Ideal Opportunity (ideal + opportunity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Lineage diversification and historical demography of a sky island salamander, Plethodon ouachitae, from the Interior Highlands

Abstract Sky islands provide ideal opportunities for understanding how climatic changes associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles influenced species distributions, genetic diversification, and demography. The salamander Plethodon ouachitae is largely restricted to high-elevation, mesic forest on six major mountains in the Ouachita Mountains. Because these mountains are separated by more xeric, low-elevation valleys, the salamanders appear to be isolated on sky islands where gene flow among populations on different mountains may be restricted. We used DNA sequence data along with ecological niche modelling and coalescent simulations to test several hypotheses related to diversifications in sky island habitats. Our results revealed that P. ouachitae is composed of seven well-supported lineages structured across six major mountains. The species originated during the Late Pliocene, and lineage diversification occurred during the Middle Pleistocene in a stepping stone fashion with a cyclical pattern of dispersal to a new mountain followed by isolation and divergence. Diversification occurred primarily on an east,west axis, which is likely related to the east,west orientation of the Ouachita Mountains and the more favourable cooler and wetter environmental conditions on north slopes compared to south-facing slopes and valleys. All non-genealogical coalescent methods failed to detect significant population expansion in any lineages. Bayesian skyline plots showed relatively stable population sizes over time, but indicated a slight to moderate amount of population growth in all lineages starting approximately 10 000,12 000 years ago. Our results provide new insight into sky island diversifications from a previously unstudied region, and further demonstrate that climatic changes during the Pleistocene had profound effects on lineage diversification and demography, especially in species from environmentally sensitive habitats in montane regions. [source]

Participatory Communication with Social Media

Angelina Russo
This marks a shift in how museums publicly communicate their role as custodians of cultural content and so presents debate around an institution's attitude towards cultural authority. It also signifies a new possible direction for museum learning. This article reports on a range of initiatives that demonstrate how participatory communication via social media can be integrated into museum practices. It argues that the social media space presents an ideal opportunity for museums to build online communities of interest around authentic cultural information, and concludes with some recent findings on and recommendations for social media implementation. [source]

The tick/volatility ratio as a determinant of the compass rose: empirical evidence from decimalisation on the NYSE

Michael D. McKenzie
Abstract Recent research suggests that volatility has an important role to play in the appearance of the compass rose pattern. The introduction of decimal prices on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) provides an ideal opportunity to test this hypothesis using actual market data. The empirical evidence presented in this paper suggests that the 85 per cent reduction in the tick/volatility ratio resulting from the decimalisation of prices was not sufficient to eliminate the compass rose pattern. [source]

Nursing and midwifery management of hypoglycaemia in healthy term neonates

Vivien Hewitt BSc(Hons) GradDipLib
Executive summary Objectives The primary objective of this review was to determine the best available evidence for maintenance of euglycaemia, in healthy term neonates, and the management of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia in otherwise healthy term neonates. Inclusion criteria Types of studies The review included any relevant published or unpublished studies undertaken between 1995 and 2004. Studies that focus on the diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care devices for blood glucose screening and/or monitoring in the neonate were initially included as a subgroup of this review. However, the technical nature and complexity of the statistical information published in diagnostic studies retrieved during the literature search stage, as well as the considerable volume of published research in this area, suggested that it would be more feasible to analyse diagnostic studies in a separate systematic review. Types of participants The review focused on studies that included healthy term (37- to 42-week gestation) appropriate size for gestational age neonates in the first 72 h after birth. Exclusions ,,preterm or small for gestational age newborns; ,,term neonates with a diagnosed medical or surgical condition, congenital or otherwise; ,,babies of diabetic mothers; ,,neonates with symptomatic hypoglycaemia; ,,large for gestational age neonates (as significant proportion are of diabetic mothers). Types of intervention All interventions that fell within the scope of practice of a midwife/nurse were included: ,,type (breast or breast milk substitutes), amount and/or timing of feeds, for example, initiation of feeding, and frequency; ,,regulation of body temperature; ,,monitoring (including screening) of neonates, including blood or plasma glucose levels and signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Interventions that required initiation by a medical practitioner were excluded from the review. Types of outcome measures Outcomes that were of interest included: ,,occurrence of hypoglycaemia; ,,re-establishment and maintenance of blood or plasma glucose levels at or above set threshold (as defined by the particular study); ,,successful breast-feeding; ,,developmental outcomes. Types of research designs The review initially focused on randomised controlled trials reported from 1995 to 2004. Insufficient randomised controlled trials were identified and the review was expanded to include additional cohort and cross-sectional studies for possible inclusion in a narrative summary. Search strategy The major electronic databases, including MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, etc., were searched using accepted search techniques to identify relevant published and unpublished studies undertaken between 1995 and 2004. Efforts were made to locate any relevant unpublished materials, such as conference papers, research reports and dissertations. Printed journals were hand-searched and reference lists checked for potentially useful research. The year 1995 was selected as the starting point in order to identify any research that had not been included in the World Health Organisation review, which covered literature published up to 1996. The search was not limited to English language studies. Assessment of quality Three primary reviewers conducted the review assisted by a review panel. The review panel was comprised of nine nurses with expertise in neonatal care drawn from senior staff in several metropolitan neonatal units and education programs. Authorship of journal articles was not concealed from the reviewers. Methodological quality of each study that met the inclusion criteria was assessed by two reviewers, using a quality assessment checklist developed for the review. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved through discussion or with the assistance of a third reviewer. Data extraction and analysis Two reviewers used a data extraction form to independently extract data relating to the study design, setting and participants; study focus and intervention(s); and measurements and outcomes. As only one relevant randomised controlled trial was found, a meta-analysis could not be conducted nor tables constructed to illustrate comparisons between studies. Instead, the findings were summarised by a narrative identifying any relevant findings that emerged from the data. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria for the objective of this systematic review. The review provided information on the effectiveness of three categories of intervention , type of feeds, timing of feeds and thermoregulation on two of the outcome measures identified in the review protocol , prevention of hypoglycaemia, and re-establishment and maintenance of blood or plasma glucose levels above the set threshold (as determined by the particular study). There was no evidence available on which to base conclusions for effectiveness of monitoring or developmental outcomes, and insufficient evidence for breast-feeding success. Given that only a narrative review was possible, the findings of this review should be interpreted with caution. The findings suggest that the incidence of hypoglycaemia in healthy, breast-fed term infants of appropriate size for gestational age is uncommon and routine screening of these infants is not indicated. The method and timing of early feeding has little or no influence on the neonatal blood glucose measurement at 1 h in normal term babies. In healthy, breast-fed term infants the initiation and timing of feeds in the first 6 h of life has no significant influence on plasma glucose levels. The colostrum of primiparous mothers provides sufficient nutrition for the infant in the first 24 h after birth, and supplemental feeds or extra water is unnecessary. Skin-to-skin contact appears to provide an optimal environment for fetal to neonatal adaptation after birth and can help to maintain body temperature and adequate blood glucose levels in healthy term newborn infants, as well as providing an ideal opportunity to establish early bonding behaviours. Implications for practice The seven studies analysed in this review confirm the World Health Organisation's first three recommendations for prevention and management of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia, namely: 1Early and exclusive breast-feeding is safe to meet the nutritional needs of healthy term newborns worldwide. 2Healthy term newborns that are breast-fed on demand need not have their blood glucose routinely checked and need no supplementary foods or fluids. 3Healthy term newborns do not develop ,symptomatic' hypoglycaemia as a result of simple underfeeding. If an infant develops signs suggesting hypoglycaemia, look for an underlying condition. Detection and treatment of the cause are as important as correction of the blood glucose level. If there are any concerns that the newborn infant might be hypoglycaemic it should be given another feed. Given the importance of thermoregulation, skin-to-skin contact should be promoted and ,kangaroo care' encouraged in the first 24 h after birth. While it is important to main the infant's body temperature care should be taken to ensure that the child does not become overheated. [source]

On the brink of change?

Implications of the review of undergraduate education in New Zealand for mental health nursing
ABSTRACT: A New Zealand Nursing Council review of undergraduate education provides an ideal opportunity to make much needed changes to the system of preparation for mental health nurses. This article critiques comprehensive nursing education through an examination of its history in New Zealand, recent mental health reports and a projected estimate of workforce needs. Historical analysis reveals a process of marginalization and invisibilization of psychiatric/mental health nursing within comprehensive programmes with a consequent reduction of skills and a weakening of the profession. The author concludes that psychiatric/mental health nursing is a distinct scope of practice which requires specialty undergraduate preparation. [source]

Walnut Staminate Flowers Can Be Explored as a Supplementary Plant Oil Source

Husen Jia
Abstract Fossil fuel is currently the major energy source driving global socio-economy, but its stock is being heavily depleted due to increasing anthropogenic activities worldwide. There are also concerns regarding the burning of fossil fuels, which contributes to global climate warming and air pollution. As such, the development of biodiesel as a non-toxic, biodegradable, and renewable alternative energy source using oil crops such as soybean and rapeseed has quickly emerged in the West countries. However, the production of oil crops in China is far from sufficient to meet the demands of the country's population of 1.3 billion, and increasing oil crop production is inhibited by a severe shortage of agricultural land, which currently averages 0.2 acre per person and, as such, is less than half the world average. The current national policy in China regarding land use is more towards revering cultivated lands in ravins and hills to forestry, which presents an ideal opportunity to further develop plantations of walnut (Juglans regia L.) trees, a plant that is tolerant to drought and infertile soils and has a high oil content. Study in this paper shows that one ament of walnut staminate flowers produces about 0.168 g dry pollen, and the dry pollen contained 49.67% oil. Based on this discovery, oil yield obtained from staminate flowers is estimated to reach 6.95% of that from walnut nuts. Thus walnut staminate flower is suggested to explore as supplementary plant oil source, and has a great opportunity to utilize as a biodiesel feedstock. (Managing editor: Wei Wang) [source]

Emerging Hispanic English: New dialect formation in the American South

Walt Wolfram
Although stable Hispanic populations have existed in some regions of the United States for centuries, other regions, including the mid-Atlantic South, are just experiencing the emergence of permanent Hispanic communities. This situation offers an ideal opportunity to examine the dynamics of new dialect formation in progress, and the extent to which speakers acquire local dialect traits as they learn English as a second language. We focus on the production of the /ai/ diphthong among adolescents in two emerging Hispanic communities, one in an urban and one in a rural context. Though both English and Spanish have the diphthong /ai/, the Southern regional variant of the benchmark local dialect norm is unglided, thus providing a local dialect alternative. The instrumental analysis of /ai/ shows that there is not pervasive accommodation to the local norm by Hispanic speakers learning English. There is, however, gradient, incremental adjustment of the /ai/, and individual speakers who adopt local cultural values may accommodate to the local dialect pattern. [source]

China's "Soft" Naval Power in the Indian Ocean

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2010
Toshi Yoshihara
For the past several years, Beijing has been attempting to "shape" the diplomatic and strategic environment in maritime Asia, projecting an image of itself as an innately trustworthy great power. As a part of this public relations campaign, Chinese leaders have retailed the story of Zheng He, the Ming Dynasty eunuch admiral who voyaged to destinations throughout the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean six centuries ago. They have touted the feats of Zheng He, who sojourned in maritime Asia without attempting military conquest, as a metaphor for China's current peaceful ascent in the maritime domain. In doing so, Beijing hopes to convince key audiences in Southeast Asia and South Asia that it remains pacific in outlook , and thus can be counted on not to abuse the sea power it is amassing. An attractive vision of China, they hope, will avert the tendency of regional states to band together to balance Chinese power. Until now, Chinese diplomats have had the luxury of telling their story how they wanted to, as deployments of China's naval forces beyond East Asia remained abstract. Beijing neither saw the need nor boasted the capacity to maintain strong forces far from Chinese shores. However, the headline-grabbing dispatch of two destroyers and a combat logistics ship to the Gulf of Aden on counter-piracy duty in late 2008 has put China squarely in the spotlight. By depicting itself as an inherently defensive power, China has set a high standard for its behavior at sea. Fellow Asian powers will hold Beijing to this lofty benchmark , measuring its actions against the storyline Chinese leaders have developed around Zheng He's voyages. Beijing's anti-piracy mission thus offers an ideal opportunity to empirically test the efficacy of Chinese soft power at sea. To this end, this paper explores the motives behind the Zheng He narrative and assesses the key messages that Chinese leaders are attempting to convey to Asian capitals. This study then examines the extent to which China's unprecedented naval presence in the Indian Ocean has dovetailed with the Zheng He storyline and with the larger strategy of easing regional misgivings about Chinese maritime power. Finally, the paper analyzes how India, a target audience, is responding to China's narrative, drawing several preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness and the prospects of Chinese soft power in the Indian Ocean. [source]

Genotype and time of day shape the Populus drought response

Olivia Wilkins
Summary As exposure to episodic drought can impinge significantly on forest health and the establishment of productive tree plantations, there is great interest in understanding the mechanisms of drought response in trees. The ecologically dominant and economically important genus Populus, with its sequenced genome, provides an ideal opportunity to examine transcriptome level changes in trees in response to a drought stimulus. The transcriptome level drought response of two commercially important Populus clones (P. deltoides P. nigra, DN34, and P. nigra P. maximowiczii, NM6) was characterized over a diurnal period using a 4 2 2 complete randomized factorial anova experimental design (four time points, two genotypes and two treatment conditions), using Affymetrix Poplar GeneChip microarrays. Notably, the specific genes that exhibited changes in transcript abundance in response to drought differed between the genotypes and/or the time of day that they exhibited their greatest differences. This study emphasizes the fact that it is not possible to draw simple, generalized conclusions about the drought response of the genus Populus on the basis of one species, nor on the basis of results collected at a single time point. The data derived from our studies provide insights into the variety of genetic mechanisms underpinning the Populus drought response, and provide candidates for future experiments aimed at understanding this response across this economically and ecologically important genus. [source]

Evaluation of the risk of overwintering Helicoverpa spp. pupae under irrigated summer crops in south-eastern Australia and the potential for area-wide management

Summary Surveys were undertaken to determine the distribution of overwintering pupae of two species of Helicoverpa in south-eastern Australia. The results indicate that significant populations of H. armigera have the potential to overwinter as pupae in the region under residues of their summer crop hosts. H. punctigera, conversely, was found not to overwinter in the region to any significant degree. The results also suggest that a high proportion of the overwintering H. armigera population are located in relatively few high risk fields. The overwintering population represents an ideal opportunity for control on an area-wide basis using post harvest cultivation or "pupae busting". The risk of overwintering H. armigera pupae occurring was largely associated with crop type, the mechanism being related to the date that the crop flowers, the level of pupal parasitism and the use of larval control measures. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations for farmers and it is suggested that a concerted effort to cultivate high risk fields has the potential to significantly reduce the population on an area-wide basis. [source]


ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2005
Few archaeological sites can claim a more celebrated position than Megiddo, the Armageddon of biblical revelation. Guardian to a strategic pass on the ancient land bridge that traverses the region, it has long been known that Megiddo played a prominent role in the emergence of the Iron Age nation-states of biblical fame. Given its pivotal location, Megiddo provides an ideal opportunity to examine the experience of a community that found itself at the centre of these developments. The archaeological and textual evidence indicates a community that enjoyed extensive contact with an array of culturally distinct sociopolitical groups emerging in its hinterland. To further explore the nature and extent of this interaction, an assemblage of 86 ceramic sherds was analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This paper presents the results of this analysis, together with an evaluation of potential geochemical and archaeological interconnections. Based on this comparative analysis, implications are drawn regarding Megiddo's role in the changing cultural and political landscape of this formative period in the history of the region. [source]

Medications used in overdose and how they are acquired , an investigation of cases attending an inner Melbourne emergency department

Penny Buykx
Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate which categories of medication are most commonly implicated in overdose, to compare this information with prescription data and to explore how the medications used in overdoses are typically acquired. Methods: A 12-month audit (11/2003,10/2004) of all medication overdose presentations to an inner-Melbourne ED was conducted and the medications compared to published population-based prescription data. Interviews were conducted with 31 patients who attended the ED following a medication overdose and typical stories regarding the acquisition of medications reported. Results: The same broad categories of medications identified in earlier studies were found to contribute to the majority of overdoses in this study, namely benzodiazepines, antidepressants, analgesics and antipsychotics. Two benzodiazepine medications, diazepam and alprazolam, appeared to be over-represented in the overdose data relative to their population rates of prescription. Patient interviews revealed three main reasons for the original acquisition of the medications used in overdose: treatment purposes (77%); recreational use (16%); and overdose (7%). The most common source of medications (68%) used in overdose was prescription by the patient's usual doctor. Conclusion: The high representation of benzodiazepines among medications used in overdose is of ongoing concern. Implications: The time of medication prescription and dispensing may be an ideal opportunity for overdose prevention, through judicious prescribing, consideration of treatment alternatives, patient education and encouraging the safe disposal of unused medications. [source]

Individual versus social complexity, with particular reference to ant colonies

ABSTRACT Insect societies , colonies of ants, bees, wasps and termites , vary enormously in their social complexity. Social complexity is a broadly used term that encompasses many individual and colony-level traits and characteristics such as colony size, polymorphism and foraging strategy. A number of earlier studies have considered the relationships among various correlates of social complexity in insect societies; in this review, we build upon those studies by proposing additional correlates and show how all correlates can be integrated in a common explanatory framework. The various correlates are divided among four broad categories (sections). Under ,polyphenism' we consider the differences among individuals, in particular focusing upon ,caste' and specialization of individuals. This is followed by a section on ,totipotency' in which we consider the autonomy and subjugation of individuals. Under this heading we consider various aspects such as intracolony conflict, worker reproductive potential and physiological or morphological restrictions which limit individuals' capacities to perform a range of tasks or functions. A section entitled ,organization of work' considers a variety of aspects, e.g. the ability to tackle group, team or partitioned tasks, foraging strategies and colony reliability and efficiency. A final section,,communication and functional integration', considers how individual activity is coordinated to produce an integrated and adaptive colony. Within each section we use illustrative examples drawn from the social insect literature (mostly from ants, for which there is the best data) to illustrate concepts or trends and make a number of predictions concerning how a particular trait is expected to correlate with other aspects of social complexity. Within each section we also expand the scope of the arguments to consider these relationships in a much broader sense of'sociality' by drawing parallels with other ,social' entities such as multicellular individuals, which can be understood as ,societies' of cells. The aim is to draw out any parallels and common causal relationships among the correlates. Two themes run through the study. The first is the role of colony size as an important factor affecting social complexity. The second is the complexity of individual workers in relation to the complexity of the colony. Consequently, this is an ideal opportunity to test a previously proposed hypothesis that ,individuals of highly social ant species are less complex than individuals from simple ant species' in light of numerous social correlates. Our findings support this hypothesis. In summary, we conclude that, in general, complex societies are characterized by large colony size, worker polymorphism, strong behavioural specialization and loss of totipotency in its workers, low individual complexity, decentralized colony control and high system redundancy, low individual competence, a high degree of worker cooperation when tackling tasks, group foraging strategies, high tempo, multi-chambered tailor-made nests, high functional integration, relatively greater use of cues and modulatory signals to coordinate individuals and heterogeneous patterns of worker-worker interaction. Key words: Ants, insect societies, individual complexity, social complexity, polyphenism, totitpotency, work organization, functional integration, sociality. [source]