III Secretion System (iii + secretion_system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of III Secretion System

  • type iii secretion system

  • Selected Abstracts

    The alternative , factor HrpL negatively modulates the flagellar system in the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora under hrp -inducing conditions

    Sophie Cesbron
    Abstract In this work we present evidence of an opposite regulation in the phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia amylovora between the virulence-associated Type III secretion system (TTSS) and the flagellar system. Using loss-of-function mutants we show that motility enhanced the virulence of wild-type bacteria relative to a nonmotile mutant when sprayed on apple seedlings with unwounded leaves. Then we demonstrated through analyses of motility, flagellin export and visualization of flagellar filament that HrpL, the positive key regulator of the TTSS, also down-regulates the flagellar system. Such a dual regulation mediated by an alternative , factor of the TTSS appears to be a level of regulation between virulence and motility not yet described among Proteobacteria. [source]

    Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity factors

    Claude Parsot
    Abstract Bacteria of Shigella spp. (S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. sonnei) and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are responsible for shigellosis in humans, a disease characterized by the destruction of the colonic mucosa that is induced upon bacterial invasion. Shigella spp. and EIEC strains contain a virulence plasmid of ,220 kb that encodes determinants for entry into epithelial cells and dissemination from cell to cell. This review presents the current model on mechanisms of invasion of the colonic epithelium by these bacteria and focuses on their pathogenicity factors, particularly the virulence plasmid-encoded type III secretion system. [source]

    Genetic analysis of two phosphodiesterases reveals cyclic diguanylate regulation of virulence factors in Dickeya dadantii

    Xuan Yi
    Summary Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger implicated in the regulation of various cellular properties in several bacterial species. However, its function in phytopathogenic bacteria is not yet understood. In this study we investigated a panel of GGDEF/EAL domain proteins which have the potential to regulate c-di-GMP levels in the phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii 3937. Two proteins, EcpB (contains GGDEF and EAL domains) and EcpC (contains an EAL domain) were shown to regulate multiple cellular behaviours and virulence gene expression. Deletion of ecpB and/or ecpC enhanced biofilm formation but repressed swimming/swarming motility. In addition, the ecpB and ecpC mutants displayed a significant reduction in pectate lyase production, a virulence factor of this bacterium. Gene expression analysis showed that deletion of ecpB and ecpC significantly reduced expression of the type III secretion system (T3SS) and its virulence effector proteins. Expression of the T3SS genes is regulated by HrpL and possibly RpoN, two alternative sigma factors. In vitro biochemical assays showed that EcpC has phosphodiesterase activity to hydrolyse c-di-GMP into linear pGpG. Most of the enterobacterial pathogens encode at least one T3SS, a major virulence factor which functions to subvert host defences. The current study broadens our understanding of the interplay between c-di-GMP, RpoN and T3SS and the potential role of c-di-GMP in T3SS regulation among a wide range of bacterial pathogens. [source]

    C-ring requirement in flagellar type III secretion is bypassed by FlhDC upregulation

    Marc Erhardt
    Summary The cytoplasmic C-ring of the flagellum consists of FliG, FliM and FliN and acts as an affinity cup to localize secretion substrates for protein translocation via the flagellar-specific type III secretion system. Random T-POP transposon mutagenesis was employed to screen for insertion mutants that allowed flagellar type III secretion in the absence of the C-ring using the flagellar type III secretion system-specific hook,,-lactamase reporter (Lee and Hughes, 2006). Any condition resulting in at least a twofold increase in flhDC expression was sufficient to overcome the requirement for the C-ring and the ATPase complex FliHIJ in flagellar type III secretion. Insertions in known and unknown flagellar regulatory loci were isolated as well as chromosomal duplications of the flhDC region. The twofold increased flhDC mRNA level coincided in a twofold increase in the number of hook-basal bodies per cell as analysed by fluorescent microscopy. These results indicate that the C-ring functions as a nonessential affinity cup-like structure during flagellar type III secretion to enhance the specificity and efficiency of the secretion process. [source]

    Flk prevents premature secretion of the anti-, factor FlgM into the periplasm

    Phillip Aldridge
    Summary The flk locus of Salmonella typhimurium was identified as a regulator of flagellar gene expression in strains defective in P- and l -ring formation. Flk acts as a regulator of flagellar gene expression by modulating the protein levels of the anti-,28 factor FlgM. Evidence is presented which suggests that Flk is a cytoplasmic-facing protein anchored to the inner membrane by a single, C-terminal transmembrane-spanning domain (TMS). The specific amino acid sequence of the TMS is not essential for Flk activity, but membrane anchoring is essential. Membrane fractionation and visualization of protein fusions of green fluorescent protein derivatives to Flk suggested that the Flk protein is present in the membrane as punctate spots in number that are much greater than the number of flagellar basal structures. The turnover of the anti-,28 factor FlgM was increased in flk mutant strains. Using FlgM,,-lactamase fusions we show the increased turnover of FlgM in flk null mutations is due to FlgM secretion into the periplasm where it is degraded. Our data suggest that Flk inhibits FlgM secretion by acting as a braking system for the flagellar-associated type III secretion system. A model is presented to explain a role for Flk in flagellar assembly and gene regulatory processes. [source]

    Identification and characterization of NleA, a non-LEE-encoded type III translocated virulence factor of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Samantha Gruenheid
    Summary Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 uses a specialized protein translocation apparatus, the type III secretion system (TTSS), to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. These effectors interfere with host cytoskeletal pathways and signalling cascades to facilitate bacterial survival and replication and promote disease. The genes encoding the TTSS and all known type III secreted effectors in EHEC are localized in a single pathogenicity island on the bacterial chromosome known as the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by the LEE-encoded TTSS of EHEC. In addition to known LEE-encoded type III secreted proteins, such as EspA, EspB and Tir, a novel protein, NleA (non- LEE-encoded effector A), was identified. NleA is encoded in a prophage-associated pathogenicity island within the EHEC genome, distinct from the LEE. The LEE-encoded TTSS directs translocation of NleA into host cells, where it localizes to the Golgi apparatus. In a panel of strains examined by Southern blot and database analyses, nleA was found to be present in all other LEE-containing pathogens examined, including enteropathogenic E. coli and Citrobacter rodentium, and was absent from non-pathogenic strains of E. coli and non-LEE-containing pathogens. NleA was determined to play a key role in virulence of C. rodentium in a mouse infection model. [source]

    Regulation of Salmonella typhimurium virulence gene expression by cationic antimicrobial peptides

    Martin W. Bader
    Summary Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) represent a conserved and highly effective component of innate immunity. During infection, the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella typhimurium induces different mechanisms of CAMP resistance that promote pathogenesis in animals. This study shows that exposure of S. typhimurium to sublethal concentrations of CAMP activates the PhoP/PhoQ and RpoS virulence regulons, while repressing the transcription of genes required for flagella synthesis and the invasion-associated type III secretion system. We further demonstrate that growth of S. typhimurium in low doses of the ,-helical peptide C18G induces resistance to CAMP of different structural classes. Inducible resistance depends on the presence of PhoP, indicating that the PhoP/PhoQ system can sense sublethal concentrations of cationic antimicrobial peptides. Growth of S. typhimurium in the presence of CAMP also leads to RpoS-dependent protection against hydrogen peroxide. Because bacterial resistance to oxidative stress and CAMP are induced during infection of animals, CAMP may be an important signal recognized by bacteria on colonization of animal tissues. [source]

    The Salmonella SpiC protein targets the mammalian Hook3 protein function to alter cellular trafficking

    Yoram Shotland
    Summary The Salmonella SpiC protein is secreted into the cytosol of macrophages via a unique type III secretion system that functions intracellularly to translocate proteins across the phagosomal membrane. The SpiC protein is required for survival within macrophages and inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion in vivo, and it is sufficient to inhibit endosome-endosome fusion in vitro. Here, we establish that SpiC targets the function of Hook3, a mammalian protein implicated in cellular trafficking. Purified GST-SpiC pulled down Hook3 from murine macrophages, and anti-Hook3 antibodies precipitated SpiC from the cytosol of Salmonella -infected macrophages. Expression of the spiC gene disrupted Golgi morphology in Vero cells and altered the distribution of lysosomes in macrophages, mimicking the phenotype of cells expressing a hook3 dominant-negative mutant. By inactivating Hook3 function, the SpiC protein may alter the lysosome network and prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion. [source]

    Type III-dependent translocation of the Xanthomonas AvrBs3 protein into the plant cell

    Boris Szurek
    Summary Many plant pathogenic bacteria utilize a conserved type III secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into the host tissue. Indirect evidence has suggested that at least some effector proteins are translocated from the bacterial cytoplasm into the plant cell. Using an immunocytochemical approach, we demonstrate that the type III effector AvrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria localizes to nuclei of infected pepper leaves. Importantly, AvrBs3 translocation was observed in situ in native tissues of susceptible and resistant plants. AvrBs3 was detected in the nucleus as soon as 4 h post infection, which was dependent on a functional TTSS and the putative translocator HrpF. N-terminal AvrBs3 deletion derivatives are no longer secreted by the TTSS in vitro and could not be detected inside the host cells, suggesting that the N-terminus of AvrBs3 is important for secretion. Deletion of the nuclear localization signals in the AvrBs3 C-terminus, which are required for the AvrBs3-mediated induction of the hypersensitive reaction in resistant pepper plants, abolished AvrBs3 localization to the nucleus. This is the first report on direct evidence for translocation of a native type III effector protein from a plant pathogenic bacterium into the host cell. [source]

    IpgD, a protein secreted by the type III secretion machinery of Shigella flexneri, is chaperoned by IpgE and implicated in entry focus formation

    Kirsten Niebuhr
    Invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella flexneri involves entry and intercellular dissemination. Entry of bacteria into non-phagocytic cells requires the IpaA,D proteins that are secreted by the Mxi,Spa type III secretion machinery. Type III secretion systems are found in several Gram-negative pathogens and serve to inject bacterial effector proteins directly into the cytoplasm of host cells. In this study, we have analysed the IpgD protein of S. flexneri, the gene of which is located on the virulence plasmid at the 5, end of the mxi,spa locus. We have shown that IpgD (i) is stored in the bacterial cytoplasm in association with a specific chaperone, IpgE; (ii) is secreted by the Mxi,Spa type III secretion system in amounts similar to those of the IpaA,D proteins; (iii) is associated with IpaA in the extracellular medium; and (iv) is involved in the modulation of the host cell response after contact of the bacterium with epithelial cells. This suggests that IpgD is an effector that might be injected into host cells to manipulate cellular processes during infection. [source]

    DspA/E, a type III effector of Erwinia amylovora, is required for early rapid growth in Nicotiana benthamiana and causes NbSGT1-dependent cell death

    SUMMARY DspA/E is a pathogenicity factor of Erwinia amylovora that is translocated into the plant cell cytoplasm through an Hrp type III secretion system. Transient expression of dspA/E in Nicotiana benthamiana or yeast induced cell death, as it does in N. tabacum and apple as described previously. DspA/E-induced cell death in N. benthamiana was not inhibited by coexpression of AvrPtoB of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, which inhibits programmed cell death (PCD) induced by several other elicitors in plants. Silencing of NbSGT1, the expression of which is required for PCD mediated by several resistance proteins of plants, prevented DspA/E-induced cell death in N. benthamiana. However, silencing of NbRAR1, or two MAP kinase kinase genes, which are required for PCD associated with many resistance genes in plants, did not prevent cell death induced by DspA/E. Silencing of NbSGT1 also compromised non-host resistance against E. amylovora. E. amylovora grew rapidly within the first 24 h after infiltration in N. benthamiana, and DspA/E was required for this early rapid growth. However, bacterial cell numbers decreased after 24 h in TRV-vector-transformed plants, whereas a dspA/E mutant strain grew to high populations in NbSGT1 -silenced plants. Our results indicate that DspA/E enhances virulence of E. amylovora in N. benthamiana, but the bacteria are then recognized by the plant, resulting in PCD and death of bacterial cells or restriction of bacterial cell growth. [source]

    Erwinia amylovora modifies phenolic profiles of susceptible and resistant apple through its type III secretion system

    Isabelle Pontais
    Fire blight is a disease affecting Maloideae caused by the necrogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora, which requires the type III protein secretion system (TTSS) for pathogenicity. Profiles of methanol-extractable leaf phenolics of two apple (Malus × domestica) genotypes with contrasting susceptibility to this disease were analyzed by HPLC after infection. Some qualitative differences were recorded between the constitutive compositions of the two genotypes but in both of them dihydrochalcones accounted for more than 90% of total phenolics. Principal component analysis separated leaves inoculated with a virulent wild-type strain from those inoculated with a non-pathogenic TTSS-defective mutant or with water. The changes in levels of the various groups of phenolics in response to the virulent bacterium were similar between the two genotypes, with a significant decrease of dihydrochalcones and a significant increase of hydroxycinnamate derivatives. Differences between genotypes were, however, recorded in amplitude and kinetic of variation in these groups. Occurrence of oxidation and polymerization reactions is proposed, based on the browning process of infected tissues, but whether some by-products act in defense as toxic compounds remain to be tested. Among direct antibacterial constitutive compounds present in apple leaves, the dihydrochalcone phloretin only was found at levels close to lethal concentrations in both genotypes. However, E. amylovora exhibited the ability to stabilize this compound at sublethal levels even in the resistant apple, rejecting the hypothesis of its involvement in the resistance of this genotype. [source]

    Folding kinetics and thermodynamics of Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrPto provide insight into translocation via the type III secretion system

    PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 7 2008
    Jennifer E. Dawson
    Abstract In order to infect their hosts, many Gram-negative bacteria translocate agents of infection, called effector proteins, through the type III secretion system (TTSS) into the host cytoplasm. This process is thought to require at least partial unfolding of these agents, raising the question of how an effector protein might unfold to enable its translocation and then refold once it reaches the host cytoplasm. AvrPto is a well-studied effector protein of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. The presence of a readily observed unfolded population of AvrPto in aqueous solution and the lack of a known secretion chaperone make it ideal for studying the kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics that facilitate translocation. Application of Nzz exchange spectroscopy revealed a global, two-state folding equilibrium with 16% unfolded population, a folding rate of 1.8 s,1, and an unfolding rate of 0.33 s,1 at pH 6.1. TrAvrPto stability increases with increasing pH, with only 2% unfolded population observed at pH 7.0. The R1 relaxation of TrAvrPto, which is sensitive to both the global anisotropy of folded TrAvrPto and slow exchange between folded and unfolded conformations, provided independent verification of the global kinetic rate constants. Given the acidic apoplast in which the pathogen resides and the more basic host cytoplasm, these results offer an intriguing mechanism by which the pH dependence of stability and slow folding kinetics of AvrPto would allow efficient translocation of the unfolded form through the TTSS and refolding into its functional folded form once inside the host. [source]

    The FliK protein and flagellar hook-length control

    PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 5 2007
    Richard C. Waters
    Abstract The bacterial flagellum is a highly complex prokaryotic organelle. It is the motor that drives bacterial motility, and despite the large amount of energy required to make and operate flagella, motile organisms have a strong adaptive advantage. Flagellar biogenesis is both complex and highly coordinated and it typically involves at least three two-component systems. Part of the flagellum is a type III secretion system, and it is via this structure that flagellar components are exported. The assembly of a flagellum occurs in a number of stages, and the "checkpoint control" protein FliK functions in this process by detecting when the flagellar hook substructure has reached its optimal length. FliK then terminates hook export and assembly and transmits a signal to begin filament export, the final stage in flagellar biosynthesis. As yet the exact mechanism of how FliK achieves this is not known. Here we review what is known of the FliK protein and discuss the evidence for and against the various hypotheses that have been proposed in recent years to explain how FliK controls hook length, FliK as a molecular ruler, the measuring cup theory, the role of the FliK N terminus, the infrequent molecular ruler theory, and the molecular clock theory. [source]

    Detailed analysis of the DNA recognition motifs of the Xanthomonas type III effectors AvrBs3 and AvrBs3,rep16

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
    Sabine Kay
    Summary The Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) employs a type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins into plant cells where they modulate host signaling pathways to the pathogen's benefit. The effector protein AvrBs3 acts as a eukaryotic transcription factor and induces the expression of plant genes termed UPA (up-regulated by AvrBs3). Here, we describe 11 new UPA genes from bell pepper that are induced by AvrBs3 early after infection with Xcv. Sequence comparisons revealed the presence of a conserved AvrBs3-responsive element, the UPA box, in all UPA gene promoters analyzed. Analyses of UPA box mutant derivatives confirmed its importance for gene induction by AvrBs3. We show that DNA binding and gene activation were strictly correlated. DNase I footprint studies demonstrated that the UPA box corresponds to the center of the AvrBs3-protected DNA region. Type III delivery of AvrBs3 and mutant derivatives showed that some UPA genes are induced by the AvrBs3 deletion derivative AvrBs3,rep16, which lacks four repeats. We show that AvrBs3,rep16 recognizes a mutated UPA box with two nucleotide exchanges in positions that are not essential for binding and activation by AvrBs3. [source]

    The conserved Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria effector protein XopX is a virulence factor and suppresses host defense in Nicotiana benthamiana

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 6 2005
    Matthew Metz
    Summary Nicotiana benthamiana leaves display a visible plant cell death response when infiltrated with a high titer inoculum of the non-host pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). This visual phenotype was used to identify overlapping cosmid clones from a genomic cosmid library constructed from the Xcv strain, GM98-38. Individual cosmid clones from the Xcv library were conjugated into X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and exconjugants were scored for an altered visual high titer inoculation response in N. benthamiana. The molecular characterization of the cosmid clones revealed that they contained a novel gene, xopX, that encodes a 74-kDa type III secretion system (TTSS) effector protein. Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression of XopX in N. benthamiana did not elicit the plant cell death response although detectable XopX protein was produced. Interestingly, the plant cell death response occurred when the xopX Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression construct was co-inoculated with strains of either Xcv,xopX or Xcc, both lacking xopX. The co-inoculation complementation of the plant cell death response also depends on whether the Xanthomonas strains contain an active TTSS. Transgenic 35S- xopX -expressing N. benthamiana plants also have the visible plant cell death response when inoculated with the non- xopX -expressing strains Xcv,xopX and Xcc. Unexpectedly, transgenic 35S- xopX N. benthamiana plants displayed enhanced susceptibility to bacterial growth of Xcc as well as other non- xopX -expressing Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas strains. This result is also consistent with the increase in bacterial growth on wild type N. benthamiana plants observed for Xcc when XopX is expressed in trans. Furthermore, XopX contributes to the virulence of Xcv on host pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) plants. We propose that the XopX bacterial effector protein targets basic innate immunity in plants, resulting in enhanced plant disease susceptibility. [source]

    Near-atomic resolution analysis of BipD, a component of the type III secretion system of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    M. Pal
    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, possesses a type III protein secretion apparatus that is similar to those found in Salmonella and Shigella. A major function of these secretion systems is to inject virulence-associated proteins into target cells of the host organism. The bipD gene of B. pseudomallei encodes a secreted virulence factor that is similar in sequence and is most likely to be functionally analogous to IpaD from Shigella and SipD from Salmonella. Proteins in this family are thought to act as extracellular chaperones at the tip of the secretion needle to help the hydrophobic translocator proteins enter the target cell membrane, where they form a pore and may also link the translocon pore with the secretion needle. BipD has been crystallized in a monoclinic crystal form that diffracted X-rays to 1.5,Å resolution and the structure was refined to an R factor of 16.1% and an Rfree of 19.8% at this resolution. The putative dimer interface that was observed in previous crystal structures was retained and a larger surface area was buried in the new crystal form. [source]

    The mechanisms used by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to control filopodia dynamics

    Cedric N. Berger
    Summary Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) subverts actin dynamics in eukaryotic cells by injecting effector proteins via a type III secretion system. First, WxxxE effector Map triggers transient formation of filopodia. Then, following recovery from the filopodial signals, EPEC triggers robust actin polymerization via a signalling complex comprising Tir and the adaptor proteins Nck. In this paper we show that Map triggers filopodia formation by activating Cdc42; expression of dominant-negative Cdc42 or knock-down of Cdc42 by siRNA impaired filopodia formation. In addition, Map binds PDZ1 of NHERF1. We show that Map,NHERF1 interaction is needed for filopodia stabilization in a process involving ezrin and the RhoA/ROCK cascade; expression of dominant-negative ezrin and RhoA or siRNA knock-down of RhoA lead to rapid elimination of filopodia. Moreover, we show that formation of the Tir-Nck signalling complex leads to filopodia withdrawal. Recovery from the filopodial signals requires phosphorylation of a Tir tyrosine (Y474) residue and actin polymerization pathway as both infection of cells with EPEC expressing TirY474S or infection of Nck knockout cells with wild-type EPEC resulted in persistence of filopodia. These results show that EPEC effectors modulate actin dynamics by temporal subverting the Rho GTPases and other actin polymerization pathways for the benefit of the adherent pathogen. [source]

    Yersinia outer proteins: Yops

    Jennifer E. Trosky
    Summary The pathogenic bacteria Yersinia spp. contain a virulence plasmid that encodes a type III secretion system and effectors. During infection, four of the effectors target the actin cytoskeleton, crippling the phagocytic machinery in the infected cell. The remaining two effectors dampen the innate immune response by targeting important signalling pathways. Although the biochemical activity for each of these effectors is known, the mechanisms involved in their ordered secretion and delivery remain elusive. [source]

    Host,pathogen interplay and the evolution of bacterial effectors

    John Stavrinides
    Summary Many bacterial pathogens require a type III secretion system (T3SS) and suite of type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) to successfully colonize their hosts, extract nutrients and consequently cause disease. T3SEs, in particular, are key components of the bacterial arsenal, as they function directly inside the host to disrupt or suppress critical components of the defence network. The development of host defence and surveillance systems imposes intense selective pressures on these bacterial virulence factors, resulting in a host,pathogen co-evolutionary arms race. This arms race leaves its genetic signature in the pattern and structure of natural genetic variation found in T3SEs, thereby permitting us to infer the specific evolutionary processes and pressures driving these interactions. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of T3SS-mediated host,pathogen co-evolution. We examine the evolution of the T3SS and the T3SEs that traverse it, in both plant and animal pathosystems, and discuss the processes that maintain these important pathogenicity determinants within pathogen populations. We go on to examine the possible origins of T3SEs, the mechanisms that give rise to new T3SEs and the processes that underlie their evolution. [source]

    Pyroptosis and host cell death responses during Salmonella infection

    Susan L. Fink
    Summary Salmonella enterica are facultatively intracellular pathogens causing diseases with markedly visible signs of inflammation. During infection, Salmonella interacts with various host cell types, often resulting in death of those cells. Salmonella induces intestinal epithelial cell death via apoptosis, a cell death programme with a notably non-inflammatory outcome. In contrast, macrophage infection triggers caspase-1-dependent proinflammatory programmed cell death, a recently recognized process termed pyroptosis, which is distinguished from other forms of cellular demise by its unique mechanism, features and inflammatory outcome. Rapid macrophage pyroptosis depends on the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 type III secretion system (T3SS) and flagella. Salmonella dynamically modulates induction of macrophage pyroptosis, and regulation of T3SS systems permits bacterial replication in specialized intracellular niches within macrophages. However, these infected macrophages later undergo a delayed form of caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis. Caspase-1-deficient mice are more susceptible to a number of bacterial infections, including salmonellosis, and pyroptosis is therefore considered a generalized protective host response to infection. Thus, Salmonella -induced pyroptosis serves as a model to understand a broadly important pathway of proinflammatory programmed host cell death: examining this system affords insight into mechanisms of both beneficial and pathological cell death and strategies employed by pathogens to modulate host responses. [source]

    Human GCIP interacts with CT847, a novel Chlamydia trachomatis type III secretion substrate, and is degraded in a tissue-culture infection model

    Blandine Chellas-Géry
    Summary The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis occupies a parasitophorous vacuole and employs a type III secretion mechanism to translocate host-interactive proteins. These proteins most likely contribute to pathogenesis through modulation of host cell mechanisms crucial for the establishment and maintenance of a permissive intracellular environment. Using a surrogate Yersinia type III secretion system (T3SS), we have identified the conserved gene product CT847 as a chlamydial T3SS substrate. Yeast two-hybrid studies using CT847 as bait to screen a HeLa cell cDNA library identified an interaction with mammalian Grap2 cyclin D- interacting protein (GCIP). Immunoblot analyses of C. trachomatis -infected HeLa cells showed that GCIP levels begin to decrease (as compared with mock-infected HeLa cells) between 8 h and 12 h post infection. GCIP was virtually undetectable in 24 h time point material. This decrease was inhibited by proteasome inhibitors lactacystin and MG-132, and the T3SS inhibitor Compound 1. CT847 was detectible in purified reticulate body but not elementary body lysates, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) expression analyses indicate a mid-cycle expression pattern. Both of these findings are consistent with CT847 contributing to the observed effect on GCIP. Given the established roles of GCIP, we believe that we have discovered a novel C. trachomatis antihost protein whose activity is relevant to chlamydial pathogenesis. [source]

    Elicitation and suppression of microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity in plant,microbe interactions

    Ping He
    Summary Recent studies have uncovered fascinating molecular mechanisms underlying plant,microbe interactions that coevolved dynamically. As in animals, the primary plant innate immunity is immediately triggered by the detection of common pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs). Different MAMPs are often perceived by distinct cell-surface pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and activate convergent intracellular signalling pathways in plant cells for broad-spectrum immunity. Successful pathogens, however, have evolved multiple virulence factors to suppress MAMP-triggered immunity. Specifically, diverse pathogenic bacteria have employed the type III secretion system to deliver a repertoire of virulence effector proteins to interfere with host immunity and promote pathogenesis. Plants challenged by pathogens have evolved the secondary plant innate immunity. In particular, some plants possess the specific intracellular disease resistance (R) proteins to effectively counteract virulence effectors of pathogens for effector-triggered immunity. This potent but cultivar-specific effector-triggered immunity occurs rapidly with localized programmed cell death/hypersensitive response to limit pathogen proliferation and disease development. Remarkably, bacteria have further acquired virulence effectors to block effector-triggered immunity. This review covers the latest findings in the dynamics of MAMP-triggered immunity and its interception by virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria. [source]

    Manipulating cellular transport and immune responses: dynamic interactions between intracellular Salmonella enterica and its host cells

    Garth L. Abrahams
    Summary Intracellular survival and replication within eukaryotic host cells is of central importance for the pathogenesis of infections caused by Salmonella enterica. Intracellular Salmonella translocates a set of effector proteins by means of a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) that manipulates normal host-cell functions. Intracellular survival and replication is linked to the function of the SPI2-T3SS, but recent observations show that many additional cellular functions are targeted by this virulence system. In this review, we focus on the recent observations on the interference of intracellular Salmonella with functions of the innate and adaptive immune system and the modification of endocytic and exocytic cellular transport. The common molecular basis of the different SPI2-dependent phenotypes could be the interference with cellular transport along microtubules. [source]

    A Salmonella type III secretion effector interacts with the mammalian serine/threonine protein kinase PKN1

    Andrea Haraga
    Summary Essential to salmonellae pathogenesis is an export device called the type III secretion system (TTSS), which mediates the transfer of bacterial effector proteins from the bacterial cell into the host cell cytoplasm. Once inside the host cell, these effectors are then capable of altering a variety of host cellular functions in order to promote bacterial survival and colonization. SspH1 is a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TTSS effector that localizes to the mammalian nucleus and down-modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-,B-dependent gene expression. To identify mammalian binding partners of SspH1 a yeast two-hybrid screen against a human spleen cDNA library was performed. It yielded a serine/threonine protein kinase called protein kinase N 1 (PKN1). The leucine-rich repeat domain of SspH1 was demonstrated to mediate this interaction and also inhibition of NF-,B-dependent gene expression. This suggested that PKN1 may play a role in modulation of the NF-,B signalling pathway. Indeed, we found that expression of constitutively active PKN1 in mammalian cells results in a decrease, while depletion of PKN1 by RNA interference causes an increase in NF-,B-dependent reporter gene expression. These data indicate that SspH1 may inhibit the host's inflammatory response by interacting with PKN1. [source]

    Genome-wide analysis of host responses to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system yields synergistic effects

    Jeffrey K. Ichikawa
    Summary The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a dedicated bacterial pathogen protein targeting system that directly affects host cell signalling and response pathways. Our goal was to identify host responses to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa effectors, introduced into target cells utilizing the TTSS. We carried out expression profiling of a human lung pneumocyte cell line A549 exposed to isogenic mutants of P. aeruginosa PAK lacking individual or a combination of TTSS components. We then devised a data analysis method to isolate the key responses to specific secreted bacterial effector proteins as well as components of the TTSS machinery. Individually, the effector proteins elicited host responses consistent with their known functions, many of which were cell cycle-related. However, our analysis has shown that the effector proteins elicit a distinct host transcriptional response when present in combination, suggesting a synergistic effect. Furthermore, the pattern of host transcriptional responses is consistent with the pore forming ability of the TTSS needle complex. This study shows that the individual components of the TTSS define an integrated system and that a systems biology approach is required to fully understand the complex interplay between pathogen and host. [source]

    BopB is a type III secreted protein in Bordetella bronchiseptica and is required for cytotoxicity against cultured mammalian cells

    Asaomi Kuwae
    Summary The cytotoxicity of Bordetella bronchiseptica to infected cells is known to be dependent on a B. bronchiseptica type III secretion system. Although the precise mechanism of the type III secretion system is unknown, BopN, BopD and Bsp22 have been identified as type III secreted proteins. In order to identify other proteins secreted via the type III secretion machinery in Bordetella, a type III mutant was generated, and its secretion profile was compared with that of the wild-type strain. The results showed that the wild-type strain, but not the type III mutant, secreted a 40-kDa protein into the culture supernatant. This protein was identified as BopB by the analysis of its N-terminal amino acid sequence. Severe cytotoxicity such as necrosis was induced in L2 cells by infection with the wild-type B. bronchiseptica. In contrast, this effect was not observed by the BopB mutant infection. The haemolytic activity of the BopB mutant was greatly impaired compared with that of the wild-type strain. The results of a digitonin assay strongly suggested that BopB was translocated into HeLa cells infected with the wild-type strain. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Bordetella secretes BopB via a type III secretion system during infection. BopB may play a role in the formation of pores in the host plasma membrane which serve as a conduit for the translocation of effector proteins into host cells. [source]

    Functions and effectors of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system

    Scott R. Waterman
    Summary Salmonella enterica uses two functionally distinct type III secretion systems encoded on the pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2 to transfer effector proteins into host cells. A major function of the SPI-1 secretion system is to enable bacterial invasion of epithelial cells and the principal role of SPI-2 is to facilitate the replication of intracellular bacteria within membrane-bound Salmonella -containing vacuoles (SCVs). Studies of mutant bacteria defective for SPI-2-dependent secretion have revealed a variety of functions that can be attributed to this secretion system. These include an inhibition of various aspects of endocytic trafficking, an avoidance of NADPH oxidase-dependent killing, the induction of a delayed apoptosis-like host cell death, the control of SCV membrane dynamics, the assembly of a meshwork of F-actin around the SCV, an accumulation of cholesterol around the SCV and interference with the localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase to the SCV. Several effector proteins that are translocated across the vacuolar membrane in a SPI-2-dependent manner have now been identified. These are encoded both within and outside SPI-2. The characteristics of these effectors, and their relationship to the physiological functions listed above, are the subject of this review. The emerging picture is of a multifunctional system, whose activities are explained in part by effectors that control interactions between the SCV and intracellular membrane compartments. [source]

    Intracellular replication of Salmonella typhimurium strains in specific subsets of splenic macrophages in vivo

    Suzana P. Salcedo
    We used flow cytometry and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy to study the localization of Salmonella typhimurium in spleens of infected mice. Animals were inoculated intragastrically or intraperitoneally with S. typhimurium strains, constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein. Independently of the route of inoculation, most bacteria were found in intracellular locations 3 days after inoculation. Using a panel of antibodies that bound to cells of different lineages, including mononuclear phagocyte subsets, we have shown that the vast majority of S. typhimurium bacteria reside within macrophages. Bacteria were located in red pulp and marginal zone macrophages, but very few were found in the marginal metallophilic macrophage population. We have demonstrated that the Salmonella SPI-2 type III secretion system is required for replication within splenic macrophages, and that sifA, mutant bacteria are found within the cytosol of these cells. These results confirm that SifA and SPI-2 are involved in maintenance of the vacuolar membrane and intracellular replication in vivo. [source]

    SifA permits survival and replication of Salmonella typhimurium in murine macrophages

    John H. Brumell
    SifA was originally identified as a virulence factor required for formation of Salmonella -induced filaments (Sifs), elongated tubules rich in lysosomal glycoproteins that extend from the Salmonella -containing vacuole in infected epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that deletion mutants of ssaR, a component of the SPI-2 type III secretion system, do not form Sifs in HeLa epithelial cells. This suggests that SifA is a translocated effector of this system, acting within host cells to form Sifs. In support of this hypothesis, transfection of HeLa cells with a vector encoding SifA fused to the green fluorescent protein caused extensive vacuolation of LAMP-1-positive compartments. Filamentous tubules that closely resembled Sifs were also observed in transfected cells, demonstrating that SifA is sufficient to initiate alteration of host cell endosomal structures. ,sifA mutants were impaired in their ability to survive/replicate in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, a phenotype similar to ssaR mutants. Our findings suggest that SifA is an effector of the SPI-2 type III secretion system and allows colonization of murine macrophages, the host niche exploited during systemic phases of disease in these animals. A family of SifA-related proteins and their importance to Salmonella pathogenesis is also discussed. [source]