Ideal Environment (ideal + environment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

CCL22-induced responses are powerfully enhanced by synergy inducing chemokines via CCR4: evidence for the involvement of first ,-strand of chemokine

Silvia Sebastiani
Abstract In an attempt to clarify how cells integrate the signals provided by multiple chemokines expressed during inflammation, we have uncovered a novel mechanism regulating leukocyte trafficking. Our data indicate that the concomitant exposure to CCR4 agonists and CXCL10/IP-10 strongly enhances the chemotactic response of human T lymphocytes. This enhancement is synergistic rather than additive and occurs via CCR4 since it persists after CXCR3 blockade. Besides chemotaxis, other cellular responses are enhanced upon stimulation of CCR4-transfected cells with CCL22/MDC plus CXCL10. Several other chemokines in addition to CXCL10 were able to increase CCL22-mediated chemotaxis. The first ,-strand of the chemokine structure is highly and specifically implicated in this phenomenon, as established using synergy-inducing and non-synergy-inducing chimeric chemokines. As shown in situ for skin from atopic and allergic contact dermatitis patients, this organ becomes the ideal environment in which skin-homing CCR4+ T lymphocytes can accumulate under the stimulus offered by CCR4 agonists, together with the synergistic chemokines that are concomitantly expressed. Overall, our results indicate that chemokine-induced synergism strengthens leukocyte recruitment towards tissues co-expressing several chemokines. [source]

Evidence for intestinal chloride secretion

Michael Murek
Intestinal fluid secretion is pivotal in the creation of an ideal environment for effective enzymatic digestion, nutrient absorption and stool movement. Since fluid cannot be actively secreted into the gut, this process is dependent on an osmotic gradient, which is mainly created by chloride transport by the enterocyte. A pathological dysbalance between fluid secretion and absorption leads to obstruction or potentially fatal diarrhoea. This article reviews the widely accepted model of intestinal chloride secretion with an emphasis on the molecular players involved in this tightly regulated process. [source]

Remodeling and Vascular Spaces in Bone

Erik Fink Eriksen
Abstract In recent years, we have come to appreciate that the close association between bone and vasculature plays a pivotal role in the regulation of bone remodeling and fracture repair. In 2001, Hauge et al. characterized a specialized vascular structure, the bone remodeling compartment (BRC), and showed that the outer lining of this compartment was made up of flattened cells, displaying all the characteristics of lining cells in bone. A decrease in bone turnover leads to a decrease in surfaces covered with remodeling compartments, whereas increased turnover causes an increase. Immunoreactivity for all major osteotropic growth factors and cytokines including osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL has been shown in the cells lining the BRC, which makes the BRC the structure of choice for coupling between resorption and formation. The secretion of these factors inside a confined space separated from the bone marrow would facilitate local regulation of the remodeling process without interference from growth factors secreted by blood cells in the marrow space. The BRC creates an environment where cells inside the structure are exposed to denuded bone, which may enable direct cellular interactions with integrins and other matrix factors known to regulate osteoclast/osteoblast activity. However, the denuded bone surface inside the BRC also constitutes an ideal environment for the seeding of bone metastases, known to have high affinity for bone matrix. Reduction in BRC space brought about by antiresorptive therapies such as bisphosphonates reduce the number of skeletal events in advanced cancer, whereas an increase in BRC space induced by remodeling activators like PTH may increase the bone metastatic burden. The BRC has only been characterized in detail in trabecular bone; there is, however, evidence that a similar structure may exist in cortical bone, but further characterization is needed. [source]

Investigation of the effects of partial coherence on exit wave reconstruction

Summary In a recent work we presented an iterative wave function reconstruction (IWFR) method that reconstructs a wave function from measurements of its amplitude taken as it propagates in free space (a focal series of images). Although the ideal environment for application of the IWFR method is in a coherent imaging system, it has been developed so that it can be applied in a partially coherent imaging system, in particular for a high-resolution transmission electron microscope using a field-emission gun. In this paper we investigate the effects of partial coherence on the accuracy of results obtained using the IWFR method. We then show how results obtained under such conditions can be improved by estimating and subtracting components from the amplitude measurements of the wave function that derive from incoherence in the electron beam. [source]

Kaizen: A Method of Process Improvement in the Emergency Department

Gregory H. Jacobson MD
Abstract Introduction:, Recent position statements from health care organizations have placed a strong emphasis on continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI finds many of its roots in kaizen, which emphasizes small, low-cost, low-risk improvements. Based on the successful Kaizen Programs at organizations such as Toyota, the authors thought the emergency department (ED) would be an ideal environment to benefit from such a program. Objectives:, The authors sought to create a CQI program using a suggestion-based model that did not require a large time commitment, was easy to implement, and had the potential to empower all physicians in the department. It would not take the place of other improvement efforts, but instead augment them. The hypothesis was that such a program would foster sustainable engagement of emergency physicians in system improvement efforts and lead to a continuous stream of low-cost implementable system improvement interventions. Methods:, A CQI program was created for the physician staff of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, focusing on a suggestion-based model using kaizen philosophy. Lectures teaching kaizen philosophy were presented. Over the past 4 years, a methodology was developed utilizing a Web-based application, the Kaizen Tracker, which aids in the submission and implementation of suggestions that are called kaizen initiatives (KIs). The characteristics of the KIs submitted, details regarding resident and faculty participation, and the effectiveness of the Kaizen Tracker were retrospectively reviewed. Results:, There were 169, 105, and 101 KIs placed in the postimplementation calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Seventy-six percent of KIs submitted thus far have identified a "process problem." Fifty-three percent of KIs submitted have led to operational changes within the ED. Ninety-three percent of the resident physicians entered at least one KI, and 73% of these residents submitted more than one KI. Sixty-nine percent of the attendings entered at least one KI, and 89% of these attendings submitted more than one KI. Conclusions:, Over the past 4 years, the Kaizen Program at Vanderbilt has been widely and frequently used within the ED. It has resulted in over 400 changes in our adult ED system and has met the challenge of using CQI to drive ED improvements. There are limitations to this study, including the fact that its impact on patient outcomes remains unknown. However, this Kaizen Program may be an excellent tool for other departments to assist with quality improvement and should be studied with a multicenter prospective approach. [source]

Person-environment fit and transfer of training

Enoch A. Awoniyi
Results support the hypothesis that individuals transfer their training to the job when their ,real' environment matches or fits the preferred ,ideal' environment. Five aspects of environment were assessed: supervisory encouragement, sufficient resources, worker's perceived freedom, workload pressures, and perceived worker creativity. In addition to the traditional criteria of hiring people whose skills match the job, organizations might consider creating environments to match employees' needs. [source]