Ideal Target (ideal + target)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


PDK1 and PKB/Akt: Ideal Targets for Development of New Strategies to Structure-Based Drug Design

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 3 2003
Thomas Harris
Abstract Growth factor binding events to receptor tyrosine kinases result in activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and activated PI3K generates the membrane-bound second messengers phosphatidylinositol 3,4-diphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3, which mediate membrane translocation of the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt). In addition to the kinase domain, PDK1 and PKB contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that binds to the second messenger, resulting in the phosphorylation and activation of PKB by PDK1. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive activation of PKB contributes to cancer progression by promoting proliferation and increased cell survival. The indicating of PDK1 and PKB as primary targets for discovery of anticancer drugs, together with the observations that both PDK1 and PKB contain small-molecule regulatory binding sites that may be in proximity to the kinase active site, make PDK1 and PKB ideal targets for the development of new strategies to structure-based drug design. While X-ray structures have been reported for the kinase domains of PDK1 and PKB, no suitable crystals have been obtained for either PDK1 or PKB with their PH domains intact. In this regard, a novel structure-based strategy is proposed, which utilizes segmental isotopic labeling of the PH domain in combination with site-directed spin labeling of the kinase active site. Then, long-range distance restraints between the 15N-labeled backbone amide groups of the PH domain and the unpaired electron of the active site spin label can be determined from magnetic resonance studies of the enhancement effect that the paramagnetic spin label has on the nuclear relaxation rates of the amide protons. The determination of the structure and position of the PH domain with respect to the known X-ray structure of the kinase active site could be useful in the rational design of potent and selective inhibitors of PDK1 and PKB by 'linking' the free energies of binding of substrate (ATP) analogs with analogs of the inositol polar head group of the phospholipid second messenger. The combined use of X-ray crystallography, segmental isotopic and spin labeling, and magnetic resonance studies can be further extended to the study of other dynamic multidomain proteins and targets for structure-based drug design. IUBMB Life, 55: 117-126, 2003 [source]


Genetic and catalytic efficiency structure of an HCV protease quasispecies,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
Sandra Franco
The HCV nonstructural protein (NS)3/4A serine protease is not only involved in viral polyprotein processing but also efficiently blocks the retinoic-acid,inducible gen I and Toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathways and contributes to virus persistence by enabling HCV to escape the interferon antiviral response. Therefore, the NS3/4A protease has emerged as an ideal target for the control of the disease and the development of new anti-HCV agents. Here, we analyzed, at a high resolution (approximately 100 individual clones), the HCV NS3 protease gene quasispecies from three infected individuals. Nucleotide heterogeneity of 49%, 84%, and 91% were identified, respectively, which created a dense net that linked different parts of the viral population. Minority variants having mutations involved in the acquisition of resistance to current NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs) were also found. A vast diversity of different catalytic efficiencies could be distinguished. Importantly, 67% of the analyzed enzymes displayed a detectable protease activity. Moreover, 35% of the minority individual variants showed similar or better catalytic efficiency than the master (most abundant) enzyme. Nevertheless, and in contrast to minority variants, master enzymes always displayed a high catalytic efficiency when different viral polyprotein cleavage sites were tested. Finally, genetic and catalytic efficiency differences were observed when the 3 quasispecies were compared, suggesting that different selective forces were acting in different infected individuals. Conclusion: The rugged HCV protease quasispecies landscape should be able to react to environmental changes that may threaten its survival. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;45:899,910.) [source]


Flutamide reduced prostate cancer development and prostate stem cell antigen mRNA expression in high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 4 2008
Zhao Zhigang
Abstract High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) appears to represent an ideal target for chemoprevention of prostate cancer (PCa). HGPIN responds to androgen ablation and has prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) mRNA expression. One hundred and seventy two patients with isolated HGPIN were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive flutamide 250 mg/day (86 cases) or a placebo (86 cases) for 12 months and were rebiopsied at 12 and 60 months. PSCA mRNA expression was assessed in the prestudy and 12-month biopsies by in situ hybridization. The incidence of subsequent PCa was 11.6% in the flutamide group when compared with 30.2% in the placebo group over a follow-up period of 5 years (p = 0.0027). PSCA mRNA expression levels were significantly declined after treatment compared with that before treatment (p < 0.001). After treatment, 66 patients had reduced PSCA mRNA expression, in whom none was found with cancer on follow-up, however, 13 cases had increased PSCA mRNA expression levels, in whom 11 were found with cancer. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that HGPIN with increased PSCA mRNA expression after flutamide had an increased relative risk of 4.33 to develop subsequent cancer (95% confidence intervals: 2.48,7.36; p < 0.001). Seventeen (19.8%) cases had the flutamide-associated side effects, which were graded as mild, but all did not discontinue study. Flutamide can effectively and safely reduce PCa development and significantly suppress PSCA mRNA expression in men with isolated HGPIN, whereas the increased PSCA mRNA expression after therapy may be a clinically adverse predictor for cancer onset. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Robust control from data via uncertainty model sets identification

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBUST AND NONLINEAR CONTROL, Issue 11 2004
S. Malan
Abstract In this paper an integrated robust identification and control design procedure is proposed. The plant to be controlled is supposed to be linear, time invariant, stable, possibly infinite dimensional and a set of noise-corrupted input,output measurements is supposed to be available. The emphasis is placed on the design of controllers guaranteeing robust stability and robust performances, and on the trade-off between controller complexity and achievable robust performances. First, uncertainty models are identified, consisting of parametric models of different order and tight frequency bounds on the magnitude of the unmodelled dynamics. Second, Internal Model Controllers, guaranteeing robust closed-loop stability and best approximating the ,perfect control' ideal target, are designed using H,/,-synthesis techniques. Then, the robust performances of the designed controllers are computed, allowing one to determine the level of model/controller complexity needed to guarantee desired closed-loop performances. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Incidence of Loss of Ability to Walk 400 Meters in a Functionally Limited Older Population

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 12 2004
Milan Chang PhD
Objectives: To assess the incidence of and factors related to nondisabled but functionally limited older adults aged 75 to 85 years losing the ability to walk 400 m. Design: Observational study with average follow-up of 21 months. Setting: Community. Participants: At baseline, 101 persons with objective signs of functional limitations and intact cognitive function agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 81 were able to walk 400 m at baseline, and 62 participated in the follow-up examination. Measurements: Mobility disability was defined as an inability to complete a 400-m walk test. At baseline, eligible participants (n=81) had the ability to walk 400 m, scored between 4 and 9 on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; range 0,12), and scored 18 or more on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Demographics, difficulty in daily activities, disease status, behavioral risk factors, and muscle strength were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results: Of 62 persons at follow-up, 21 (33.9%) developed incident mobility disability. The strongest predictors of loss of mobility were the time to complete the 400-m walk at baseline (odds ratio (OR)=1.6 per 1-minute difference, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04,2.45), and decline in SPPB score over the follow-up (OR=1.4 per 1-point difference, 95% CI=1.01,1.92). Conclusion: Older persons with functional limitations have a high rate of loss of ability to walk 400 m. The 400-m walk test is a highly relevant, discrete outcome that is an ideal target for testing preventive interventions in vulnerable older populations. [source]


Chronic myelogenous leukaemia , new therapeutic principles

JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 1 2001
Michael E. O'Dwyer
O'Dwyer ME, Druker BJ (Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, USA). Chronic myelogenous leukaemia , new therapeutic principles. J. Intern Med 2001; 250: 3,9 The deregulated tyrosine kinase activity of the BCR-ABL fusion protein is the cause of malignant transformation in almost all cases of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), making BCR-ABL an ideal target for pharmacological inhibition. Signal transduction inhibitor (STI571) (formerly CGP57 148B), is an ABL specific, tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In preclinical studies, it has been shown to selectively kill BCR-ABL expressing cells, both in-vitro and in vivo. The results of clinical studies to date are highly encourageing and STI571 promises to be an important addition to the therapy of CML. [source]


Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells to express a single-chain antibody against EGFRvIII on the cell surface

JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
Irina V. Balyasnikova
Abstract Human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under active investigation as cellular carriers for gene therapy. hMSCs possess natural tropism toward tumours; however, the targeting of hMSCs to specific cell populations within tumours is unexplored. In the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), at least half of the tumours express EGFRvIII on the cell surface, an ideal target for antibody-mediated gene/drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of genetically modifying hMSCs to express a single-chain antibody (scFv) to EGFRvIII on their surfaces. Nucleofection was used to transfect hMSCs with cDNA encoding scFv EGFRvIII fused with PDGFR or human B7-1 transmembrane domains. The expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface was assessed by FACS. A stable population of scFv EGFRvIII-expressing hMSCs was selected, based on antibiotic resistance, and enriched using FACS. We found that nucleofection allows the efficient expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface of hMSCs. hMSCs transfected with the construct encoding scFv EGFRvIII as a fusion with PDGFRtm showed scFv EGFRvIII expression in up to 86% of cells. Most importantly, human MSCs expressing scFv against EGFRvIII demonstrated enhanced binding to U87-EGFRvIII cells in vitro and significantly increased retention in human U87-EGFRvIII-expressing tumours in vivo. In summary, we provide the first conclusive evidence of genetic modification of hMSCs with a single-chain antibody against an antigen expressed on the surface of tumour cells, thereby opening up a new venue for enhanced delivery of gene therapy applications in the context of malignant brain cancer. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Caregiving burden and psychiatric morbidity in spouses of persons with mild cognitive impairment

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 6 2005
Linda Garand
Abstract Background While the deleterious psychosocial and mental health effects of dementia caregiving are firmly established, very little is known about the burdens or psychiatric outcomes of providing care to a spouse with less severe cognitive impairment, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We characterized the nature and level of caregiver burden and psychiatric morbidity in spouses of persons diagnosed with MCI. Methods Interview assessments were completed on a cohort of 27 spouses of persons with a recent diagnosis of MCI. Patient medical records were reviewed to collect information regarding the MCI patient's medical history. Results Respondents endorsed elevated levels of both task-related responsibilities and subjective caregiver burden. Depression and anxiety symptom levels also showed some elevations. Measures of caregiver burden were significantly associated with depression and anxiety levels. In particular, even after controlling for demographic risk factors for distress, nursing task burden was correlated with elevated depressive symptoms, and greater lifestyle constraints were correlated with higher anxiety levels. Conclusions Although caregiver burden and psychiatric morbidity levels were lower than those typically observed in family dementia caregiving samples, our findings suggest that MCI caregivers have already begun to experience distress in association with elevated caregiving burden. These individuals may be ideal targets for selective preventive interventions to maximize their psychological well-being as caregiving burdens related to their spouses' cognitive impairment increase. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


PDK1 and PKB/Akt: Ideal Targets for Development of New Strategies to Structure-Based Drug Design

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 3 2003
Thomas Harris
Abstract Growth factor binding events to receptor tyrosine kinases result in activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and activated PI3K generates the membrane-bound second messengers phosphatidylinositol 3,4-diphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3, which mediate membrane translocation of the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt). In addition to the kinase domain, PDK1 and PKB contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that binds to the second messenger, resulting in the phosphorylation and activation of PKB by PDK1. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive activation of PKB contributes to cancer progression by promoting proliferation and increased cell survival. The indicating of PDK1 and PKB as primary targets for discovery of anticancer drugs, together with the observations that both PDK1 and PKB contain small-molecule regulatory binding sites that may be in proximity to the kinase active site, make PDK1 and PKB ideal targets for the development of new strategies to structure-based drug design. While X-ray structures have been reported for the kinase domains of PDK1 and PKB, no suitable crystals have been obtained for either PDK1 or PKB with their PH domains intact. In this regard, a novel structure-based strategy is proposed, which utilizes segmental isotopic labeling of the PH domain in combination with site-directed spin labeling of the kinase active site. Then, long-range distance restraints between the 15N-labeled backbone amide groups of the PH domain and the unpaired electron of the active site spin label can be determined from magnetic resonance studies of the enhancement effect that the paramagnetic spin label has on the nuclear relaxation rates of the amide protons. The determination of the structure and position of the PH domain with respect to the known X-ray structure of the kinase active site could be useful in the rational design of potent and selective inhibitors of PDK1 and PKB by 'linking' the free energies of binding of substrate (ATP) analogs with analogs of the inositol polar head group of the phospholipid second messenger. The combined use of X-ray crystallography, segmental isotopic and spin labeling, and magnetic resonance studies can be further extended to the study of other dynamic multidomain proteins and targets for structure-based drug design. IUBMB Life, 55: 117-126, 2003 [source]


Implications of spatial variability of fish assemblages for monitoring of Australia's tropical estuaries

AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue 3 2010
Marcus Sheaves
Abstract 1. Although often seen as ideal targets for monitoring environmental change because of their high public profile, fish assemblages rarely appear as indicators in monitoring and reporting. 2. Published data were evaluated to develop a simple approach to quantifying the temporal consistency in assemblage structure suitable for routine monitoring and assessment. Data were examined as catch per unit effort (CPUE) and probability of encounter (PoE), and compared using three approaches with the potential to produce simple indices quantifying the patterns of similarity within an estuary over time: species richness, Bray-Curtis Similarities and a new approach, DeltaPoE. Indices derived from published data were then tested against a time series of data from two estuarine lakes with a history of fish kills. 3. Multidimensional scaling based on PoE emphasizes the temporal consistency of fish assemblages within estuaries at least as well as one based on mean CPUE while providing operational advantages. Similarities based on PoE were more sensitive to change from ,natural' assemblage structure than the simpler indices and showed comparable results with Similarities from (log) CPUE data. The one drawback to Similarities is that their complex statistical formulation often makes them less effective vehicles for reporting and communication. Where this is the case the conceptual simplicity of DeltaPoE and its performance relative to Similarities suggests it is a good candidate from which to develop monitoring indices suitable for routine reporting. 4. The performance of each of the indices were considered against the known fish kills. Species richness tracked the observed changes, an expected outcome in this case because a major impact directly removed species. Both indices based on Similarities also tracked the changes faithfully. Of the two, Similarities based on PoE seemed to react more strongly to assemblage changes. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Recombinant, ETA,-based CD64 immunotoxins: improved efficacy by increased valency, both in vitro and in vivo in a chronic cutaneous inflammation model in human CD64 transgenic mice

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
T. Ribbert
Summary Background, Dysregulated, activated macrophages play a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and atopic dermatitis. These cells display increased expression of the high-affinity Fc, receptor (CD64), making them ideal targets for CD64-specific immunotoxins. We previously showed that a chemically linked immunotoxin, the monoclonal H22-RicinA, specifically eliminated infiltrating activated macrophages and resolved chronic cutaneous inflammation. However, several disadvantages are associated with classic immunotoxins, and we therefore followed a fusion protein strategy to express the antigen-binding site alone (scFv H22) fused to a derivative of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA,). Objectives, To assess the potential effect of increased valency on efficacy, we produced monovalent [H22(scFv)-ETA,] and bivalent [H22(scFv)2 -ETA,] versions and evaluated their potential for eliminating activated macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Methods, Both immunotoxins were produced by bacterial fermentation. Binding was assessed by flow cytometry on the monocytic CD64+ cell line U937. Toxicity was analysed by XTT and apoptosis induction by annexin V bioassay. The in vivo effect was tested in a human CD64 transgenic mouse model for cutaneous inflammation. Results, The cytotoxic effects of both immunotoxins were clearly due to apoptosis with an IC50 of 140 pmol L,1 for monovalent and only 14 pmol L,1 for the divalent version. In vivo treatment with H22(scFv)-ETA, reduced CD64+ activated macrophages to 21% of their initial numbers whereas H22(scFv)2 -ETA, treatment reduced these cells to 48% (P < 0001). Conclusions, These data clearly show increased efficacy due to increased valency of the anti-CD64 immunotoxin. Both recombinant immunotoxins have a low IC50, making them suitable for the treatment of diseases involving dysregulated, activated macrophages. [source]