Ideal Strategy (ideal + strategy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Electrochemical Nitric Oxide Sensors for Biological Samples , Principle, Selected Examples and Applications

Fethi Bedioui
Abstract The discoveries made in the 1980s that NO could be synthesized by mammalian cells and could act as physiological messenger and cytotoxic agent had elevated the importance of its detection. The numerous properties of NO, that enable it to carry out its diverse functions, also present considerable problems when attempting its detection and quantification in biological systems. Indeed, its total free concentration in physiological conditions has been established to be in nanomolar range. Thus, detection of nitric oxide remains a challenge, pointing out the difficult dual requirements for specificity and sensitivity. Exception made for the electrochemical techniques, most of the approaches (namely UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy) use indirect methods for estimating endogenous NO, relying on measurements of secondary species such as nitrite and nitrate or NO-adducts. They also suffer from allowing only ex situ measurements. So, the only strategies that allow a direct and in vivo detection of NO are those based on the use of ultramicroelectrodes. The reality is that surface electrode modification is needed to make the ultramicroelectrode material selective for NO. Therefore, the design of modified electrode surfaces using organized layers is very attractive and provides the ideal strategy. This review addresses a global description of the various approaches that have involved chemically modified microelectrodes specially designed for the electrochemical detection of NO in biological media. Selected significant examples of applications in biological tissues are also reported in order to highlight the importance of this approach in having new insights into the modulatory role of NO in physiology and pathophysiology. [source]

Lipid damage in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after slaughtering and chilled storage

Jaime Ortiz
Abstract The flow ice system including ozone (OFI condition) was tested for slaughtering and storage (up to 16,days) of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Lipid damage analyses were carried out and compared to sensory acceptance and instrumental colour changes. Comparison to individuals processed with the flow ice system in the absence of ozone (FI condition) was undertaken. Rainbow trout slaughtered and chilled under FI and OFI conditions showed a low lipid damage development, according to lipid oxidation and hydrolysis events and lipid composition (polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and endogenous antioxidants) changes. Additionally, both icing conditions led to largely good quality and shelf life times and to the absence of changes in colour properties. It is concluded that flow ice as such, or including the presence of ozone, can be considered as ideal strategy to be employed as slaughtering and storage system during the commercialisation of the actual farmed species. The ozone presence has shown some profitable effects as leading to an extended shelf life time by quality retention of several sensory parameters; in contrast, some negligible negative effects could be observed on the secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation development. However, the oxidation values reached by individuals kept under OFI conditions cannot be considered as particularly high. [source]

Differentiation therapy with transcription factors might present as an ideal strategy for the treatment of cancer,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
Chuan Yin
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Effective program against mother-to-child transmission of HIV at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Burkina Faso

J. Simpore
Abstract The present research was aimed to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV; to use RT-PCR in order to detect, 6 months after birth, infected children; and to test the antiretroviral resistance of both children and mothers in order to offer them a suitable therapy. At the Saint Camille Medical Centre, 3,127 pregnant women (aged 15,44 years) accepted to be enrolled in the mother-to-child transmission prevention protocol that envisages: (i) Voluntary Counselling and Testing for all the pregnant women; (ii) Antiretroviral therapy for HIV positive pregnant women and for their newborns; (iii) either powdered milk feeding or short breast-feeding and RT-PCR test for their children; (iv) finally, pol gene sequencing and antiretroviral resistance identifications among HIV positive mothers and children. Among the patients, 227/3,127 HIV seropositive women were found: 221/227 HIV-1, 4/227 HIV-2, and 2/227 mixed HIV infections. The RT-PCR test allowed the detection of 3/213 (1.4%) HIV infected children: 0/109 (0%) from mothers under ARV therapy and 3/104 (2.8%) from mothers treated with Nevirapine. All children had recombinant HIV-1 strain (CRF06_CPX) with: minor PR mutations (M36I, K20I) and RT mutations (R211K). Among them, two twins had Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor mutation (Y18CY). Both mothers acquired a major PR mutation (V8IV), investigated 6 months after a single-dose of Nevirapine. Prevention by single-dose of Nevirapine reduced significantly mother-to-child transmission of HIV, but caused many mutations and resistance to antiretroviral drugs. Based on present study the antiretroviral therapy protocol, together with the artificial-feeding, might represent the ideal strategy to avoid transmission of HIV from mother-to-child. J. Med. Virol. 79:873,879, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]