Ideal Method (ideal + method)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Fetal Mouse Imaging Using Echocardiography: A Review of Current Technology

Christopher F. Spurney M.D.
Advances in genetic research have led to the need for phenotypic analysis of small animal models. However, often these genetic alterations, especially when affecting the cardiovascular system, can result in fetal or perinatal death. Noninvasive ultrasound imaging is an ideal method for detecting and studying such congenital malformations, as it allows early recognition of abnormalities in the living fetus and the progression of disease can be followed in utero with longitudinal studies. Two platforms for fetal mouse echocardiography exist, the clinical systems with 15-MHz phased array transducers and research systems with 20,55-MHz mechanical transducers. The clinical ultrasound system has limited two-dimensional (2D) resolution (axial resolution of 440 ,m), but the availability of color and spectral Doppler allows quick interrogations of blood flows, facilitating the detection of structural abnormalities. M-mode imaging further provides important functional data, although, the proper imaging planes are often difficult to obtain. In comparison, the research biomicroscope system has significantly improved 2D resolution (axial resolution of 28 ,m). Spectral Doppler imaging is also available, but in the absence of color Doppler, imaging times are increased and the detection of flow abnormalities is more difficult. M-mode imaging is available and equivalent to the clinical ultrasound system. Overall, the research system, given its higher 2D resolution, is best suited for in-depth analysis of mouse fetal cardiovascular structure and function, while the clinical ultrasound systems, equipped with phase array transducers and color Doppler imaging, are ideal for high-throughput fetal cardiovascular screens. [source]

Outer-sphere electron transfer metal-catalyzed polymerization of styrene using a macrobicyclic ligand

Craig A. Bell
Abstract The CuBr-catalyzed polymerizations of styrene in the presence of a macrobicyclic mixed donor (N and S) encapsulating ligand, NH2capten, were carried out in toluene at 60 and 100 °C. The macrobicyclic nature of the ligand ensures that a transition metal ion is effectively encapsulated (caged) within the three-dimensional cavity, resulting in activation of radicals through an outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. The kinetic data showed that the polymerizations were uncontrolled with little "living" behavior. The external orders of reaction in [CuBr], [NH2capten], and [CuBr2] were 0.5, 0.5, and close to zero, respectively, in agreement with the postulated mechanism of little or no deactivation of polymeric radicals and a significant amount of bimolecular termination. Although "living" behavior was not found using the cage ligand, it was decided that it would provide an ideal method for radical coupling experiments to make high-molecular weight multiblock copolymers from a difunctional PSTY (Br-PSTY-Br, PDI = 1.11). The coupling reaction of Br-PSTY-Br using CuBr/NH2capten and excess Cu(0) in toluene at 100 °C gave no loss of the starting Br-PSTY-Br. Changing the solvent to the aprotic DMSO resulted in a significant increase in the rate of consumption of starting Br-PSTY-Br, with over 87% being used in under 10 min at 60 °C. In addition, higher molecular weight species were also formed, suggesting that OSET gives little or no side reactions on this time scale. It was initially thought that to get such high rates of reaction that the SET-LRP disproportionation mechanism (2Cu(I) , Cu(0) + Cu(II)) was at play. However, UV,Vis experiments of the CuBr/NH2capten showed little or no disproportionation products. This important result suggests that DMSO catalyzes the OSET reaction through the stabilization of the radical-anion intermediate, which then rapidly fragments to a polymeric radical. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 146,154, 2008 [source]

Phenotypic and functional comparison of optimum culture conditions for upscaling of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

Rakhi Pal
Abstract Human adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in the newly emerging avenue of regenerative medicine. MSCs have already been translated from basic research to clinical transplantation research. However, there is still a lack of consensus on the ideal method of culturing MSCs. Here we have compared different culture conditions of human MSCs with an attempt to preserve their characteristics and multi-lineage differentiation potential. We compare the different basal culture media DMEM-F12, DMEM-high glucose (DMEM-HG), DMEM-low glucose (DMEM-LG), knock-out DMEM (DMEM-KO) and Mesencult® on the proliferation rate, surface markers and differentiation potentials of MSCs. At every fifth passage until the 25th passage, the differentiation potential and the presence of a panel of surface markers was observed, using flow cytometry. We also compared the characteristics of human MSCs when cultured in reduced concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS), knockout serum replacement (KO-SR) and human plasma. Data indicate that the presence of serum is essential to sustain and propagate MSCs cultures. The choice of basal medium is equally important so as to preserve their characteristics and multipotent properties even after prolonged culture in vitro. With MSCs emerging as a popular tool for regenerative therapies in incurable diseases, it is essential to be able to obtain a large number of MSCs that continue to preserve their characteristics following passaging. The data reveal the optimum basal medium for prolonged culture of MSCs while retaining their ability to differentiate and hence this may be used for up-scaling to provide sufficient numbers for transplantation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Monitoring sedation in the critically ill child

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 5 2010
A. Lamas
Summary Sedation is an essential part of the management of the critically ill child, and its monitoring must be individualised and continuous in order to adjust drug doses according to the clinical state. There is no ideal method for evaluating sedation in the critically ill child. Haemodynamic variables have not been found to be useful. Clinical scales are useful when sedation is moderate, but are limited by their subjective nature, the use of stimuli, and the impossibility of evaluating profoundly sedated patients or those receiving neuromuscular blocking drugs; in addition, many of these scales have not been evaluated in children. The COMFORT scale is the most appropriate, as it was designed and validated for critically ill children requiring mechanical ventilation. Electroencephalography-derived methods permit continuous monitoring, provide an early indication of changes in the level of sedation, and facilitate a rapid adjustment of medication. However, these methods were designed and validated for patients under anaesthesia and their results cannot be fully extrapolated to the critically ill patient; in addition, some of them have not been validated in small children and there is still little experience in critically ill children. The main indications for the use of these methods are in patients with deep sedation and/or neuromuscular blockade. The bispectral index is the most widely used method at the present time. Analysis and comparison of the efficacy of the different methods for evaluating sedation in the critically ill child is required. [source]

Spiral computed tomography before and after cricothyroid approximation

D. Pickuth
Cricothyroid approximation raises the vocal pitch by simulating the contraction of the cricothyroid muscle with sutures. The aim of this study was to determine the role of spiral computed tomography (CT) in patients scheduled for cricothyroid approximation. Twenty-nine transsexual patients were examined with spiral CT before and after laryngoplastic surgery. Computed tomography findings were correlated with phoniatric findings in all patients. The average reduction of the cricothyroid distance was 6 mm (range 2,10 mm). The vocal pitch elevation was more remarkable in the patient group with greater reduction of the cricothyroid distance. Computed tomography accurately determines the cricothyroid distance before and after surgery and is an ideal method for follow-up purposes, especially when there is a postoperative reversion towards a lower pitch. In addition, CT provides important data as to the most appropriate extent and site of intracordal intervention to be done for a desired pitch elevation. [source]

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in valvular heart disease

Juha W. Koskenvuo
Summary Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has rapidly gained acceptance as an accurate, reproducible and non-invasive imaging method for assessment of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. However, CMR has not been used widely for diagnostic purposes in valvular heart disease (VHD). Unlike echocardiography it has no body habitus-related limitations and can thus be used to complement echocardiography. It is an especially good alternative for clinical follow-up in patients with VHD, as it allows accurate measurement of valvular dysfunction and related ventricular burden. Additionally, CMR is an ideal method for evaluating complex congenital heart disease and determining the significance of its components. It can also be used to study the physiological course of valvular dysfunction and response to therapeutic interventions. In this review, we present a basic introduction to CMR methodology, including its advantages and potential problems, and the physiology and quantification in VHD. We also discuss clinical applications of CMR in VHD. Furthermore, we describe how a CMR study statement should be structured in order to increase clinical use of this valuable methodology in cardiology. [source]