Ideal Model (ideal + model)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Ideal Model

  • ideal model system

  • Selected Abstracts


    An Ideal Model for Out-of-hospital Airway Management?

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 1 2007
    Henry E. Wang MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    PROBLEM-ORIENTED POLICING IN PRACTICE,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 2 2005
    GARY CORDNER
    Research Summary: Interviews and surveys were used to measure the extent of problem-oriented policing (POP) by individual police officers in the San Diego Police Department. Officers tended to engage in small-scale problem solving with little formal analysis or assessment. Responses generally included enforcement plus one or two more collaborative or nontraditional initiatives. Policy Implications: Despite 15 years of national promotion and a concerted effort at implementation within the San Diego Police Department, POP as practiced by ordinary police officers fell far short of the ideal model. It may be unreasonable to expect every police officer to continuously engage in full-fledged POP. [source]


    Expression patterns of hormones, signaling molecules, and transcription factors during adenohypophysis development in the chick embryo

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 4 2010
    Nicole Parkinson
    Abstract The chick embryo is an ideal model to study pituitary cell-type differentiation. Previous studies describing the temporal appearance of differentiated pituitary cell types in the chick embryo are contradictory. To resolve these controversies, we used RT-PCR to define the temporal onset and in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to define the spatial localization of hormone expression within the pituitary. RT-PCR detected low levels of Fsh, (gonadotropes) and Pomc (corticotropes, melanotropes) mRNA at E4 and Gh (somatotropes), Prl (lactotropes), and Tsh, (thyrotropes) mRNA at E8. For all hormones, sufficient accumulation of mRNA and/or protein to permit detection by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry was observed ,3 days later and in all cases corresponded to a notable increase in RT-PCR product. We also describe the expression patterns of signaling (Bmp2, Bmp4, Fgf8, Fgf10, Shh) and transcription factors (Pitx1, Pitx2, cLim3) known to be important for pituitary organogenesis in other model organisms. Developmental Dynamics 239:1197,1210, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Characterization of the Tetanus Toxin Model of Refractory Focal Neocortical Epilepsy in the Rat

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2005
    Karen E. Nilsen
    Summary:,Purpose: To characterize in detail a model of focal neocortical epilepsy. Methods: Chronic focal epilepsy was induced by injecting 25,50 ng of tetanus toxin or vehicle alone (controls) into the motor neocortex of rats. EEG activity was recorded from electrodes implanted at the injection site, along with facial muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity and behavioral monitoring intermittently for up to 5 months in some animals. Drug responsiveness was assessed by using the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) diazepam (DZP) and phenytoin (PHT) delivered systemically, while 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), a competitive antagonist at AMPA receptors, was administered directly to the brain to investigate the potential benefits of focal drug delivery. Results: Tetanus toxin induced mild behavioral seizures that persisted indefinitely in all animals. EEG spiking activity, occurring up to 80% of the time, correlated with clinical seizures consisting of interrupted behavioral activity, rhythmic bilateral facial twitching, and periods of abrupt motor arrest. Seizures were refractory to systemic administration of DZP and PHT. However, focal delivery of NBQX to the seizure site reversibly reduced EEG and behavioral seizure activity without detectable side effects. Conclusions: This study provides a long-term detailed characterisation of the tetanus toxin model. Spontaneous, almost continuous, well-tolerated seizures occur and persist, resembling those seen in neocortical epilepsy, including cortical myoclonus and epilepsia partialis continua. The seizures appear to be similarly resistant to conventional AEDs. The consistency, frequency, and clinical similarity of the seizures to refractory epilepsy in humans make this an ideal model for investigation of both mechanisms of seizure activity and new therapeutic approaches. [source]


    An active triple-catalytic hybrid enzyme engineered by linking cyclo-oxygenase isoform-1 to prostacyclin synthase that can constantly biosynthesize prostacyclin, the vascular protector

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 23 2008
    Ke-He Ruan
    It remains a challenge to achieve the stable and long-term expression (in human cell lines) of a previously engineered hybrid enzyme [triple-catalytic (Trip-cat) enzyme-2; Ruan KH, Deng H & So SP (2006) Biochemistry45, 14003,14011], which links cyclo-oxygenase isoform-2 (COX-2) to prostacyclin (PGI2) synthase (PGIS) for the direct conversion of arachidonic acid into PGI2 through the enzyme's Trip-cat functions. The stable upregulation of the biosynthesis of the vascular protector, PGI2, in cells is an ideal model for the prevention and treatment of thromboxane A2 (TXA2)-mediated thrombosis and vasoconstriction, both of which cause stroke, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. Here, we report another case of engineering of the Trip-cat enzyme, in which human cyclo-oxygenase isoform-1, which has a different C-terminal sequence from COX-2, was linked to PGI2 synthase and called Trip-cat enzyme-1. Transient expression of recombinant Trip-cat enzyme-1 in HEK293 cells led to 3,5-fold higher expression capacity and better PGI2 -synthesizing activity as compared to that of the previously engineered Trip-cat enzyme-2. Furthermore, an HEK293 cell line that can stably express the active new Trip-cat enzyme-1 and constantly synthesize the bioactive PGI2 was established by a screening approach. In addition, the stable HEK293 cell line, with constant production of PGI2, revealed strong antiplatelet aggregation properties through its unique dual functions (increasing PGI2 production while decreasing TXA2 production) in TXA2 synthase-rich plasma. This study has optimized engineering of the active Trip-cat enzyme, allowing it to become the first to stably upregulate PGI2 biosynthesis in a human cell line, which provides a basis for developing a PGI2 -producing therapeutic cell line for use against vascular diseases. [source]


    Pressure-exploration of the 33-kDa protein from the spinach photosystem II particle

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 9 2001
    Kangcheng Ruan
    The 33-kDa protein isolated from the spinach photosystem II particle is an ideal model to explore high-pressure protein-unfolding. The protein has a very low free energy as previously reported by chemical unfolding studies, suggesting that it must be easy to modulate its unfolding transition by rather mild pressure. Moreover, the protein molecule consists of only one tryptophan residue (Trp241) and eight tyrosine residues, which can be conveniently used to probe the protein conformation and structural changes under pressure using either fluorescence spectroscopy or fourth derivative UV absorbance spectroscopy. The different experimental methods used in the present study indicate that at 20 °C and pH 6, the 33-kDa protein shows a reversible two-state unfolding transition from atmospheric pressure to about 180 MPa. This value is much lower than those found for the unfolding of most proteins studied so far. The unfolding transition induces a large red shift of the maximum fluorescence emission of 34 nm (from 316 nm to 350 nm). The change in standard free energy (,Go) and in volume (,V) for the transition at pH 6.0 and 20 °C are ,14.6 kJ·mol,1 and ,120 mL·mol,1, respectively, in which the ,Go value is consistent with that obtained by chemical denaturation. We found that pressure-induced protein unfolding is promoted by elevated temperatures, which seem largely attributed to the decrease in the absolute value of ,Go (only a minor variation was observed for the ,V value). However, the promotion of the unfolding by alkaline pH seems mainly related to the increase in ,V without any significant changes in ,Go. It was also found that NaCl significantly protects the protein from pressure-induced unfolding. In the presence of 1 m NaCl, the pressure needed to induce the half-unfold of the protein is shifted to a higher value (shift of 75 MPa) in comparison with that observed without NaCl. Interestingly, in the presence of NaCl, the value of ,V is significantly reduced whilst that of ,Go remains as before. The unfolding-refolding kinetics of the protein has also been studied by pressure-jump, in which it was revealed that both reactions are a two-state transition process with a relatively slow relaxation time of about 102 s. [source]


    Host sex and ectoparasites choice: preference for, and higher survival on female hosts

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    PHILIPPE CHRISTE
    Summary 1Sex differences in levels of parasite infection are a common rule in a wide range of mammals, with males usually more susceptible than females. Sex-specific exposure to parasites, e.g. mediated through distinct modes of social aggregation between and within genders, as well as negative relationships between androgen levels and immune defences are thought to play a major role in this pattern. 2Reproductive female bats live in close association within clusters at maternity roosts, whereas nonbreeding females and males generally occupy solitary roosts. Bats represent therefore an ideal model to study the consequences of sex-specific social and spatial aggregation on parasites' infection strategies. 3We first compared prevalence and parasite intensities in a host,parasite system comprising closely related species of ectoparasitic mites (Spinturnix spp.) and their hosts, five European bat species. We then compared the level of parasitism between juvenile males and females in mixed colonies of greater and lesser mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis and M. blythii. Prevalence was higher in adult females than in adult males stemming from colonial aggregations in all five studied species. Parasite intensity was significantly higher in females in three of the five species studied. No difference in prevalence and mite numbers was found between male and female juveniles in colonial roosts. 4To assess whether observed sex-biased parasitism results from differences in host exposure only, or, alternatively, from an active, selected choice made by the parasite, we performed lab experiments on short-term preferences and long-term survival of parasites on male and female Myotis daubentoni. When confronted with adult males and females, parasites preferentially selected female hosts, whereas no choice differences were observed between adult females and subadult males. Finally, we found significantly higher parasite survival on adult females compared with adult males. 5Our study shows that social and spatial aggregation favours sex-biased parasitism that could be a mere consequence of an active and adaptive parasite choice for the more profitable host. [source]


    Blastocyst embryo transfer is the primary determinant for improved outcomes in oocyte donation cycles

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2010
    Natalie Porat
    Abstract Aim:, Using oocyte donation cycles as an ideal model, we sought to compare pregnancy and implantation rates in cleavage stage (day 3) versus blastocyst stage (day 6) embryo transfers (ET); assess the predictive value of blastocyst formation rates based on cleavage cell stage and morphology grade; and evaluate the ability to predict formation of high quality (HQ) blastocysts. Methods:, Ninety three consecutive oocyte donation cycles from July 2003 to August 2005 were retrospectively evaluated and analyzed to determine if either resulted in a cleavage stage (n = 30) or blastocyst (n = 45) ET. The primary outcomes measured pregnancy rates, the percent development of HQ blastocysts based on day 3 embryo status, and the ability to select day 3 embryos suitable for transfer among four blinded evaluators by assessing their day 6 embryo outcome. Results:, Cleavage stage ET resulted in significantly lower pregnancy rates, clinical pregnancy rates, and implantation rates (47% [n = 14/30]; 40% [n = 12/30] and 27 ± 7%) compared to blastocyst stage (82% [n = 37/45]; 73% [n = 33/45] and 64 ± 6% [±SE], P < 0.01). In total, HQ blastocysts resulted from high and good quality day 3 embryos 35% (191/546) and 17% (93/546), respectively. Blinded evaluation revealed at least one, two or all three day 3 embryos were correctly selected for ET on day 6, 97%, 67% and 19%, respectively. Conclusion:, Day 6 ET resulted in significantly better clinical outcomes compared to day 3 ET. While day 3 status is not predictive of blastocyst quality, the selection of at least one day 3 embryo ultimately suitable for blastocyst ET underscores the significance of optimal endometrial receptivity. [source]


    Students' science perceptions and enrollment decisions in differing learning cycle classrooms

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING, Issue 9 2001
    Ann M.L. Cavallo
    This investigation examined 10th-grade biology students' decisions to enroll in elective science courses, and explored certain attitudinal perceptions of students that may be related to such decisions. The student science perceptions were focused on student and classroom attitudes in the context of differing learning cycle classrooms (high paradigmatic/high inquiry, and low paradigmatic/low inquiry). The study also examined possible differences in enrollment decisions/intentions and attitudinal perceptions among males and females in these course contexts. The specific purposes were to: (a) explore possible differences in students' decisions, and in male and female students' decisions to enroll in elective science courses in high versus low paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms; (b) describe patterns and examine possible differences in male and female students' attitudinal perceptions of science in the two course contexts; (c) investigate possible differences in students' science perceptions according to their decisions to enroll in elective science courses, participation in high versus low paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms, and the interaction between these two variables; and (d) examine students' explanations of their decisions to enroll or not enroll in elective science courses. Questionnaire and observation data were collected from 119 students in the classrooms of six learning cycle biology teachers. Results indicated that in classrooms where teachers most closely adhered to the ideal learning cycle, students had more positive attitudes than those in classrooms where teachers deviated from the ideal model. Significantly more females in high paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms planned to continue taking science course work compared with females in low paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms. Male students in low paradigmatic learning cycle classrooms had more negative perceptions of science compared with males in high paradigmatic classrooms, and in some cases, with all female students. It appears that using the model as it was originally designed may lead to more positive attitudes and persistence in science among students. Implications include the need for science educators to help teachers gain more thorough understanding of the learning cycle and its theoretical underpinnings so they may better implement this procedure in classroom teaching. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 1029,1062, 2001 [source]


    Distribution of the genus Hypoplectrus (Teleostei: Serranidae) in the Greater Caribbean Region: support for a color-based speciation

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Alfonso Aguilar-Perera
    Abstract The reef-associated fish genus Hypoplectrus (Serranidae), endemic to the western Atlantic Ocean, represents an ideal model to study speciation within a potentially highly dispersive (marine) ecosystem, because it consists of a complex of at least 10 morphs differentiated primarily by coloration. Although several recent studies on genetics, diet, and fertilization reveal little to no difference between the Hypoplectrus color morphs, there is still not a full understanding of what keeps these morphs distinct or drives their variation. Ecological information is needed alongside the genetic information to better understand this variation. Based on presence/absence records from scientific literature and direct observations in coral reefs, this work examined the distribution of the genus Hypoplectrus in the Greater Caribbean region. Some color morphs occurred simultaneously at given locations, but others showed geographic restrictions. Using cluster and nMDS analyses, we found three major groupings according to distribution: (i) widespread (Hypoplectrus puella, Hypoplectrus unicolor, and Hypoplectrus nigricans), (ii) less widespread (Hypoplectrus indigo, Hypoplectrus gummigutta, Hypoplectrus chlorurus, Hypoplectrus aberrans, and Hypoplectrus guttavarius), and (iii) geographically confined or segregated (Hypoplectrus gemma, Hypoplectrus providencianus). Geographic sections selected for the Greater Caribbean (eastern, western and northern) were dominated by at least three widely distributed Hypoplectrus morphs. New geographic records of some color morphs were documented and compared to previous established distribution ranges in the Greater Caribbean. [source]


    Development and neuronal dependence of cutaneous sensory nerve formations: Lessons from neurotrophins,

    MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, Issue 5 2010
    Juan A. Montaño
    Abstract Null mutations of genes from the NGF family of NTs and their receptors (NTRs) lead to loss/reduction of specific neurons in sensory ganglia; conversely, cutaneous overexpression of NTs results in skin hyperinnervation and increase or no changes in the number of sensory neurons innervating the skin. These neuronal changes are paralleled with loss of specific types of sensory nerve formations in the skin. Therefore, mice carrying mutations in NT or NTR genes represent an ideal model to identify the neuronal dependence of each type of cutaneous sensory nerve ending from a concrete subtype of sensory neuron, since the development, maintenance, and structural integrity of sensory nerve formations depend upon sensory neurons. Results obtained from these mouse strains suggest that TrkA positive neurons are connected to intraepithelial nerve fibers and other sensory nerve formations depending from C and A, nerve fibers; the neurons expressing TrkB and responding to BDNF and NT-4 innervate Meissner corpuscles, a subpopulation of Merkell cells, some mechanoreceptors of the piloneural complex, and the Ruffini's corpuscles; finally, a subpopulation of neurons, which are responsive to NT-3, support postnatal survival of some intraepithelial nerve fibers and Merkel cells in addition to the muscle mechanoreceptors. On the other hand, changes in NTs and NTRs affect the structure of non-nervous structures of the skin and are at the basis of several cutaneous pathologies. This review is an update about the role of NTs and NTRs in the maintenance of normal cutaneous innervation and maintenance of skin integrity. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Modified principle of distributed ferroelectric phase shifter considering the influence of interconnecting lines

    MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 3 2008
    An Yu
    Abstract The deviation between theoretic values and real data of distributed ferroelectric phase shifter is investigated by simulating an ideal model and analyzing an equivalent circuit. The deviation is shown to come from the parasitic inductance of interconnecting lines between loaded capacitors and center strip of CPW, which reduces the Bragg frequency, increases the insertion loss and phase shift. By introducing an effective capacitance to consider the effect of interconnecting lines, a modified principle is presented, which forecasts performances better. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 50: 748,751, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.23212 [source]


    Living on the edge: demographic and phylogeographical patterns in the woodlouse-hunter spider Dysdera lancerotensis Simon, 1907 on the eastern volcanic ridge of the Canary Islands

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 15 2007
    LETICIA BIDEGARAY-BATISTA
    Abstract The Eastern Canary Islands are the emerged tips of a continuous volcanic ridge running parallel to the northeastern African coast, originated by episodic volcanic eruptions that can be traced back to the Miocene and that, following a major period of quiescence and erosion, continued from the Pliocene to the present day. The islands have been periodically connected by eustatic sea-level changes resulting from Pleistocene glacial cycles. The ground-dwelling spider Dysdera lancerotensis Simon, 1907 occurs along the entire ridge, except on recent barren lavas and sand dunes, and is therefore an ideal model for studying the effect of episodic geological processes on terrestrial organisms. Nested clade and population genetic analyses using 39 haplotypes from 605 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I sequence data, along with phylogenetic analyses including two additional mitochondrial genes, uncover complex phylogeographical and demographic patterns. Our results indicate that D. lancerotensis colonized the ridge from north to south, in contrast to what had been expected given the SSW-NNE trend of volcanism and to what had been reported for other terrestrial arthropods. The occurrence of several episodes of extinction, recolonization and expansion are hypothesized for this species, and areas that act as refugia during volcanic cycles are identified. Relaxed molecular clock methods reveal divergence times between main haplotype lineages that suggest an older origin of the northern islets than anticipated based on geological evidence. This study supports the key role of volcanism in shaping the distribution of terrestrial organisms on oceanic islands and generates phylogeographical predictions that warrant further research into other terrestrial endemisms of this fascinating region. [source]


    Structure and Photoreaction of Photoactive Yellow Protein, a Structural Prototype of the PAS Domain Superfamily,

    PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Yasushi Imamoto
    Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a water-soluble photosensor protein found in purple photosynthetic bacteria. Unlike bacterial rhodopsins, photosensor proteins composed of seven transmembrane helices and a retinal chromophore in halophilic archaebacteria, PYP is a highly soluble globular protein. The ,/, fold structure of PYP is a structural prototype of the PAS domain superfamily, many members of which function as sensors for various kinds of stimuli. To absorb a photon in the visible region, PYP has a p -coumaric acid chromophore binding to the cysteine residue via a thioester bond. It exists in a deprotonated trans form in the dark. The primary photochemical event is photo-isomerization of the chromophore from trans to cis form. The twisted cis chromophore in early intermediates is relaxed and finally protonated. Consequently, the chromophore becomes electrostatically neutral and rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding network triggers overall structural change of the protein moiety, in which local conformational change around the chromophore is propagated to the N-terminal region. Thus, it is an ideal model for protein conformational changes that result in functional change, responding to stimuli and expressing physiological activity. In this paper, recent progress in investigation of the photoresponse of PYP is reviewed. [source]


    Expression of SV2 in the Seveloping Chick Cerebellum: Comparison with Calbindin and AMPA Glutamate Receptors 2/3

    THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Detlev Grabs
    Abstract The well-organized cerebellum is an ideal model to investigate the developmental appearance and localization of pre- and postsynaptic structures. One of the synaptic proteins abundant in the central nervous system and localized in presynaptic vesicle membranes is the synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2). SV2 was shown to be involved in priming and modulating synaptic vesicles and having an effect in epileptic diseases. So far there are no data available describing the developmental localization of this protein in the cerebellum. We followed the expression pattern of SV2 and compared it with the expression of the neuronal calcium-binding protein Calbindin and the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits 2/3 (GluR 2/3), both shown to be early expressed in the developing chick cerebellum predominantly in Purkinje cells. We detected the expression of SV2 in presynaptic terminals (mainly from climbing and mossy fibers) as soon as they are formed at embryonic day 16 in the inner molecular layer. Purkinje cells express Calbindin and GluR 2/3 in the soma and postsynaptically in the primary dendrites at this stage. With ongoing development, the pattern of SV2 expression follows the development of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer, suggesting a synaptic refinement of labeled climbing and later parallel fibers. Anat Rec, 291:538,546, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Superspace description of the homologous series Ga2O3(ZnO)m

    ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION B, Issue 2 2010
    Yuichi Michiue
    A unified description for the structures of the homologous series Ga2O3(ZnO)m, gallium zinc oxide, is presented using the superspace formalism. The structures were treated as a compositely modulated structure consisting of two subsystems. One is constructed with metal ions and the other with O ions. The ideal model is given, in which the displacive modulations of ions are well described by the zigzag function with large amplitudes. Alternative settings are also proposed which are analogous to the so-called modular structures. The validity of the model has been confirmed by refinements for phases with m = 6 and m = 9 in the homologous series. A few complex phenomena in real structures are taken into account by modifying the ideal model. [source]


    Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) as a model for studying the molecular mechanism of seasonal reproduction

    ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Hiroko ONO
    ABSTRACT Photoperiodism is an adaptation mechanism that enables animals to predict seasonal changes in the environment. Japanese quail is the best model organism for studying photoperiodism. Although the recent availability of chicken genome sequences has permitted the expansion from single gene to genome-wide transcriptional analysis in this organism, the photoperiodic response of the domestic chicken is less robust than that of the quail. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the photoperiodic response of the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), a predecessor of the domestic chicken, to test whether this animal could be developed as an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. When red jungle fowls were transferred from short-day- to long-day conditions, gonadal development and an increase in plasma LH concentration were observed. Furthermore, rapid induction of thyrotropin beta subunit, a master regulator of photoperiodism, was observed at 16 h after dawn on the first long day. In addition, the long-day condition induced the expression of type 2 deiodinase, the key output gene of photoperiodism. These results were consistent with the results obtained in quail and suggest that the red jungle fowl could be an ideal model animal for the genome-wide transcriptional analysis of photoperiodism. [source]


    Morphometry and abnormalities of the feet of Kaimanawa feral horses in New Zealand

    AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 4 2010
    BA Hampson
    Objective The present study investigated the foot health of the Kaimanawa feral horse population and tested the hypotheses that horses would have a large range of foot morphology and that the incidence of foot abnormality would be significantly high. Procedures Abnormality was defined as a variation from what the two veterinarian assessors considered as optimal morphology and which was considered to impact negatively on the structure and/or function of the foot. Fifteen morphometric variables were measured on four calibrated photographic views of all four feet of 20 adult Kaimanawa feral horses. Four morphometric variables were measured from the lateromedial radiographs of the left forefoot of each horse. In addition, the study identified the incidence of gross abnormality observed on the photographs and radiographs of all 80 feet. Results There was a large variation between horses in the morphometric dimensions, indicating an inconsistent foot type. Mean hoof variables were outside the normal range recommended by veterinarians and hoof care providers; 35% of all feet had a long toe conformation and 15% had a mediolateral imbalance. Abnormalities included lateral (85% of horses) and dorsal (90% of horses) wall flares, presence of laminar rings (80% of horses) and bull-nose tip of the distal phalanx (75% of horses). Both hypotheses were therefore accepted. Conclusions The Kaimanawa feral horse population demonstrated a broad range of foot abnormalities and we propose that one reason for the questionable foot health and conformation is lack of abrasive wearing by the environment. In comparison with other feral horse populations in Australia and America there may be less pressure on the natural selection of the foot of the Kaimanawa horses by the forgiving environment of the Kaimanawa Ranges. Contrary to popular belief, the feral horse foot type should not be used as an ideal model for the domestic horse foot. [source]