Ideal Agent (ideal + agent)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Remifentanil and the brain

Background and aim: Remifentanil is an ultra-short-acting opioid, increasingly used today in neuroanesthesia and neurointensive care. Its characteristics make remifentanil a potentially ideal agent, but previous data have cast a shadow on this opioid, supporting potentially toxic effects on the ischemic brain. The aim of the present concise review is to survey available up-to-date information on the effects of remifentanil on the central nervous system. Method: A MEDLINE search within the past seven years for available up-to-date information on remifentanil and brain was performed. Results: Concise up-to-date information on the effects of remifentanil on the central nervous system was reported, with a particular emphasis on the following topics: cerebral metabolism, electroencephalogram, electrocorticography, motor-evoked potentials, regional cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood flow velocity, arterial hypotension and hypertension, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral autoregulation, cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity, cerebrospinal fluid, painful stimulation, analgesia and hyperalgesia, neuroprotection, neurotoxicity and hypothermia. Conclusion: The knowledge of the influence of remifentanil on brain functions is crucial before routine use in neuroanesthesia to improve anesthesia performance and patient safety as well as outcome. [source]

Sevoflurane: an ideal agent for adult day-case anesthesia?

S. Ghatge
Sevoflurane has several properties which make it potentially useful as a day case anaesthetic. Following induction of anaesthesia with propofol, awakening from sevoflurane is faster compared to isoflurane, faster or similar compared to propofol and comparable (in the majority of studies) to desflurane. Subsequent recovery and discharge is generally similar following all agents. Sevoflurane may also be used to induce anaesthesia, which is generally well-received and causes less hypotension and apnoea compared to propofol. When used as a maintenance anaesthetic, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after sevoflurane is comparable to other inhaled anaesthetics, but this complication appears more common after inhaled inductions. The tolerability and low solubility of sevoflurane facilitate titration of anaesthesia and may reduce the need for opioid analgesia, which in turn may limit the occurrence of nausea and vomiting. [source]

Ephedrine in the cat lung vasculature

A. M. Fields
Background:, Ephedrine is one of the most commonly used non-catecholamine sympathomimetic agents. It is used in operating rooms and critical care settings worldwide. While it has many side effects, its ability to rapidly raise blood pressure makes it an ideal agent to maintain homeostasis as well as in emergency situations. While its effects are known to be mediated by an ,-mediated mechanism, the exact , subtype is unknown. In addition, no studies using ephedrine have been performed in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat. Methods:, The effects of phentolamine, a non-selective ,-receptor blocker, and prazosin, an ,1 -selective antagonist, were investigated on pulmonary arterial responses to ephedrine, phenylepherine, norepinephrine, and U-46619. Lobar arterial perfusion pressure was continuously monitored, electronically averaged, and recorded with constant flow in the isolated left lower lobe vascular bed of the cat. Results:, Phentolamine and prazosin significantly reduced vasoconstrictor pulmonary perfusion pressure increases induced by ephedrine. Conclusion:, Ephedrine has significant vasopressor activity in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat meditated predominantly by ,1 adrenergic receptor activation. [source]

New Labour's Third Way: pragmatism and governance

Michael Temple
The article critically examines New Labour's development of the concept of the Third Way. Despite the apparent centrality of ,social democracy' to the Third Way, it is proposed that a more pragmatic approach dominates, in that outputs and not ideology are driving the new agenda of governance under New Labour. This is seen to have its roots in the new ways of working the party has embraced in local governance, where public?,private partnerships have become the norm and a new ethos of public service has emerged. In contrast with the top-down approach to setting output targets favoured by Tony Blair, the Third Way offers the possibility of a more experimental, pragmatic and decentralised decision-making process,and the local governance network (with elected local councils as pivotal and legitimising actors) is presented as the ideal agent to deliver this. [source]

Rapid clinical assessment of hemodynamic profiles and targeted treatment of patient with acutely decompensated heart failure

Greegg C. Fonarow M.D.
Abstract Acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is characterized by hemodynamic abnormalities and neurohormonal activation that contribute to heart failure (HF) symptoms, end-organ dysfunction, arrhythmias, and progressive cardiac failure. The management of ADHF in the emergency department (ED) can be simplified and improved by a 2-min bedside assessment that identifies any of four possible hemodynamic profiles on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. The profiles are based on whether congestion is present or absent (wet or dry) and perfusion is adequate or limited (warm or cold). A wet-warm profile is seen more frequently in the ED than any of the other three profiles (wet-cold, dry-warm, and dry-cold). The four clinically determined profiles have been shown to predict clinical outcomes and may be used to guide initial HF therapy. The goals of treating ADHF are to stabilize the patient, reverse acute hemodynamic abnormalities, rapidly reverse dyspnea and/or hypoxemia caused by pulmonary congestion, and initiate treatments that will decrease disease progression and improve survival. An ideal agent for the wet-warm profile would rapidly reduce pulmonary congestion, produce balanced arterial and venous dilation, promote natriuresis, lack direct positive inotropic effects, and not cause reflex neuroendocrine activation. Intravenous nesiritide in conjunction with loop diuretics has been found safe and effective as initial treatment for patients with the wet-warm profile. For the wet-cold profile, more intensive therapy and invasive hemodynamic monitoring may prove useful. This review will discuss the rapid clinical determination of hemodynamic profiles in patients presenting to the ED with ADHF and the options for their initial medical management. Case studies representing the wet-warm, wet-cold, dry-warm, and dry-cold profiles will be presented and discussed. [source]