Anaesthetic Techniques (anaesthetic + techniques)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Anaesthetic Techniques

  • regional anaesthetic techniques

  • Selected Abstracts

    Anaesthesia and anaesthetic techniques in horses

    W. W. Muir
    First page of article [source]

    The use of an intra-oral injection of ketorolac in the treatment of irreversible pulpitis

    A. C. Mellor
    Abstract Aim, To examine whether an intra-oral injection of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketorolac), in association with conventional local anaesthetic techniques, would improve the pulp extirpation rate in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Methodology, A two group double-blind clinical trial was undertaken in the Dental Casualty Department of the University of Manchester School of Dentistry. Patients were randomly allocated to either the test or control group. The test group received an intra-oral injection of ketorolac (30 mg in 1 mL) in the buccal sulcus adjacent to the tooth being treated. After an interval of 15 min, they then received 2.2 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 80 000 epinephrine by buccal infiltration in the maxilla or by inferior dental block in the mandible. The control group received an intra-oral injection of normal saline (1 mL) in the buccal sulcus adjacent to the tooth being treated, followed by the same local anaesthetic regime as the test group after the 15 min interval. Fifteen minutes after the local anaesthetic injections, pulp extirpation was attempted. All patients completed the short-form McGill pain questionnaire prior to treatment and completed identical questionnaires at 6 and 24 h after treatment. Results, The study protocol set the number of patients to be treated at twenty. However, as the study progressed it became apparent that the intra-oral injection of ketorolac caused significant pain to four of the five patients who received it; therefore the study was terminated after ten patients had been treated. The results from the patients treated showed no significant difference in the pulp extirpation rate between the test and control groups. However, patients with higher pain scores at baseline were less likely to have the pulp completely extirpated, irrespective of whether they were in the test or control group. Pain scores for all patients decreased significantly from baseline to 24 h. Conclusion, An intra-oral injection of ketorolac did not improve the pulp extirpation rate in a small group of patients with irreversible pulpitis compared with a placebo. In addition, it was associated with such significant pain on injection that it cannot be recommended as a treatment in this situation. [source]

    Modelling emergency decisions: recognition-primed decision making.

    The literature in relation to an ophthalmic critical incident
    Aims., To review and reflect on the literature on recognition-primed decision (RPD) making and influences on emergency decisions with particular reference to an ophthalmic critical incident involving the sub-arachnoid spread of local anaesthesia following the peribulbar injection. Background., This paper critics the literature on recognition-primed decision making, with particular reference to emergency situations. It illustrates the findings by focussing on an ophthalmic critical incident. Design., Systematic literature review with critical incident reflection. Methods., Medline, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases were searched for papers on recognition-primed decision making (1996,2004) followed by the ,snowball method'. Studies were selected in accordance with preset criteria. Results., A total of 12 papers were included identifying the recognition-primed decision making as a good theoretical description of acute emergency decisions. In addition, cognitive resources, situational awareness, stress, team support and task complexity were identified as influences on the decision process. Conclusions., Recognition-primed decision-making theory describes the decision processes of experts in time-bound emergency situations and is the foundation for a model of emergency decision making (Fig. 2). Figure 2. ,Influences and processes of RPD making. Relevance to clinical practice., Decision theory and models, in this case related to emergency situations, inform practice and enhance clinical effectiveness. The critical incident described highlights the need for nurses to have a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of anaesthetic techniques as well as an ability to manage and resuscitate patients autonomously. In addition, it illustrates how the critical incidents should influence the audit cycle with improvements in patient safety. [source]

    Comparison of perioperative spirometric data following spinal or general anaesthesia in normal-weight and overweight gynaecological patients

    B. S. Von Ungern-Sternberg
    Background:, There is limited data comparing the impact of spinal anaesthesia (SA) and general anaesthesia (GA) on perioperative lung function. Here we assessed the differences of these two anaesthetic techniques on perioperative lung volumes in normal-weight (BMI < 25) and overweight (BMI 25,30) patients using spirometry. Methods:, We prospectively studied 84 consenting patients having operations in the vaginal region receiving either GA (n = 41) or SA (n = 43). Both groups (GA and SA) were further divided into two subgroups each (normal-weight vs. overweight). We measured vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), midexpiratory (MEF25-75) and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) at the preoperative assessment (baseline), after premedication, after effective SA, and 20 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after the operation (last measurement after patient mobilization). Results:, Premedication was associated with a small but significant decrease in lung volumes in direct correlation with BMI (,5%). Spinal anaesthesia resulted in a significant reduction in lung volumes in overweight as opposed to normal-weight patients. Postoperatively, lung volumes were significantly more reduced following GA than SA as indicated by differences in mean VC (SD) of ,12 (6)% vs. ,6 (5)% 20 min after the end of the operation in the normal-weight and ,18 (5)% vs. ,10 (5)% in the overweight patients. There was a significant impact of BMI on postoperative respiratory function, which was significantly more important in the GA group than in the SA group, and recovery of lung volumes was more rapid in the normal-weight patients than in the overweight patients, particularly in the SA group. Conclusion:, In gynaecological patients undergoing vaginal surgery, the impact of anaesthesia on postoperative lung function as assessed by spirometry was significantly less after SA than GA, particularly in overweight patients. [source]

    Pre-audit survey of documentation of invasive procedures in paediatric anaesthesia

    A. Patil
    Introduction Consent of patients for any medical procedure is an essential part of good practice (1). Verbal consent is increasingly sought for invasive anaesthetic procedures and documentation of this is an important feature of risk management. Paediatric consent is a complex issue and although it is common practice to explain things to the child, written consent is generally still sought from the parent (2). Recent guidelines from the Royal College (3) are quite specific about having a ,child centred approach'. They clearly state that ,where special techniques (e.g. epidurals, other regional blocks including caudal, and invasive monitoring or blood transfusion) are used there should generally be written evidence that these have been discussed with the child (when appropriate) and the parents'. Our aim was to discover the current amount of documentation on invasive procedures in our paediatric anaesthetic notes and to subsequently agree on a local standard. Method We looked retrospectively at anaesthetic records of children aged 10, 11 and 12 years undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery over a 2-month period. We specifically looked for documentation of who was present at the pre-operative discussion and where an invasive anaesthetic technique was planned. written evidence that it had been discussed. Results 73 anaesthetic records were examined. The case mix was as follows: 37% ENT, 28% Plastic Surgery, 24% General Surgery, 11 % Orthopaedic and Oral Surgery. A Consultant was present for 98% of the anaesthetics and was accompanied by a trainee in half of those cases. In 82% (60 patients) there was no documentation of who was present at the pre-operative discussion. In 2 cases (3%) the child was seen alone, in 8 cases (11 %) both a parent and child were documented to have been involved in the discussion and in 3 cases (4%) only the parents appeared to have been involved. Of the 73 anaesthetic records, 11 did not have invasive procedures planned or performed and the following data is from the remaining 62 anaesthetic records ,,83.5% of invasive procedures were documented pre-operatively ,,12 patients (19%) had more than one procedure. ,,Only 7 notes (11 %) had a record of the procedure being specifically discussed with the child. ,,2 out of the 4 caudal (50%) were done without documentatior, of discussion about the procedure ,,7 out of 48 suppositories (14%) were given without record of verbal consent ,,5 out of 16 (31 %) of the local anaesthetic techniques were performed without documentation of discussion. Discussion This pre-audit survey demonstrates that in 82% of cases there was no record of exactly who was present at the preoperative discussion and that some invasive procedures were carried out without any record of a discussion having taken place. We feel that this level of documentation is insufficient. We looked at the age range 10,12 years as this might be regarded as approximately the age at which agreement should be sought for relatively simple procedures such as those chosen in this survey. This is not to imply that children below this age should not be involved in a plan of management or that all children of this age will be fully competent to participate in decisions. We deliberately chose to look at elective surgery, as there should be better documentation in these cases. One reason for such poor results may be that most anaesthetists do not realise the importance of documentation. Our current chart provides no means of prompting the anaesthetist to record who was present at pre-operative discussions. There is also a lack of a clear standard as to an age when invasive procedures should generally be discussed. We feel that this is probably a common problem and hope this surveys increases awareness on this important topic. Conclusions The results of this survey are to be brought to the attention of the local department. Having identified the problem we hope to agree on a local standard and audit against these standards. [source]

    Regional anaesthesia and pain management

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 2010
    I. Power
    Summary Despite recent advances in analgesia delivery techniques and the availability of new analgesic agents with favourable pharmacokinetic profiles, current evidence suggests that postoperative pain continues to be inadequately managed, with the proportion of patients reporting severe or extreme postoperative pain having changed little over the past decade. Regional techniques are superior to systemic opioid agents with regards to analgesia profile and adverse effects in the context of general, thoracic, gynaecological, orthopaedic and laparoscopic surgery. Outcome studies demonstrate that regional analgesic techniques also reduce multisystem co-morbidity and mortality following major surgery in high risk patients. This review will discuss the efficacy of regional anaesthetic techniques for acute postoperative analgesia, the impact of regional block techniques on physiological outcomes, and the implications of acute peri-operative regional anaesthesia on chronic (persistent) postoperative pain. [source]

    Regional anaesthesia in day-stay and short-stay surgery

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 2010
    S. L. Kopp
    Summary The goals for ambulatory surgery are rapid recovery with minimal side effects, adequate postoperative pain control, rapid patient discharge and overall cost containment. The addition of regional anaesthetic techniques has been shown to decrease nausea, postoperative pain scores and the need for post-anaesthesia care unit monitoring. The use of regional anaesthesia is increasing as studies confirm the goals for ambulatory anaesthesia can be met with a combination of regional anaesthesia and a multimodal pain management regimen. [source]

    Current trends in paediatric regional anaesthesia

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 2010
    H. Willschke
    Summary Regional anaesthesia is a cornerstone in paediatric anaesthesia today. Many paediatric anaesthetists include regional anaesthetic techniques in their daily clinical practice to provide superior and long-lasting analgesia without the risk of respiratory depression. The first part this article reviews new scientific findings in the field of paediatric regional anaesthesia. The second part focuses on safety aspects and on the impact of ultrasound on paediatric regional anaesthesia. [source]

    Improved survival in pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension using a multiprofessional approach

    DG Kiely
    Please cite this paper as: Kiely D, Condliffe R, Webster V, Mills G, Wrench I, Gandhi S, Selby K, Armstrong I, Martin L, Howarth E, Bu'Lock F, Stewart P, Elliot C. Improved survival in pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension using a multiprofessional approach. BJOG 2010;117:565,574. Objective, Pregnancy in women with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is reported to carry a maternal mortality rate of 30,56%. We report our experience of the management of pregnancies using a strategy of early introduction of targeted pulmonary vascular therapy and early planned delivery under regional anaesthesia. Design, Retrospective observational study. Setting, Specialist quaternary referral pulmonary vascular unit. Population, Nine women with PH who chose to proceed with ten pregnancies. Methods, A retrospective review of the management of all women who chose to continue with their pregnancy in our unit during 2002,2009. Main outcome measures, Maternal and fetal survival. Results, All women commenced nebulised targeted therapy at 8,34 weeks of gestation. Four women required additional treatment or conversion to intravenous prostanoid therapy. All women were delivered between 26 and 37 weeks of gestation. Delivery was by planned caesarean section in nine cases. All women received regional anaesthesia and were monitored during the peripartum period in a critical care setting. There was no maternal mortality during pregnancy and all infants were free from congenital abnormalities. One woman died 4 weeks after delivery following patient-initiated discontinuation of therapy. All remaining women and infants were alive after a median of 3.2 years (range, 0.8,6.5 years) of follow-up. Conclusion, Although the risk of mortality in pregnant women with PH remains significant, we describe improved outcomes in fully counselled women who chose to continue with pregnancy and were managed with a tailored multiprofessional approach involving early introduction of targeted therapy, early planned delivery and regional anaesthetic techniques. [source]