Ideal Material (ideal + material)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Assessment of post-traumatic PDL cells viability by a novel collagenase assay

Roberta Pileggi
Abstract,,,Both length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis for replanted teeth. Numerous studies have examined various media in an attempt to determine the ideal material for storage of the avulsed tooth. The purpose of this study was to compare the number of viable periodontium ligament (PDL) cells in different storage media using a collagenase assay. Thirty-three freshly extracted human teeth were divided into four experimental and two control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0 min and an 8-h dry time, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 min and then immersed in one of four media (Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk, saline, water) for 45 min. The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase for 30 min. The number of viable and nonviable PDL cells was counted with a hemocytometer and analyzed. An anova demonstrated no statistically significant differences in the viability of PDL cells among saline, HBSS and milk. Within the parameters of this study, it appears that milk or saline is an equally viable alternative to HBSS for storage of avulsed teeth. [source]

Highly Fluorescent Poly(dimethylsiloxane) for On-Chip Temperature Measurements

Jianhua Zhou
Abstract This work describes a convenient method to generate a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composite containing ZnO quantum dots (QDs) for whole-chip temperature measurements. This composite is highly fluorescent and very sensitive to temperature changes (0.4,nm,°C,1, compared to 0.1,nm,°C,1 in commonly used CdSe QDs). It also shows extremely high fluorescent stability under various conditions over long time without phase separation or fluorescent changes. Both merits make this composite an ideal material for sensing temperature changes on microfluidic chips. The bonding between the QDs and PDMS is studied by comparing PDMS composites with ZnO QDs of different sizes, and a model is given to elucidate the high stability of this composite. [source]

The ZiReal Post: A New Ceramic Implant Abutment

ABSTRACT Restorations in the anterior esthetic zone present significant challenges in both the surgical and prosthetic phases of implant dentistry. Titanium has been established as the material of choice for endosseous implants, resulting in a high degree of predictability. Many types of implants require transmucosal abutments to retain implant restorations. Ceramics may be the ideal material to replace natural teeth, but most transmucosal abutments are made of titanium. However, ceramics may also be used as abutments in implant restorations. This combination of ceramics for abutment and crown provides better translucency for the implant restoration than is available with metal abutments and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns. Ceramic abutments and implant restorations also minimize the gray color associated with metal components that is transmitted through the peri-implant tissues. Customized emergence profiles also may be obtained with ceramic abutments; this generally improves the predictability and consistency of the esthetics obtainable in implant restorations. Zirconia as a ceramic material offers not only outstanding material properties but also a well-documented biocompatibility. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE This article discusses the clinical and laboratory features of a new ceramic abutment, ZiRealÔ Post (Implant Innovations, Inc., Palm Beach Gardens, Florida). [source]

Microvascular Angiogenesis and Apoptosis in the Survival of Free Fat Grafts ,

Toshiro Nishimura MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis Autologous fat is an ideal material for augmentation in plastic surgery because of its minimal tissue reaction and easy availability, but its long-term graft survival is somewhat unpredictable. This study was conducted to determine how fat grafts get their vascular supply from the recipient bed and why they keep reducing in volume and weight. Study Design Experimental study using animal models. Methods The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in grafted fat tissue was examined by using immunohistochemical staining, and apoptotic cell death in the grafted fat was studied by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT),mediated deoxy-uridine triphosphate (dUTP)-biotin nick end-labeling method. Twenty-five Wistar rats were used as models of free fat grafts. Fat tissue taken from inguinal fat pads was grafted to the back skin with an 18-gauge needle injection. Results The weight of the injected fat was significantly reduced on the 180th day compared with the original weight (32% ± 10%). VEGF+ cells were observed in fibrous connective tissue of the grafts on days 7 and 30 but not after day 90. Apoptotic cells were also observed on days 7 and 30. Conclusions Angiogenic factors including VEGF started to revascularize the graft around day 7, and the extent of the vasculature was not reduced after the revascularization. In addition to necrosis in the graft's early stages, apoptosis induced by many factors in the graft's environment is also, at least in part, a cause of long-term volume reduction of the fat graft. Thus clinical application of angiogenic factors such as VEGF to fat grafts and control of apoptosis may contribute to improvements in fat-grafting techniques. [source]

Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofluidic Transport

Jason Knowles Holt
Abstract Recent strides have been made in both the modeling and measurement of fluid flow on the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes, with their atomic dimensions and atomic smoothness, are ideal materials for studying such flows. This Progress Report describes recent modeling and experimental advances concerning fluid transport in carbon nanotubes. The varied flow characteristics predicted by molecular dynamics are described, as are the roles of defects and chirality on transport. Analytical models are increasingly being used to describe nanofluidic transport by relaxing many of the assumptions commonly used to describe bulk water. Recent experimental studies examine the size dependence of flow enhancements through carbon nanotubes and use varied spectroscopies to probe water structure and dynamics in these systems. Carbon nanotubes are finding increasing applications in biology, from protein filters to platforms for cell interrogation. [source]