Ideal System (ideal + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


The first version is used to address whether there are any properties originally perceived in both touch and vision. Although it is tempting to think the second discussion serves the same purpose, this would render pointless various novel features of the question Reid then frames. Instead, I suggest, Reid's second question provides the acid test of one of his central claims against the Ideal system, that the blind can form a conception of visible figure. The issue is not the cross-modality of perceptual representations, but the amodality of a central concept, as befits the Inquiry's central argumentative ambitions. [source]

Waterlogging and canopy interact to control species recruitment in floodplains

Wiktor Kotowski
Summary 1.,The extent to which seedling recruitment contributes to local functional diversity depends on the environmental filters operating in a plant community. Classical community assembly models assume that habitat constraints and competition act like hierarchical filters with habitat filtering as the dominant one. Alternative models assume a synergic interaction since responses to environmental stress and competition may impose physiological trade-offs in plants. 2.,River floodplains are an ideal system to test the relationship between habitat and competition filtering in community (re)assembly, as flooding causes changes in both habitat stress (waterlogging, resulting in anoxia and toxicity) and competition (dieback of vegetation) on one hand and acts as an effective seed dispersal vector on the other hand. 3.,We conducted a mesocosm experiment on early community assembly from a pool of 34 floodplain species covering a wetness gradient. Seed mixtures were sown in a full factorial design with water level, canopy and mowing as controlling factors. We measured the biomass of all species after one growing season and determined germination and seedling growth traits, both outside (response to waterlogging/no waterlogging) and in a growth-chamber (response to light/darkness). 4.,Species recruitment was analysed in relation to the controlling factors and measured functional traits using co-inertia analysis. Furthermore we analysed the effects of the controlling factors on several aspects of functional diversity. 5.,There was no establishment in grass sward, unless mowing was applied. Species-rich communities only developed when germination and early establishment phases occurred on waterlogged bare soil. High water level did not suppress establishment but reduced the total biomass and lowered inter-specific competition. The effect of mowing on species richness depended upon the interplay between waterlogging and canopy. 6.,Establishment success under canopy required seedling strategies to tolerate shade. The elimination of typical wetland specialists from oxic mesocosms was clearly an effect of their poorer and/or slower germination and lower competitive abilities in comparison to non-wetland plants, leading to their disappearance in this low-stress environment. 7.,Our results indicate that single stress factors can enhance species richness and functional diversity through limiting competition but a synergic interaction of different stresses can lead to reduced richness. [source]

Staunch protections: the ethics of haemophilia gene transfer research

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2008
Summary., Haemophilia has long been considered an ideal system for validating human gene transfer (GT). However, haemophilia GT trials present a particular ethical challenge because they involve subjects whose medical condition is stabilized by standard therapies. Below, I review the ethics and risks of haemophilia GT clinical research. I propose several conditions and practices that strengthen the ethical basis for such trials. These include consultation with haemophilia advocacy organizations as trials are designed and executed, high standards of supporting evidence before trials are initiated, pretrial publication of this evidence, and the offer of indemnification for participants. I further argue against the conduct of paediatric haemophilia GT studies at this time, and raise questions about the fairness of recruiting economically disadvantaged subjects into studies that are primarily directed towards the health needs of persons in the developed world. [source]

Floristic biogeography of the Hawaiian Islands: influences of area, environment and paleogeography

Jonathan P. Price
Abstract Aim, A detailed database of distributions and phylogenetic relationships of native Hawaiian flowering plant species is used to weigh the relative influences of environmental and historical factors on species numbers and endemism. Location, The Hawaiian Islands are isolated in the North Pacific Ocean nearly 4000 km from the nearest continent and nearly as distant from the closest high islands, the Marquesas. The range of island sizes, environments, and geological histories within an extremely isolated archipelago make the Hawaiian Islands an ideal system in which to study spatial variation in species distributions and diversity. Because the biota is derived from colonization followed by extensive speciation, the role of evolution in shaping the regional species assemblage can be readily examined. Methods, For whole islands and regions of each major habitat, species,area relationships were assessed. Residuals of species,area relationships were subjected to correlation analysis with measures of endemism, isolation, elevation and island age. Putative groups of descendents of each colonist from outside the Hawaiian Islands were considered phylogenetic lineages whose distributions were included in analyses. Results, The species,area relationship is a prominent pattern among islands and among regions of each given habitat. Species number in each case correlates positively with number of endemics, number of lineages and number of species per lineage. For mesic and wet habitat regions, island age is more influential than area on species numbers, with older islands having more species, more single-island endemics, and higher species : lineage ratios than their areas alone would predict. Main conclusions, Because species numbers and endemism are closely tied to speciation in the Hawaiian flora, particularly in the most species-rich phylogenetic lineages, individual islands' histories are central in shaping their biota. The Maui Nui complex of islands (Maui, Moloka,i, L,na,i and Kaho,olawe), which formed a single large landmass during most of its history, is best viewed in terms of either the age or area of the complex as a whole, rather than the individual islands existing today. [source]

Weighting hyperspectral image data for improved multivariate curve resolution results

Howland D. T. Jones
Abstract The combination of hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) provides an ideal system for improved quantitative imaging when multiple fluorophores are present. However, the presence of multiple noise sources limits the ability of MCR to accurately extract pure-component spectra when there is high spectral and/or spatial overlap between multiple fluorophores. Previously, MCR results were improved by weighting the spectral images for Poisson-distributed noise, but additional noise sources are often present. We have identified and quantified all the major noise sources in hyperspectral fluorescence images. Two primary noise sources were found: Poisson-distributed noise and detector-read noise. We present methods to quantify detector-read noise variance and to empirically determine the electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) gain factor required to compute the Poisson noise variance. We have found that properly weighting spectral image data to account for both noise sources improved MCR accuracy. In this paper, we demonstrate three weighting schemes applied to a real hyperspectral corn leaf image and to simulated data based upon this same image. MCR applied to both real and simulated hyperspectral images weighted to compensate for the two major noise sources greatly improved the extracted pure emission spectra and their concentrations relative to MCR with either unweighted or Poisson-only weighted data. Thus, properly identifying and accounting for the major noise sources in hyperspectral images can serve to improve the MCR results. These methods are very general and can be applied to the multivariate analysis of spectral images whenever CCD or EMCCD detectors are used. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Major histocompatibility complex variability in the clonal Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa: is copy number less important than genotype?

Abstract The evolution of sex is still a major unsolved puzzle in biology. One of the most promising theoretical models to answer this question is the Red Queen hypothesis. The Red Queen hypothesis proposes a fast adaptation of pathogens to common genotypes and therefore a negative frequency-dependent selection against common genotypes. Clonal organisms should be especially endangered when co-occurring with closely related sexual species. In this context, major histocompatibility (MHC) genes have been discussed to be auspicious candidates that could provide the genetic basis on which selection for immune competence could act. In this study, we investigated MHC variability in a clonal teleost fish: the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa. The Amazon molly is an ideal candidate to test the Red Queen hypothesis as it is a clonal species but co-occurs with a closely related sexual species and should therefore be especially susceptible to pathogen infection. We found that allele numbers did in general not differ between sexual and clonal ,species' but that genotypic variability is reduced in the clonally reproducing fish, especially in the polyploids. We conclude that in clonal organisms, genotype frequency might be more important for immune competence than MHC allele number. Amazon mollies and their co-occurring parental species clearly fulfil a prerequisite of the Red Queen hypothesis and should therefore provide an ideal system to experimentally test this basic principle probably underlying the evolution of sex. [source]

Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and nonpollinating New World fig wasps

Abstract Figs (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea) constitute a classic example of an obligate plant-pollinator mutualism, and have become an ideal system for addressing questions on coevolution, speciation, and the maintenance of mutualisms. In addition to pollinating wasps, figs host several types of nonpollinating, parasitic wasps from a diverse array of Chalcid subfamilies with varied natural histories and ecological strategies (e.g. competitors, gallers, and parasitoids). Although a few recent studies have addressed the question of codivergence between specific genera of pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasps, no study has addressed the history of divergence of a fig wasp community comprised of multiple genera of wasps associated with a large number of sympatric fig hosts. Here, we conduct phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI) using 411 individuals from 69 pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasp species to assess relationships within and between five genera of fig wasps (Pegoscapus, Idarnes, Heterandrium, Aepocerus, Physothorax) associated with 17 species of New World Urostigma figs from section Americana. We show that host-switching and multiple wasp species per host are ubiquitous across Neotropical nonpollinating wasp genera. In spite of these findings, cophylogenetic analyses (treemap 1.0, treemap 2.02,, and parafit) reveal evidence of codivergence among fig wasps from different ecological guilds. Our findings further challenge the classical notion of strict-sense coevolution between figs and their associated wasps, and mirror conclusions from detailed molecular studies of other mutualisms that have revealed common patterns of diffuse coevolution and asymmetric specialization among the participants. [source]

Phylogeography of the longhorn cactus beetle Moneilema appressum LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): was the differentiation of the Madrean sky islands driven by Pleistocene climate changes?

Abstract Although it has been suggested that Pleistocene climate changes drove population differentiation and speciation in many groups of organisms, population genetic evidence in support of this scenario has been ambiguous, and it has often been difficult to distinguish putative vicariance from simple isolation by distance. The sky island communities of the American Southwest present an ideal system in which to compare late Pleistocene range fragmentations documented by palaeoenvironmental studies with population genetic data from organisms within these communities. In order to elucidate the impact of Pleistocene climate fluctuations on these environments, biogeographic patterns in the flightless longhorn cactus beetle, Moneilema appressum were examined using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Gene tree relationships between haplotypes were inferred using parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian analysis. Nested clade analysis, Mantel tests, and coalescent modelling were employed to examine alternative biogeographic scenarios, and to test the hypothesis that Pleistocene climate changes drove population differentiation in this species. The program mdiv was used to estimate migration and divergence times between populations, and to measure the statistical support for isolation over ongoing migration. These analyses showed significant geographic structure in genetic relationships, and implicated topography as a key determinant of isolation. However, although the coalescent analyses suggested that a history of past habitat fragmentation underlies the observed geographic patterns, the nested clade analysis indicated that the pattern was consistent with isolation by distance. Estimated divergence times indicated that range fragmentation in M. appressum is considerably older than the end of the most recent glacial, but coincided with earlier interglacial warming events and with documented range expansions in other, desert-dwelling species of Moneilema. [source]

In vitro culture of Arabidopsis embryos within their ovules

Michael Sauer
Summary Embryogenesis of flowering plants establishes a basic body plan with apical,basal, radial and bilateral patterns from the single-celled zygote. Arabidopsis embryogenesis exhibits a nearly invariant cell division pattern and therefore is an ideal system for studies of early plant development. However, plant embryos are difficult to access for experimental manipulation, as they develop deeply inside maternal tissues. Here we present a method for the culture of zygotic Arabidopsis embryos in vitro. The technique omits excision of the embryo by culturing the entire ovule, thus greatly facilitating the time and effort involved. It enables external manipulation of embryo development and culture from the earliest developmental stages up to maturity. Administration of various chemical treatments as well as the use of different molecular markers is demonstrated together with standard techniques for visualizing gene expression and protein localization in in vitro cultivated embryos. The presented set of techniques allows for so far unavailable molecular physiology approaches in the study of early plant development. [source]

Biogeography of bacteria associated with the marine sponge Cymbastela concentrica

Michael W. Taylor
Summary Recent debate regarding microbial biogeography has focused largely on free-living microbes, yet those microbes associated with host organisms are also of interest from a biogeographical perspective. Marine eukaryotes and associated bacteria should provide ideal systems in which to consider microbial biogeography, as (i) bacteria in seawater should be able to disperse among individuals of the same host species, yet (ii) potential for adaptation to particular hosts (and thus speciation) also exists. We used 16S rDNA-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) to examine geographic variability in bacterial community composition in the marine sponge Cymbastela concentrica. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding patterns (and phylogenetic analysis of excised DGGE bands) indicated different communities in Cymbastela concentrica from tropical versus temperate Australia. In contrast, communities were very similar over a 500-km portion of the sponge's temperate range. Variation in bacterial community composition was also considered with respect to ocean current patterns. We speculate that the divergent communities in different parts of the sponge's range provide evidence of endemism attributed to host association, although variation in environmental factors such as light and temperature could also explain the observed results. Interestingly, bacterial communities in seawater varied much less between tropical and temperate locations than did those in C. concentrica, supporting the concept of widespread dispersal among these free-living microbes. [source]

Adhesion and Percolation Parameters in Two Dimensional Pd,LSCM Composites for SOFC Anode Current Collection

Samir Boulfrad
Abstract This paper is concerned with palladium,(La0.75Sr0.25)0.97Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 (LSCM) composite current collectors for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); the composites, which are in a 2D configuration (thickness of about 8,10,m), are deposited upon an LSCM electrode layer on top of an yttria zirconia electrolyte substrate. The influence of the LSCM particle size on the adhesion between palladium and LSCM are reported and discussed. Compositions using four different LSCM particle sizes (0.21, 0.49, 0.64, and 0.81,m) with sintered Pd particle sizes approaching 10,m are investigated. The best bonding is obtained when smaller particles are used. The electrical dc conductivity of the composite is reported as a function of the palladium volume fraction for all used LSCM particle sizes. The measured experimental values present typical insulating,conductive percolation. However, the transition occurs at ,33% of the conductive phase, that is, a lower percentage than for 2D ideal systems and a higher percentage than for 3D ideal systems. This is consistent with lower-dimension percolation for a system of large-grained conductors and small-grained insulators. The general effective media (GEM) equation is used to fit the experimental data, and the two main parameters (the threshold point ,c and the exponent t) are defined. [source]

Method for predicting solubilities of solids in mixed solvents

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
Martin E. Ellegaard
Abstract A method is presented for predicting solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvents, based on excess Henry's law constants. The basis is statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of solute/solvent infinite dilution activity coefficients. Suitable approximations are made for a single parameter characterizing solute/solvent interactions. Comparisons with available data show that the method is successful in describing a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behavior, including nearly ideal systems with small excess solubilities, systems with solute-independent excess solubilities, and systems deviating from these simple rules. Successful predictions for new solvent mixtures can be made using limited data from other mixtures. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

A field guide to models of sex-ratio evolution in gynodioecious species

OIKOS, Issue 10 2007
Maia F. Bailey
Gynodioecious plant species, species in which individuals are females or hermaphrodites, are ideal systems for studying connections between genetics, ecology, and long-term evolutionary changes because sex determination can be complex, involving cytoplasmic and/or nuclear genes, and sex ratio is often variable across landscapes. Field data are needed to evaluate the many theories concerning this breeding system. In order to facilitate the gathering of relevant data, this paper introduces the four types of gynodiocy (nuclear, nuclear-cytoplasmic and stochastic gynodioecy plus subdioecy), describes example species and expected patterns, discusses the various forces that drive the evolution of female frequencies, and gives concrete advice on where to start collecting data for different systems. For species in which females are relatively rare, we recommend reciprocal crosses to determine if sex-determination is nuclear or nuclear-cytoplasmic along with a search for correlations between female frequencies and ecological factors. For species in which females are common and sex ratios are highly variable, we recommend looking at female offspring sex ratios to determine if females are primarily produced in ephemeral epidemics. In the course of this discussion, we argue that the majority of natural gynodioecious species will have complex sex determination in which multiple cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes interact with multiple nuclear restorers of fertility. Sex-ratio evolution in such species will be primarily influenced by fitness differences among hermaphrodites (costs of restoration) and less influenced by fitness differences between the sexes (compensation). Metapopulation dynamics alone may explain population sex ratios of species in which females are associated with marginal environments or hybrid zones; however, we feel that in most cases equilibrium forces within populations and metapopulation dynamics among populations each explain portions of the sex-ratio pattern. [source]