Ideal Types (ideal + type)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The Innovative Milieus Approach: Toward a Territorialized Understanding of the Economy?

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2004
Olivier Crevoisier
Abstract: Space has always been more or less present in economic theories. Nevertheless, traditional approaches, as well as the so-called new economic geography, introduce space subsequently. Economic theories are first built independently of spatial and temporal contexts, for example, through costs varying according to distance. The innovative milieus approach is based on the ideas that space,or, more precisely, territory,is the matrix of economic development and that economic mechanisms transform space. This article describes innovative milieus as an ideal type that articulates three paradigms: the technological paradigm, which stresses innovation, learning, and know-how as the most important competitive advantages; the organizational paradigm, which emphasizes the role of networks, competition, and rules of cooperation, as well as relational capital; and the territorial paradigm, which accounts for the role of proximity and distance and stresses the idea that competition occurs between regions. The originality of the innovative milieus approach is that it considers these three paradigms as a whole, thus providing a stabilized set of concepts that allow for an understanding of economic development processes in their space and time contexts. [source]


District Judges and Possession Proceedings

JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIETY, Issue 4 2006
Dave Cowan
In this article, we draw on data obtained in interviews with District Judges about the factors which they say influence the exercise of their discretion in possession proceedings. Analysing the data set enabled us to create three ideal types of judicial decision,making which we have labelled ,liberal', ,patrician', and formalist'. We discuss the differences between each ideal type across five different variables: the District Judge role; approach; view of occupiers; the problem; behaviour of occupiers. Our data demonstrate a set of reasons to explain different approaches and outcomes between different District Judges (as well as the perhaps unlikely identification of a ,maverick' or ,idiosyncratic' style of judging). We conclude by suggesting on the basis of our data that, despite calls to structure or remove the discretion from District Judges, any such changes are unlikely to have much effect. [source]


Telephone Appointment Visits for Head and Neck Surgery Follow-up Care,,

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2002
Jeffrey Eaton MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that patients with a variety of otolaryngologic diagnoses using telephone appointment visits would be equally as satisfied as patients receiving physician office visits, the study compared telephone appointment visits with physician office visits for health maintenance organization patients who needed routine follow-up care in a head and neck surgery clinic. Study Design Randomized, nonblinded cross-sectional study. Methods After their initial visit to either of two head and neck surgery clinics, new otolaryngology patients were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. Patients in the treatment group (n = 73) received follow-up care in the form of telephone appointment visits, and patients in the control group (n = 80) received physician office visits for follow-up care. Study data were collected using telephone interviews and physician trackingforms. Results Patients receiving telephone appointment visits were significantly less satisfied with their visits than patients receiving physician office visits (,2 = 25.4, P <.005). Patients who had physician office visits were significantly more likely than were patients in the treatment group to agree "somewhat" or "strongly" that 1) the physician addressed their questions and concerns (,2 = 24.0, P <.005); 2) the physician provided personal care and attention (,2 =29.9, P <.005); and 3) the physician provided high-quality care (,2 =34.5, P <.005). Conclusions Patients who received telephone appointment visits were statistically significantly less satisfied with all aspects of their follow-up appointment than were patients who had physician office visits. The study findings indicate that telephone appointment visits may not be an ideal type of follow-up visit for all patients. Despite these findings, one third of patients in the treatment group would consider receiving a telephone appointment visit for future routine follow-up care, and 21.9% had no preference, perhaps a factor indicating willingness to receive a telephone appointment for a follow-up visit. [source]


Co-operatives in southern Spain: their development in the rural tourism sector in Andalucía

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM RESEARCH, Issue 3 2001
Michael Barke
Abstract This paper examines the characteristics of a number of recently established rural tourism co-operatives in Andalucía, southern Spain against the background of the theory of co-operatives as economic organisations. The origins and composition of the co-operatives are examined, their local impact, their policies on employment and remuneration, and their internal management characteristics. Few of the businesses in the sample appear to possess the characteristics of the ,ideal type' of co-operative identified in the literature. Although small-scale, beneficial impacts may be identified within their localities, these appear to be no different to those associated with any small business organisation in the rural tourism sector. Furthermore, it is concluded that their prospects for developing genuine alternative forms of employment structures are not strong, partly owing to the circumstances of their foundation and partly because of the very nature of rural tourism itself, where extreme seasonality imposes a very specific labour regime. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Europe and the Crisis in Scientific Vocations

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Issue 4 2005
BERNARD CONVERT
During the 1990s, the number of students enrolling in science subjects at universities was declining each year in Germany, France, Italy, amongst other countries. These decreases are too readily attributed to a general disaffection caused by the image that younger generations have of scientific studies: they are seen as being the most ,difficult'. This explanation is true but not sufficient. Over and above the similarities that can be seen between European countries , which stem from the fact that they are simultaneously experiencing strong growth in and democratisation of their student populations ,, profound differences continue to exist, resulting in apparently similar effects, but with very different causes. Not only do higher education structures taken as a whole remain very different despite the Bologna process, but more fundamentally, the very meaning of the higher education system within each national society, its relationship with employment, and its position in individuals' personal career paths all vary. A comparison between Germany, Italy and France shows three ideal types of relationship between training and employment and three ways of explaining symptoms that appear similar. [source]


European Parliament and Executive Federalism: Approaching a Parliament in a Semi-Parliamentary Democracy

EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 5 2003
Philipp Dann
This paper proposes an understanding of the European Parliament not along theories about what the EU should become, but what it is and surely will continue to be, that is a very distinct federal structure. The European Parliament is a parliament in an executive federalism,with far-reaching consequences for its form and functions. After outlining the characteristics of this federal structure, these consequences will be demonstrated by analysing the European Parliament in contrast with two ideal types of parliaments: the working parliament, separated from the executive branch and centred around strong committees (like the US Congress), and the debating parliament, characterised by the fusion of parliamentary majority and government as well as plenary debates (like the British House of Commons). Dwelling thus on a comparison to a legislature in a non-parliamentary federal system, like the US Congress, this paper argues that the European Parliament might best be understood as a special case of a working parliament. Finally, it will be proposed to consider the influence of executive federalism not only as fundamentally shaping the European Parliament but also as rendering the EU generally a semi-parliamentary democracy. [source]


2. PRESENCE ACHIEVED IN LANGUAGE (WITH SPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO THE PRESENCE OF THE PAST)

HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 3 2006
HANS ULRICH GUMBRECHT
ABSTRACT The aim of this essay is to ask whether what it calls the "presence" of things, including things of the past, can be rendered in language, including the language of historians. In Part I the essay adumbrates what it means by presence (the spatio-temporally located existence of physical objects and events). It also proposes two ideal types: meaning-cultures (in which the interpretation of meaning is of paramount concern, so much so that the thinghood of things is often obscured), and presence-cultures (in which capturing the tangibility of things is of utmost importance). In the modern period, linguistic utterance has typically come to be used for, and to be interpreted as, the way by which meaning rather than presence is expressed, thereby creating a gap between language and presence. Thus, in Part II the essay explores ways that this gap might be bridged, examining seven instances in which presence can be "amalgamated" with language. These range from instances in which the physical dimensions of language itself are made manifest, to those through which the physicality of the things to which language refers is supposed to be made evident. Of particular note for theorists of history are those instances in which things can be made present by employing the deictic, poetic, and incantatory potential of linguistic expression. The essay concludes in Part III with a reflection on Heidegger's idea that language is the "house of being," now interpreted as the idea that language can be the medium through which the separation of humans and the (physical) things of their environment may be overcome. The hope of achieving presence in language is no less than a reconciliation of humans with their world, including,and of most interest to historians,the things and events of their past. [source]


Institutional effects on occupational health and safety management systems

HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS IN MANUFACTURING & SERVICE INDUSTRIES, Issue 3 2010
Robson Sø Rocha
Abstract Research analyzing the effects of occupational health and safety management systems (OHSMS) has been divided roughly between support for and criticism of these systems. This article adopts a new, explorative perspective by analyzing how different national institutional environments are likely to affect the functioning of OHSMS. The argument of this article is that such functioning is greatly dependent on the features of the national institutional environment in which such systems are implemented. The article discusses three ideal types of market economy (i.e., liberal market economy, coordinated market economy, and particularistic environment) in relation to industrial relations systems, prevailing organizational templates, and patterns of skills formation. It assesses the possible impact of these features on the functioning of OHSMS. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Collective bargaining and new work regimes: ,too important to be left to bosses'

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
Patricia Findlay
ABSTRACT The formal negotiations process remains perhaps the least-studied moment of collective bargaining. Drawing on ideal types of ,distributive' and ,integrative' bargaining and the ,formal/informal' distinction, this article reports non-participant observation and ethnographic research into the negotiations process that enabled a change agreement in a British multinational, hereafter anonymised as FMCG. Informal bargaining relations provided the backdrop to,and emerged within,the formal negotiations process. Formal bargaining established new employment contracts based on a simplified internal labour market and generated the joint governance processes to enable and regulate the change process. Neither management nor union strategy was wholly derived from rational, interest-based positions. The negotiations process was essential to strategy formation and to the emergence of sufficient ,integrative' bargaining for all parties to devise and approve new processual institutions and norms to deliver a more flexible labour process and to restore the long-run viability for ,distributive' bargaining. [source]


Building and Contesting Neoliberalism at the Local Level: Reflections on the Symposium and on Recent Experience in Bolivia

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2010
MIKE GEDDES
Abstract This final article first reflects on the previous articles in the symposium, positioning the diverse trajectories of local governance which they exhibit in relation to two contrasting ideal types , the one neoliberal, the other contesting neoliberalism from a progressive, left perspective. Differences between these ideal types, and among the actually existing patterns of local governance discussed in the symposium (in relation to their economic and social objectives and governance institutions and practices) are highlighted. The second part of the article offers a consideration of local governance in Bolivia, a country which encapsulates some of the key issues at stake in the ongoing struggles to either build, or contest, neoliberalism at the local level. Here a distinction is advanced between ,expansive' and ,consolidatory' moments of neoliberal local governance, which may take the form of consecutive phases, but may have different, overlapping temporalities. In conclusion, it is suggested the challenges which the impact of the financial crisis and global recession pose both to neoliberal forms of local governance and to contestatory forces should be a primary concern for future research. Résumé Ce dernier article revient d'abord sur les articles précédents du symposium, pour replacer les diverses voies de gouvernance locale présentées par rapport à deux idéaltypes mis en opposition: l'un néolibéral, l'autre contestant le néolibéralisme d'un point de vue progressiste de gauche. Il met en évidence les différences entre ces idéaltypes, et entre les modèles actuels de gouvernance locale débattus dans le symposium (en lien avec leurs objectifs économiques et sociaux et avec les institutions et pratiques de gouvernance). La seconde partie s'intéresse à la gouvernance locale en Bolivie, un pays qui incarne certains des principaux enjeux dans les luttes en cours visant à bâtir ou à contester un néolibéralisme au niveau local. Une distinction est proposée entre les moments d',expansion' et de ,consolidation' de la gouvernance locale néolibérale, lesquels peuvent se présenter de manière consécutive, mais aussi sur des plages temporelles différentes en chevauchement. Pour conclure, les défis que les conséquences de la crise financière et la récession mondiale posent aux formes néolibérales de gouvernance locale ainsi qu'aux forces contestataires devraient constituer une priorité dans les recherches à venir. [source]


Young adults' ideas of cure prior to psychoanalytic psychotherapy

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
Björn Philips
The study aims to explore systematically the ideas of cure among young adults prior to psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Forty-six individuals aged 18 to 25 years who applied for psychotherapy underwent the Private Theories Interview (PTI). Twenty distinct categories of ideas of cure were identified. Based on these categories, a theoretical model was constructed with the dimensions, Approaching,Distancing and Doing,Receiving. Individuals were classified into types using "ideal type analysis." Seven ideal types were formed: Processing and Understanding, Mastering Through Own Will and Action, Talking, Discordant Ideas, Incoherent Ideas, Getting It Out, and Avoiding or Placing the Solution onto Others. New hypotheses emerged concerning ideas of cure as an important factor for psychotherapy matching, thus potentially predicting premature termination, alliance, and outcome. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 213,232, 2007. [source]


District Judges and Possession Proceedings

JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIETY, Issue 4 2006
Dave Cowan
In this article, we draw on data obtained in interviews with District Judges about the factors which they say influence the exercise of their discretion in possession proceedings. Analysing the data set enabled us to create three ideal types of judicial decision,making which we have labelled ,liberal', ,patrician', and formalist'. We discuss the differences between each ideal type across five different variables: the District Judge role; approach; view of occupiers; the problem; behaviour of occupiers. Our data demonstrate a set of reasons to explain different approaches and outcomes between different District Judges (as well as the perhaps unlikely identification of a ,maverick' or ,idiosyncratic' style of judging). We conclude by suggesting on the basis of our data that, despite calls to structure or remove the discretion from District Judges, any such changes are unlikely to have much effect. [source]


International Pricing in a Generalized Model of Ideal Variety

JOURNAL OF MONEY, CREDIT AND BANKING, Issue 2009
DAVID HUMMELS
Lancaster ideal variety; price to market We examine international markups and pricing in a generalized version of an "ideal variety" model. In this model, entry causes crowding in variety space, so that the marginal utility of new varieties falls as market size grows. Crowding is partially offset by income effects, as richer consumers will pay more for varieties closer matched to their ideal types. We show theoretically and confirm empirically that declining marginal utility of new varieties results in: a higher own-price elasticity of demand (and lower prices) in large countries and a lower own-price elasticity of demand (and higher prices) in rich countries. The model is also useful for generating facts from the literature regarding cross-country differences in the rate of variety expansion. [source]


Clustering work and family trajectories by using a divisive algorithm

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: SERIES A (STATISTICS IN SOCIETY), Issue 4 2007
Raffaella Piccarreta
Summary., We present an approach to the construction of clusters of life course trajectories and use it to obtain ideal types of trajectories that can be interpreted and analysed meaningfully. We represent life courses as sequences on a monthly timescale and apply optimal matching analysis to compute dissimilarities between individuals. We introduce a new divisive clustering algorithm which has features that are in common with both Ward's agglomerative algorithm and classification and regression trees. We analyse British Household Panel Survey data on the employment and family trajectories of women. Our method produces clusters of sequences for which it is straightforward to determine who belongs to each cluster, making it easier to interpret the relative importance of life course factors in distinguishing subgroups of the population. Moreover our method gives guidance on selecting the number of clusters. [source]


Control Modes in the Age of Transnational Governance

LAW & POLICY, Issue 3 2008
DIRK LEHMKUHL
The article starts with the observation that there are overlaps in, so far, largely unrelated research programs concerned with the legalization in international relations, on the one hand, and transnational regulation and governance, on the other. The analysis of the literature at the interface between the "fourth strata of the geology of international law" and the "governance in the age of regulation" literatures reveals a substantial common interest in structures of transnational regulatory governance. At the same time, the theoretical toolkit of both strands of literature does not match the task of coping analytically with structures and processes in the overlapping realm. To sharpen the analytical edge, the article elaborates hierarchy, market, community, and design as four ideal types of control modes in transnational regulatory spaces. The application of this model to the empirical analysis of a number of regimes underpins the observation that control frequently occurs in hybrid regulatory constellations involving public and private actors across national and international levels. A key example concerns the prominence of domestic regulatory regimes in underpinning transnational governance processes, where national rules achieve extraterritorial effect as much through competitive as through hierarchical mechanisms. [source]


The Institutional Context of Market Ideology: A Comparative Analysis of the Values and Perceptions of Local Government CEOs in 14 OECD Countries

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, Issue 2 2004
Morten Balle Hansen
During recent decades, various versions of market practices have, in most nation states, diffused into the public sector. We analyse variations in the adoption of market ideologies and examine plausible explanations for these variations. Four managerial ideal types are constructed, based on their attitudes towards two dimensions of market ideology. Managerial attitudes and perceptions are conceived as embedded in a global process of diffusion highly affected by varying institutional preconditions. The impact of five types of institutional contexts is examined: the national context, the organizational context, the context of interaction, the context of socialization and the norms of the manager. [source]


Configurations of gender inequality: the consequences of ideology and public policy1

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Hadas Mandel
Abstract This paper gathers a wide range of indicators into distinctive profiles to show how configurations of gender economic inequality are shaped by both welfare state strategies and gender role ideologies. When multiple aspects of gender inequality are assembled together, it becomes evident that all societies exhibit both gender-egalitarian and inegalitarian features. These tradeoffs can best be understood through the ideological and institutional contexts in which they are embedded. Empirical illustrations are provided for fourteen advanced societies by analysing the major expressions of gender inequality; from women's economic wellbeing and financial autonomy, through labour force participation and continuity of employment, to occupational attainments and economic rewards. The analysis confirms the existence of distinctive profiles of gender inequality and their affinity to normative conceptions of the gender order and ideal types of welfare state institutions. [source]


The Tyranny of Diagnosis: Specific Entities and Individual Experience

THE MILBANK QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2002
Charles E. Rosenberg
Diagnosis has always played a pivotal role in medical practice, but in the past two centuries, that role has been reconfigured and has become more central as medicine,like Western society in general,has become increasingly technical, specialized, and bureaucratized. Disease explanations and clinical practices have incorporated, paralleled, and, in some measure, constituted these larger structural changes. This modern history of diagnosis is inextricably related to disease specificity, to the notion that diseases can and should be thought of as entities existing outside the unique manifestations of illness in particular men and women. During the past century especially, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment have been linked ever more tightly to specific, agreed-upon disease categories, in both concept and everyday practice. In fact, this essay might have been entitled "Diagnosis Mediates an Invisible Revolution: The Social and Intellectual Significance of Specific Disease Concepts." It would have been even more precise, if rather less arresting. The articulation and acceptance of specific disease entities constitute one of the most important intellectual and cultural events of the past two centuries. This notion is central to how we organize health care delivery, think about ourselves, debate and formulate social policy, and define and manage deviance. Diagnosis is indispensable to linking specific disease concepts with doctor and patient and the social and economic institutions shaping such clinical interactions. Disease is a social entity, not an array of ideal types. The history of medicine is partly the story of how disease entities have become social entities, accumulating the flesh of diagnostic and therapeutic practice, social expectation, and bureaucratic reification. Despite criticism of reductionist medicine in the West and less focus on disease entities and mechanisms, our social response still depends on this concept of sickness. But this concept can no longer remain invisible if we are to understand contemporary medicine as both a social and a technological system. The articulation and acceptance of specific disease entities constitute one of the most important intellectual and cultural events of the past two centuries. This notion is central to how we organize health care delivery, think about ourselves, debate and formulate social policy, and define and manage deviance. Diagnosis is indispensable to linking specific disease concepts with doctor and patient and the social and economic institutions shaping such clinical interactions. Disease is a social entity, not an array of ideal types. The history of medicine is partly the story of how disease entities have become social entities, accumulating the flesh of diagnostic and therapeutic practice, social expectation, and bureaucratic reification. Despite criticism of reductionist medicine in the West and less focus on disease entities and mechanisms, our social response still depends on this concept of sickness. But this concept can no longer remain invisible if we are to understand contemporary medicine as both a social and a technological system. The articulation and acceptance of specific disease entities constitute one of the most important intellectual and cultural events of the past two centuries. This notion is central to how we organize health care delivery, think about ourselves, debate and formulate social policy, and define and manage deviance. Diagnosis is indispensable to linking specific disease concepts with doctor and patient and the social and economic institutions shaping such clinical interactions. Disease is a social entity, not an array of ideal types. The history of medicine is partly the story of how disease entities have become social entities, accumulating the flesh of diagnostic and therapeutic practice, social expectation, and bureaucratic reification. Despite criticism of reductionist medicine in the West and less focus on disease entities and mechanisms, our social response still depends on this concept of sickness. But this concept can no longer remain invisible if we are to understand contemporary medicine as both a social and a technological system. The articulation and acceptance of specific disease entities constitute one of the most important intellectual and cultural events of the past two centuries. This notion is central to how we organize health care delivery, think about ourselves, debate and formulate social policy, and define and manage deviance. Diagnosis is indispensable to linking specific disease concepts with doctor and patient and the social and economic institutions shaping such clinical interactions. Disease is a social entity, not an array of ideal types. The history of medicine is partly the story of how disease entities have become social entities, accumulating the flesh of diagnostic and therapeutic practice, social expectation, and bureaucratic reification. Despite criticism of reductionist medicine in the West and less focus on disease entities and mechanisms, our social response still depends on this concept of sickness. But this concept can no longer remain invisible if we are to understand contemporary medicine as both a social and a technological system. [source]


Supervising Professional Work under New Public Management: Evidence from an ,Invisible Trade'

BRITISH JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2000
Martin Kitchener
This paper assesses the extent to which the new public management (NPM) project has succeeded in replacing the custodial mode of professional work supervision with a more bureaucratic approach. The paper conceptualizes the key components of each mode within two ideal types of professional work supervision. It then draws on findings from a study of local-authority social service departments to consider current arrangements against these ideal type configurations. The findings demonstrate that elements of the bureaucratic mode have emerged unevenly. So far, they have not displaced the emphasis that the supervisors of professional work place on protecting autonomy and limiting management control systems. This suggests that custodial approaches to the supervision of professional work may be more resilient than has been assumed within previous analyses of NPM. [source]


Greening from the front to the back door?

BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, Issue 3 2010
A typology of chemical, resource management services
Abstract Though services and product,service systems have been promoted as a promising way towards more eco-efficient and sustainable societies, they have not turned into reality as expected. Chemical and resource management services are among the few operational examples. They aim to align the service provider's and customer's actions to reduce chemical usage and waste, improve supply chain management and increase resource efficiency. Arguably, they also create new business and higher profit margins compared with merely selling chemicals or handling industrial waste. Thus far they have been viewed as a single business model. In contrast, this study shows through the construction of five ideal types that the actual services and their focus vary. They range from the management of the chemical supply to operations, waste reduction, combined logistics services, process management, IT and other technologies. Consequently this affects the value creation, organization and environmental efficiencies of these services. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]