Ideal Situation (ideal + situation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A retrospective audit exploring the use of relaxation as an intervention in oncology and palliative care

The benefits of relaxation in cancer care have been well documented within the literature, with the majority of research being undertaken by nursing professionals. However, evidence of the effectiveness of relaxation interventions by occupational therapists is lacking. Occupational therapists are in an ideal situation to provide information and practical relaxation sessions. Athough in numerical terms, the outcome of relaxation interventions is small, functional outcome related to quality of life and independence in activities of daily living is immeasurable. This article reports the findings of a retrospective audit exploring relaxation-specific referrals to occupational therapy, and identifies effectiveness of a variety of different techniques currently employed within this specific programme. Patients with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer were the most frequently seen, and this prevalence is reflected in current national statistics. Similarly, those between 50 and 59 years of age comprised the largest group. Guided visualization was the most commonly used technique, although there appeared to be very little change in perceived tension between all the techniques. Further study of the impact relaxation has on occupational performance would be worthwhile. [source]

The Additive Nature of Energy Penalties in 10-Vertex nido -(Car)boranes

Farooq A. Kiani
Abstract A structural increment system, i.e. quantitative rules that govern the relative stabilities of 10-vertex nido -boranes and-carboranes, has been determined. Density functional theory computations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with ZPE corrections were carried out for 81 different boron hydride and carborane structures from [B10H12]2, to C3B7H11 to determine their relative stabilities. A set of eleven disfavored geometrical features that destabilize a cluster structure relative to a hypothetical ideal situation were identified and weighted by so-called energy penalties. The latter show good additive behavior and allow us to reproduce the DFT computed relative energies mostly with an accuracy of 6.0 kcal,mol,1. Some unknown 10-vertex nido- carboranes that are thermodynamically more stable than their known isomers are also identified. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]

From Habermas's communicative theory to practice on the internet

Michael S. H. Heng
Abstract., Communication plays a crucial role in influencing our social life. However, communication has often been distorted by unequal opportunities to initiate and participate in it. Such conditions have been criticized by Habermas who argues for an ideal speech situation, i.e. a situation of democratic communication with equal opportunities for social actors to communicate in an undistorted manner. This ideal situation is partially being realized by the advent of the internet. The paper describes how an internet-based tool for collaborative authoring was conceptualized, developed and then deployed with Habermas's Critical Social Theory as a guiding principle. The internet-based electronic forum, known by its acronym GRASS (Group Report Authoring Support System), is a web tool supporting the production of concise group reports that give their readers an up-to-date and credible overview of the positions of various stakeholders on a particular issue. Together with people and procedures, it is a comprehensive socio-technical information system that can play a role in resolving societal conflicts. A prototype of GRASS has been used by an environmental group as a new way in which to create a more equal exchange and comparison of ideas among various stakeholders in the debate on genetically modified food. With the widespread use of the internet, such a forum has the potential to become an emergent form of communication for widely dispersed social actors to conduct constructive debate and discussion. The barriers to such a mode of communication still remain , in the form of entrenched power structures, and limitations to human rationality and responsibility. However, we believe that the support provided by the comprehensive system of technological functionality as well as procedural checks and balances provided by GRASS may considerably reduce the impact of these obstacles. In this way, the ideal speech situation may be approximated more closely in reality. [source]

Eine wirkungsorientierte aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Deutschland und der Schweiz: Eine Vision , zwei Realitšten

Michael Lechner
The paper develops a scenario of an interaction between actual governmental active labour market programmes and econometric policy evaluations. It argues that this scenario could and indeed should be implemented. The paper shows also that realities in Switzerland and Germany are very different from this ideal situation. The good news is that both countries appear to move , albeit slowly , towards that vision. It is however apparent that currently Germany is considerably lagging behind. [source]

Influence of disease features on adherence to prophylactic migraine medication

M. Linde
Objectives,,, Randomized controlled trials of prophylactic treatments for migraine focus on the effects in an ideal situation and underestimate the impact of non-adherence, which in this study was examined in a natural setting. Materials and methods,,, A sample of 174 adult migraineurs with a current prescription of pharmacological prophylaxis were consecutively recruited at a specialist clinic. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyse the association between adherence (self-reported with the Medication Adherence Report Scale) and number of years with migraine, frequency of attacks, number of days with migraine per month, attack duration, presence of cardinal features, mean intensity of pain, and recovery between attacks. Results,,, One third (35%) were non-adherent. Neither demographic characteristics nor any of the disease specific variables were significantly associated with adherence. Conclusion,,, Characteristics of the disease per se did not predict non-adherence which was also observed among patients with severe migraine. The full benefit of drugs cannot be realized at currently achieved levels of adherence. [source]

The Politics of Service Delivery Reform

Richard Batley
This article identifies the leaders, the supporters and the resisters of public service reform. It adopts a principal,agent framework, comparing reality with an ,ideal' situation in which citizens are the principals over political policy-makers as their agents, and policy-makers are the principals over public service officials as their agents. Reform in most developing countries is complicated by an additional set of external actors , international financial institutions and donors. In practice, international agencies and core government officials usually act as the ,principals' in the determination of reforms. The analysis identifies the interests involved in reform, indicating how the balance between them is affected by institutional and sectoral factors. Organizational reforms, particularly in the social sectors, present greater difficulties than first generation economic policy reforms. [source]