluded that the combination of a relatively small volume of gel and two pieces of mucosa seems to be more appropriate than a large volume of gel in combination with one piece of mucosa. [source]

    Experiences and constructions of art: a narrative-discourse analysis

    T. STICKLEY ma dipn dipcouns rmn
    A narrative-discourse analysis was conducted to study the narratives of mental health service users talking about their engagement with art. The sample was drawn from a group of people who had attended arts workshops organized by a mental health service provider. Eleven people were interviewed and were asked to tell the story of their involvement in art and its significance to their lives. The data were analysed using a discourse analysis approach. Art is constructed as therapeutic within an illness repertoire. Emotions are inseparable from creative expression and identity claims are made in relation to being an artist. [source]

    Enrichment of peptides from plasma for peptidome analysis using multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Xin Li
    Abstract Human plasma contains a complex matrix of proteolytically derived peptides (plasma peptidome) that may provide a correlate of biological events occurring in the entire organism. Analyzing these peptides from a small amount of serum/plasma is difficult due to the complexity of the sample and the low levels of these peptides. Here, we describe a novel peptidome analysis approach using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as an alternative adsorbent to capture endogenous peptides from human plasma. Harvested peptides were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as a means of detecting and assessing the adsorbed molecules. The improved sensitivity and resolution obtained by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed detection of 2521 peptide features (m/z 300,1800 range) in about 50 ,L of plasma. 374 unique peptides were identified with high confidence by two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to a nano-spray ionization linear ion trap-mass spectrometer. High recovery of BSA digest peptides enriched with MWCNTs, in both standard buffer and high abundance protein solution, was observed. Comparative studies showed that MWCNTs were superior to C18 and C8 for the capture of the smaller peptides. This approach could hold promise of routine plasma peptidome analysis. [source]