Ice Growth (ice + growth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hydro-climatic impacts on the ice cover of the lower Peace River

Spyros Beltaos
Abstract Since the late 1960s, a paucity of ice-jam flooding in the lower Peace River has resulted in prolonged dry periods and considerable reduction in the area covered by lakes and ponds that provide habitat for aquatic life in the Peace,Athabasca Delta (PAD) region. Though major ice jams occur at breakup, antecedent conditions play a significant role in their frequency and severity. These conditions are partly defined by the mode of freezeup and the maximum thickness that is attained during the winter, shortly before the onset of spring and development of positive net heat fluxes to the ice cover. Data from hydrometric gauge records and from field surveys are utilized herein to study these conditions. It is shown that freezeup flows are considerably larger at the present time than before regulation, and may be responsible for more frequent formation of porous accumulation covers. Despite a concomitant rise in winter temperatures, solid-ice thickness has increased since the 1960s. Using a simple ice growth model, specifically developed for the study area, it is shown that porous accumulation covers enhance winter ice growth via accelerated freezing into the porous accumulation. Coupled with a reduction in winter snowfall, this effect can not only negate, but reverse, the effect of warmer winters on ice thickness, thus explaining present conditions. The present model is also shown to be a useful prediction tool, especially for extrapolating incomplete data to the end of the winter. Copyright 2007 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Frost heave modelling using porosity rate function

Radoslaw L. Michalowski
Abstract Frost-susceptible soils are characterized by their sensitivity to freezing that is manifested in heaving of the ground surface. While significant contributions to explaining the nature of frost heave in soils were published in late 1920s, modelling efforts did not start until decades later. Several models describing the heaving process have been developed in the past, but none of them has been generally accepted as a tool in engineering applications. The approach explored in this paper is based on the concept of the porosity rate function dependent on two primary material parameters: the maximum rate, and the temperature at which the maximum rate occurs. The porosity rate is indicative of ice growth, and this growth is also dependent on the temperature gradient and the stress state in the freezing soil. The advantage of this approach over earlier models stems from a formulation consistent with continuum mechanics that makes it possible to generalize the model to arbitrary three-dimensional processes, and use the standard numerical techniques in solving boundary value problems. The physical premise for the model is discussed first, and the development of the constitutive model is outlined. The model is implemented in a 2-D finite element code, and the porosity rate function is calibrated and validated. Effectiveness of the model is then illustrated in an example of freezing of a vertical cut in frost-susceptible soil. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ages and inferred causes of Late Pleistocene glaciations on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i,

Jeffrey S. Pigati
Abstract Glacial landforms on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, show that the summit area of the volcano was covered intermittently by ice caps during the Late Pleistocene. Cosmogenic 36Cl dating of terminal moraines and other glacial landforms indicates that the last two ice caps, called Older Makanaka and Younger Makanaka, retreated from their maximum positions approximately 23,ka and 13,ka, respectively. The margins and equilibrium line altitudes of these ice caps on the remote, tropical Pacific island were nearly identical, which would seem to imply the same mechanism for ice growth. But modelling of glacier mass balance, combined with palaeotemperature proxy data from the subtropical North Pacific, suggests that the causes of the two glacial expansions may have been different. Older Makanaka air atop Mauna Kea was likely wetter than today and cold, whereas Younger Makanaka times were slightly warmer but significantly wetter than the previous glaciation. The modelled increase in precipitation rates atop Mauna Kea during the Late Pleistocene is consistent with that near sea level inferred from pollen data, which suggests that the additional precipitation was due to more frequent and/or intense tropical storms associated with eastward-moving cold fronts. These conditions were similar to modern La Nia (weak ENSO) conditions, but persisted for millennia rather than years. Increased precipitation rates and the resulting steeper temperature lapse rates created glacial conditions atop Mauna Kea in the absence of sufficient cooling at sea level, suggesting that if similar correlations existed elsewhere in the tropics, the precipitation-dependent lapse rates could reconcile the apparent difference between glacial-time cooling of the tropics at low and high altitudes. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interannual changes in seasonal ground freezing and near-surface heat flow beneath bottom-fast ice in the near-shore zone, Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada

Christopher W. Stevens
Abstract Interannual changes in seasonal ground freezing and near-surface heat flow beneath zones of bottom-fast ice (BFI) were examined over the winters of 2005,06 and 2006,07 within the near-shore zone of the Mackenzie Delta, Canada. Winter variability in ground thermal conditions was determined at three monitoring sites. Ground-penetrating radar surveys were conducted in late winter to determine spatial variability in landfast ice conditions and the extent of ice-bonded sediments. Shallow water sites (<0.5,m-water depth) were characterised by early onset of BFI, freezeback of the active layer and mean winter sediment bed temperatures ranging between ,3C and ,10C. In contrast, deep water sites (>1,m of water) experienced prolonged periods of floating ice, which limited the duration of ice contact with the sediment bed and the depth of seasonal frost, and resulted in warmer winter ground temperatures (between ,0.5C and ,2.6C). Under similar water depths, interannual changes in ice growth altered the timing of BFI and winter heat loss from the ground. When comparing conditions over the two winters, 2005,06 was characterised by a decrease in ice thickness that limited the extent of BFI and seasonal cooling of the ground. These changes in ice conditions had a greater effect on the thermal conditions at sites where water depths were close to the maximum ice thickness. The short ice contact times at these sites are important to the thermal state of permafrost, as only minimal heat exchange contributing to permafrost cooling occurs prior to freezeback of the active layer. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Perdeuteration, purification, crystallization and preliminary neutron diffraction of an ocean pout type III antifreeze protein

Isabelle Petit-Haertlein
The highly homologous type III antifreeze protein (AFP) subfamily share the capability to inhibit ice growth at subzero temperatures. Extensive studies by X-ray crystallography have been conducted, mostly on AFPs from polar fishes. Although interactions between a defined flat ice-binding surface and a particular lattice plane of an ice crystal have now been identified, the fine structural features underlying the antifreeze mechanism still remain unclear owing to the intrinsic difficulty in identifying H atoms using X-ray diffraction data alone. Here, successful perdeuteration (i.e. complete deuteration) for neutron crystallographic studies of the North Atlantic ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) AFP in Escherichia coli high-density cell cultures is reported. The perdeuterated protein (AFP D) was expressed in inclusion bodies, refolded in deuterated buffer and purified by cation-exchange chromatography. Well shaped perdeuterated AFP D crystals have been grown in D2O by the sitting-drop method. Preliminary neutron Laue diffraction at 293,K using LADI-III at ILL showed that with a few exposures of 24,h a very low background and clear small spots up to a resolution of 1.85, were obtained using a `radically small' perdeuterated AFP D crystal of dimensions 0.70 0.55 0.35,mm, corresponding to a volume of 0.13,mm3. [source]

Subglacial bed conditions during Late Pleistocene glaciations and their impact on ice dynamics in the southern North Sea

BOREAS, Issue 3 2010
Passchier, S., Laban, C., Mesdag, C.S. & Rijsdijk, K.F. 2010: Subglacial bed conditions during Late Pleistocene glaciations and their impact on ice dynamics in the southern North Sea. Boreas, Vol. 39, pp. 633,647. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2009.00138.x. ISSN 0300-9483. Changes in subglacial bed conditions through multiple glaciations and their effect on ice dynamics are addressed through an analysis of glacigenic sequences in the Upper Pleistocene stratigraphy of the southern North Sea basin. During Elsterian (MIS 12) ice growth, till deposition was subdued when ice became stagnant over a permeable substrate of fluvial sediments, and meltwater infiltrated into the bed. Headward erosion during glacial retreat produced a dense network of glacial valleys up to several hundreds of metres deep. A Saalian (MIS 6) glacial advance phase resulted in the deposition of a sheet of stiff sandy tills and terminal moraines. Meltwater was at least partially evacuated through the till layer, resulting in the development of a rigid bed. During the later part of the Saalian glaciation, ice-stream inception can be related to the development of a glacial lake to the north and west of the study area. The presence of meltwater channels incised into the floors of glacial troughs is indicative of high subglacial water pressures, which may have played a role in the onset of ice streaming. We speculate that streaming ice flow in the later part of the Saalian glaciation caused the relatively early deglaciation, as recorded in the Amsterdam Terminal borehole. These results suggest that changing subglacial bed conditions through glacial cycles could have a strong impact on ice dynamics and require consideration in ice-sheet reconstructions. [source]