Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of IX

  • anhydrase ix
  • ca ix
  • carbonic anhydrase ix
  • coagulation factor ix
  • factor ix
  • protoporphyrin ix
  • recombinant factor ix
  • title ix
  • zinc protoporphyrin ix

  • Terms modified by IX

  • ix collagen
  • ix gene

  • Selected Abstracts

    Distribution of ,-tocopherol in fillets of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), following dietary ,-tocopheryl acetate supplementation

    N. Ruff
    Abstract The present study investigated the distribution of , -tocopherol (vitamin E) in fillets of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Turbot and Atlantic halibut were fed commercial diets, supplemented with different levels of , -tocopheryl acetate at the dietary target levels of 100, 500 and 1000 mg , -tocopheryl acetate kg,1 diet. The actual levels were 72, 547 and 969 for turbot, while halibut received 189, 613 and 875 mg , -tocopheryl acetate kg,1 diet. Turbot were fed the diets for 24 weeks, while Atlantic halibut were fed for 20 weeks prior to slaughter. At the end of the feeding periods fish had reached a final weight of around 1 kg. Fish were slaughtered and filleted. From the four fillets obtained per fish, 22 samples were taken from designated areas and analysed for their , -tocopherol content. The average concentrations of , -tocopherol incorporated in turbot and Atlantic halibut increased with increasing levels of , -tocopheryl acetate in the diet. Atlantic halibut had significantly (P < 0.05) more , -tocopherol in positions 2/II and 1/I than in position 9/IX. Turbot had significantly (P < 0.05) more , -tocopherol in position 2/II than in positions 1/I, 4/IV and 11/XI. By mapping , -tocopherol concentrations in fish fillets, a high degree of quality prediction may be established. Moreover, this study may help scientists in their choice of sampling position, when investigating if , -tocopheryl acetate supplementation resulted in successful , -tocopherol incorporation. [source]

    Polymorphisms of the human platelet alloantigens HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, and HPA-4 in ischemic stroke

    Sarra Saidi
    Polymorphism in human platelet antigen (HPA)-1 and HPA-3 (GPIIb/IIIa), HPA-2 (GPIb/IX), HPA-4 (GPIIIa), and HPA-5 (GPIa/IIa) was investigated in 329 stroke patients and 444 matched control subjects. HPA genotyping was done by PCR-SSP method. Lower HPA-1a (P < 0.001) and higher HPA-1b (P < 0.001) allele frequencies were seen in patients than control subjects, and homozygosity for HPA-1b (P < 0.001) alleles was more prevalent in stroke cases than in controls. The allele and genotype distributions of the other HPA polymorphic variants were similar between cases and controls. Select HPA combined genotypes comprising the 2121 (Pc = 0.008) and 2221 (Pc = 0.018) genotypes, which were positively associated, and the 1111 (Pc < 0.001), which was negatively associated with stroke, thereby conferred a disease susceptibility and protective nature to these genotype combinations. Multivariate analysis confirmed the negative association of the 1111 (P < 0.001) and the positive association of the 2121 (P = 0.017) combined genotypes with stroke, after adjustment for a number of covariates. This is the first evidence demonstrating differential association of the common 4 HPA gene variants and specific HPA genotype combinations with stroke. Am. J. Hematol. 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The passage of Title IX, the 1972 Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act, expanded high school athletic opportunities to include girls, revolutionizing mass sports participation in the United States. This paper analyzes high school athletic participation in the United States and how sports offerings for boys and girls changed subsequent to the passage of this legislation. Girls' sports participation rose dramatically both following the enactment of Title IX and subsequent to enhancements to its enforcement. Approximately half of all girls currently participate in sports during high school; however, there remains a substantial gap between girls and boys participation in many states. States' average education level and social attitudes regarding Title IX and women's rights are correlated with this remaining gender gap. Examining individual high school students, sports participation is seen more frequently among those with a privileged background: white students with married, wealthy, educated parents are more likely to play sports. This finding points to an overlooked fact,while Title IX benefited girls by increasing the opportunity to play sports, these benefits were disproportionately reaped by those at the top of the income distribution. (JEL J16, J18, J24, I2) [source]

    Photodynamic Therapy of Cutaneous Lymphoma Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Topical Application

    Arie Orenstein MD
    Background. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a new and effective modality for treatment of superficial basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Objective. We present the kinetics of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PP) accumulation and the results of ALA PDT treatment on two patients with different stages (stage I and stage III) of mycosis fungoides (MF)-type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Methods. ALA-Decoderm cream was applied to the lesions for 16 hours. Spectrofluorescence measurements of PP accumulation were carried out before, during, and 1 hour after photoirradiation (580,720 nm) using the VersaLight system. Results. Different patterns of PP fluorescence kinetics were observed in patients with early and advanced stages of the disease. During photoirradiation the intensity of fluorescence decreased depending on the lesion thickness. One hour after the photoirradiation procedure no PP fluorescence was observed in the stage I MF lesion, while in the thick stage III MF lesions, PP fluorescence reappeared; after an additional 10,15 minutes of irradiation PP fluorescence disappeared. Complete response with excellent cosmetic results was observed in the stage I lesion after a single irradiation with a light dose of 170 J/cm2; in five stage III lesions, complete response was achieved after fractionated irradiation with a total light dose of 380 J/cm2 (follow-up at 27 and 24 months, respectively). Conclusion. The results showed a high response of both stage I and stage III MF lesions to ALA PDT. This modality appears to be very effective and can be used successfully for MF treatment. [source]

    Chondrocranium and skeletal development of Phrynops hilarii (Pleurodira: Chelidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2009
    Paula Bona
    Abstract The present study represents the first comprehensive contribution to the knowledge of the skeletal development of a pleurodiran turtle, Phrynops hilarii (Pleurodira, Chelidae). The most remarkable features found are: (1) absence of ascending process on pterygoquadrate cartilage; (2) presence of ossification centres for the epiotics; (3) as in other pleurodirans, dorsal ribs IX and X are ,sacralized'; (4) contact between ilium and carapace occurs later in ontogenetic development; (5) suture between ischia, pubes and plastron occurs in posthatching specimens; (6) contrary to previous interpretations, the phalangeal formula of the pes of P. hilarii is 2 : 3 : 3 : 3 : 5; (7) the hooked bone represents the fifth metatarsal. [source]

    5-Aminolaevulinic acid-induced photodynamic therapy and photodetection in Barrett's esophagus

    P. E. Claydon
    SUMMARY., Barrett's esophagus is a precursor of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. This cancer has the fastest growing incidence of any solid tumor in the Western world. Surveillance of Barrett's esophagus is routinely undertaken to detect early malignant transformation. However, ablative endoscopic treatments are available and these can obliterate the abnormal epithelium, allowing neosquamous regrowth. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is such a technique. In this non-thermal method of ablation, ALA is metabolized to produce the photosensitizer protoprophyrin IX. This, together with light and oxygen, produces local tissue destruction. Fluorescence detection using ALA has also been used to identify areas of dysplasia and thus enhance positive biopsy yield. The use of ALA in photodynamic therapy and photodetection is reviewed. [source]

    Determination of xanthohumol in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) by nonaqueous CE

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 6 2007
    Javor Kac Dr.
    Abstract Xanthohumol (XN) is a prenylated chalcone with antimutagenic and anticancer activity from hops. A nonaqueous reverse polarity capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of XN in hop extract was developed and validated. The optimal parameters were a 64.5,cm long fused-silica capillary with 50,,m id at 25°C; 30,kV negative voltage (anode at detector side of the capillary); nonaqueous buffer with 75,mM NaOH and 50,mM boric acid in methanol; hydrodynamical injection with 10,mbar for 40,s; and detection at 440,nm. XN, isoxanthohumol (IX), colupulone, adlupulone, and n -lupulone were well resolved on the electropherogram. The LOD for XN was 0.05,mg/L and RSD for peak area was below 3%. The amount of XN in different samples of hop pellets varied from 0.14 to 0.42%. [source]

    Systematic and morphological studies of the genus Chaetopleurophora Schmitz (Diptera: Phoridae) occurring in Japan

    Hiroto NAKAYAMA
    Abstract Japanese species of the genus Chaetopleurophora are reviewed. All belong to the C. erythronota group. The following three species from Japan are described: C. rhomboidea sp. nov., C. pygidialis Schmitz and C. dividua sp. nov. The male and female genitalia are studied and further examples of unique characters of the genus including asymmetric features are added. The male aedeagus of the genus is illustrated for the first time. The aedeagus of the species treated in this study consists of only two components, the inner core plate and the outer jacket plate. The jacket plate wraps sinistrally around the core plate. The combination of the core plate and the jacket plate forms complex, asymmetric features of the aedeagus in the Phoridae. The structure around the genital opening in the female genitalia protrudes posteriorly under the segment IX + X, and shows asymmetric features in C. rhomboidea sp. nov. with a bilaterally different degree of sclerotization, shifted genital opening to the right side and a membranous ribbon just on the left side. In addition, C. dividua sp. nov. is different from most of the species in the C. erythronota group, and very closely related to C. multiseriata (known in North America) in the male and female genitalia, wing venation and bristle formation on the scutellum. It is suggested that C. dividua sp. nov. forms a monophyletic group with C. multiseriata and the related species. [source]

    Alteration of normal cellular profiles in the scleractinian coral (Pocillopora damicornis) following laboratory exposure to fuel oil

    Luc Rougée
    Abstract Petroleum contamination from oil spills is a continuing threat to our ocean's fragile ecosystems. Herein, we explored the effects of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on a stony coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linneaeus 1758). We developed methods for exposing corals to various concentrations of crude oil and for assessing the potential molecular responses of the corals. Corals were exposed to water-accommodated fraction solutions, and appropriate cellular biomarkers were quantified. When compared to the "healthy" control specimens, exposed corals exhibited shifts in biomarker concentrations that were indicative of a shift from homeostasis. Significant changes were seen in cytochrome P450 1-class, cytochrome P450 2-class, glutathione- S -transferase-pi, and cnidarian multixenobiotic resistance protein-1 biomarkers, which are involved the cellular response to, and manipulation and excretion of, toxic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A shift in biomarkers necessary for porphyrin production (e.g., protoporphyrinogen oxidase IX and ferrochelatase) and porphyrin destruction (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 and invertebrate neuroglobin homologue) illustrates only one of the cellular protective mechanisms. The response to oxidative stress was evaluated through measurements of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 and DNA glycosylase MutY homologue-1 concentrations. Likewise, changes in heat shock protein 70 and small heat shock proteins indicated an adjustment in the cellular production of proteins. Finally, the results of this laboratory study were nearly identical to what we observed previously among corals of a different species, Porites lobata, exposed to an oil spill in the field after the grounding of the Merchant Vessel Kyowa Violet. [source]

    Procoagulant factors and the risk of myocardial infarction in young women

    Bea Tanis
    Abstract:,Objectives:,We investigated whether elevated levels of factor VIII, IX and XI is associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in young women. In addition, we studied ABO blood group, von Willebrand factor (VWF) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods and results:,We compared 200 women with MI before age 49 years with 626 controls from a population-based case,control study. Mean levels of factor VIII activity (VIII), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF), factor IX activity (IX) were higher in patients (133, 134 and 132 IU/dL) than in controls (111, 107 and 120 IU/dL, respectively). Mean levels of factor XI (XI) were equal in patients (114 IU/dL) and controls (113 IU/dL). The odds ratio (OR) for MI for blood group non-O vs. O was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1,2.3]. The OR adjusted for age, index year and area of residence for the highest quartile >150 IU/dL of factor VIII was 2.7 (95% CI 1.6,4.6), of VWF 4.7 (95% CI 2.3,9.7), of factor IX 2.6 (95% CI 1.3,5.4) and of factor XI 0.9 (95% CI 0.5,1.4), all compared with the lowest quartile <100 IU/dL. Conclusions:,Non-O blood group, high VWF, factor VIII and factor IX levels are associated with an increased risk of MI in young women, while high factor XI levels are not. [source]

    Changes in alternative brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcript expression in the developing human prefrontal cortex

    Jenny Wong
    Abstract In this study, we determined when and through which promoter brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcription is regulated during the protracted period of human frontal cortex development. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we examined the expression of the four most abundant alternative 5, exons of the BDNF gene (exons I, II, IV, and VI) in RNA extracted from the prefrontal cortex. We found that expression of transcripts I,IX and VI,IX was highest during infancy, whereas that of transcript II,IX was lowest just after birth, slowly increasing to reach a peak in toddlers. Transcript IV,IX was significantly upregulated within the first year of life, and was maintained at this level until school age. Quantification of BDNF protein revealed that levels followed a similar developmental pattern as transcript IV,IX. In situ hybridization of mRNA in cortical sections showed the highest expression in layers V and VI for all four BDNF transcripts, whereas moderate expression was observed in layers II and III. Interestingly, although low expression of BDNF was observed in cortical layer IV, this BDNF mRNA low-zone decreased in prominence with age and showed an increase in neuronal mRNA localization. In summary, our findings show that dynamic regulation of BDNF expression occurs through differential use of alternative promoters during the development of the human prefrontal cortex, particularly in the younger age groups, when the prefrontal cortex is more plastic. [source]

    Heterogeneity of V2-derived interneurons in the adult mouse spinal cord

    A. Al-Mosawie
    Abstract Spinal neurons and networks that generate rhythmic locomotor activity remain incompletely defined, prompting the use of molecular biological strategies to label populations of neurons in the postnatal mouse. During spinal cord development, expression of Lhx3 in the absence of Isl1 specifies a V2 interneuronal fate. In this study, postnatal V2-derived interneurons were identified by yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expression in the double-transgenic offspring of Lhx3Cre/+ × thy1-loxP-stop-loxP-YFP mice. While some motoneurons were labelled, several populations of interneurons predominantly located in lamina VII could also be distinguished. Small interneurons were located throughout the spinal cord whereas larger interneurons were concentrated in the lumbar enlargement. Some V2-derived interneurons were propriospinal, with axons that bifurcated in the lateral funiculus. V2-derived interneurons gave rise to populations of both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in approximately equal proportions, as demonstrated by in situ hybridization with VGLUT2 mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies revealed YFP+ boutons throughout the spinal cord. Both glutamatergic and glycinergic YFP+ boutons were observed in lamina IX where many apposed motoneuron somata. GABAergic YFP+ boutons were also observed in lamina IX, and they did not form P-boutons. At P0, more than half of the YFP+ interneurons expressed Chx10 and thus were derived from the V2a subclass. In adult mice, there was an increase in Fos expression in V2-derived interneurons following locomotion, indicating that these neurons are active during this behaviour. The heterogeneity of V2-derived interneurons in adult mice indicates that physiologically distinct subpopulations, including last-order interneurons, arise from these embryonically defined neurons. [source]

    Sealing ability of occlusal resin composite restoration using four restorative procedures

    Danuchit Banomyong
    The purpose of this work was to investigate fluid flow after restoration using four restorative procedures. Micro-gap, internal dye leakage, and micropermeability of bonded interfaces were also investigated. Each tooth was mounted, connected to a fluid flow-measuring device, and an occlusal cavity was prepared. Fluid flow after cavity preparation was recorded as the baseline measurement, and the cavity was restored using one of four restorative procedures: bonding with total-etch (Single Bond 2) or self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond) adhesives without lining; or lining with resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (GIC) (Fuji Lining LC) or conventional GIC (Fuji IX) and then bonding with the total-etch adhesive. Fluid flow was recorded after restoration and at specific time-points up to 6 months thereafter and recorded as a percentage. Micro-gap formation was analyzed using resin replicas and scanning electron microscopy. Internal leakage of 2% methylene blue dye was observed under a light microscope. In micro-permeability testing, fluorescent-dye penetration was investigated using confocal laser microscopy. None of the restorative procedures provided a perfectly sealed restoration. Glass-ionomer lining did not reduce fluid flow after restoration, and micro-gaps were frequently detected. The self-etch adhesive failed to provide a better seal than the total-etch adhesive, and even initial gap formation was rarely observed for the former. Penetration of methylene blue and fluorescent dyes was detected in most restorations. [source]

    Crack closure on rehydration of glass-ionomer materials

    Sharanbir K. Sidhu
    Moisture-sensitivity of immature glass-ionomer cements suggests that hydration-induced volumetric expansion might close and potentially heal established cracks. Crack closure in glass-ionomer cements (GICs) was observed following rehydration. Circular cavities were prepared in 15 teeth: 10 were restored with resin-modified GICs (5 with Fuji II LC and 5 with Photac-Fil) and 5 were restored with a conventional GIC (Fuji IX); all were dehydrated for 1 min with air and imaged immediately by confocal microscopy. Crack formation in each was located, after which water was placed on the surface and observed for 15 min via a CCD camera. Dehydration caused cracks with measurable gaps, while rehydration resulted in varying degrees of closure: closure was limited in the conventional GIC, and complete or near complete along part/s of the crack in the resin-modified GICs. In all, closure movement became imperceptible after the first 10 min. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference between the closure behavior of all materials. However, the resin-modified GICs appeared to show a greater potential for closure of established cracks than the conventional GIC upon rehydration. [source]

    Fluorescence induction of protoporphyrin IX by a new 5-aminolevulinic acid nanoemulsion used for photodynamic therapy in a full-thickness ex vivo skin model

    Tim Maisch
    Please cite this paper as: Fluorescence induction of protoporphyrin IX by a new 5-aminolevulinic acid nanoemulsion used for photodynamic therapy in a full-thickness ex vivo skin model. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e302,e305. Abstract:, An ex vivo porcine skin model was utilized to analyse the penetration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) contained in a nanoemulsion-based formulation BF-200 ALA (10% 5-ALA-hydrochloride) versus 16% aminolevulinate methyl ester-hydrochloride in a commercially cream (MAL cream) by fluorescence microscopy of their common metabolite protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after 3, 5, 8 and 12 h. Fluorescence signals of PpIX in pig skin treated with BF-200 ALA were stronger than those for MAL cream. At 8 and 12 h, the PpIX fluorescence signals were 4.8- and 5.0-fold higher than those measured after MAL cream application. Fluorescence signals of PpIX after application of BF-200 ALA were detected in deeper tissue layers of the epidermis than after application of MAL cream (97.2 ± 5.7 ,m for BF-200 ALA vs 42.0 ± 4.2 ,m for MAL cream). These data implicate that BF-200 ALA in photodynamic therapy might lead to a superior therapeutically effect of intraepidermal (in situ) squamous cell carcinomas. [source]

    A comparison of 5-aminolaevulinic acid- and its heptyl ester: dark cytotoxicity and protoporphyrin IX synthesis in human adenocarcinoma WiDr cells and in athymic nude mice healthy skin

    Xiao Pudroma
    Abstract:, 5-aminolevulinic acid heptyl ester was investigated in human adenocarcinoma WiDr cells and in healthy skin of athymic nude mice in comparison with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Incubation of WiDr cells with ALA and ALA heptyl ester resulted in production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Concentrations higher than 0.01 mm of ALA heptyl ester and higher than 1 mm of ALA were cytotoxic. The dark cytotoxicity was not related to PpIX. Intracellular localization, photocytoxicity and photobleaching rate of PpIX were the same for both drugs, although a 100 times lower concentration of ALA heptyl ester (0.01 mm) was needed in comparison with ALA (1 mm) to induce the same level of PpIX. ALA heptyl ester, topically (but not systemically) applied, is a promising candidate for fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy. Special attention must be focused on the concentrations of ALA heptyl ester; as excess may lead to cytotoxicity and inefficient PpIX generation. [source]

    In vivo production of catalase containing haem analogues

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 12 2010
    Myriam Brugna
    Haem (protohaem IX) analogues are toxic compounds and have been considered for use as antibacterial agents, but the primary mechanism behind their toxicity has not been demonstrated. Using the haem protein catalase in the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis as an experimental system, we show that a variety of haem analogues can be taken up by bacterial cells and incorporated into haem-dependent enzymes. The resulting cofactor-substituted proteins are dysfunctional, generally resulting in arrested cell growth or death. This largely explains the cell toxicity of haem analogues. In contrast to many other organisms, E. faecalis does not depend on haem for growth, and therefore resists the toxicity of many haem analogues. We have exploited this feature to establish a bacterial in vivo system for the production of cofactor-substituted haem protein variants. As a pilot study, we produced, isolated and analysed novel catalase variants in which the iron atom of the haem prosthetic group is replaced by other metals, i.e. cobalt, gallium, tin, and zinc, and also variants containing meso-protoheme IX, ruthenium meso-protoporphyrin IX and (metal-free) protoporphyrin IX. Engineered haem proteins of this type are of potential use within basic research and the biotechnical industry. Structured digital abstract ,,MINT-7722358, MINT-7722368: katA (uniprotkb:Q834P5) and katA (uniprotkb:Q834P5) physically interact (MI:0915) by copurification (MI:0025) [source]

    Homologous expression of a bacterial phytochrome

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 8 2007
    The cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon incorporates biliverdin as a genuine, functional chromophore
    Bacteriophytochromes constitute a light-sensing subgroup of sensory kinases with a chromophore-binding motif in the N-terminal half and a C-terminally located histidine kinase activity. The cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon (also designated Calothrix sp.) expresses two sequentially very similar bacteriophytochromes, cyanobacterial phytochrome A (CphA) and cyanobacterial phytochrome B (CphB). Cyanobacterial phytochrome A has the canonical cysteine residue, by which covalent chromophore attachment is accomplished in the same manner as in plant phytochromes; however, its paralog cyanobacterial phytochrome B carries a leucine residue at that position. On the basis of in vitro experiments that showed, for both cyanobacterial phytochrome A and cyanobacterial phytochrome B, light-induced autophosphorylation and phosphate transfer to their cognate response regulator proteins RcpA and RcpB [Hübschmann T, Jorissen HJMM, Börner T, Gärtner W & deMarsac NT (2001) Eur J Biochem268, 3383,3389], we aimed at the identification of a chromophore that is incorporated in vivo into cyanobacterial phytochrome B within the cyanobacterial cell. The approach was based on the introduction of a copy of cphB into the cyanobacterium via triparental conjugation. The His-tagged purified, recombinant protein (CphBcy) showed photoreversible absorption bands similar to those of plant and bacterial phytochromes, but with remarkably red-shifted maxima [,max 700 and 748 nm, red-absorbing (Pr) and far red-absorbing (Pfr) forms of phytochrome, respectively]. A comparison of the absorption maxima with those of the heterologously generated apoprotein, assembled with phycocyanobilin (,max 686 and 734 nm) or with biliverdin IX, (,max 700 and 750 ± 2 nm), shows biliverdin IX, to be a genuine chromophore. The kinase activity of CphBcy and phosphotransfer to its cognate response regulator was found to be strictly Pr -dependent. As an N-terminally located cysteine was found as an alternative covalent binding site for several bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors that bind biliverdin and lack the canonical cysteine residue (e.g. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Deinococcus radiodurans), this corresponding residue in heterologously expressed cyanobacterial phytochrome B was mutated into a serine (C24S); however, there was no change in its spectral properties. On the other hand, the mutation of His267, which is located directly after the canonical cysteine, into alanine (H267A), caused complete loss of the capability of cyanobacterial phytochrome B to form a chromoprotein. [source]

    Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the bacterial phytochrome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 8 2005
    Ronja Tasler
    Phytochromes are photochromic biliproteins found in plants as well as in some cyanotrophic, photoautotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. In many bacteria, their function is largely unknown. Here we describe the biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of recombinant bacterial phytochrome from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaBphP). The recombinant protein displays all the characteristic features of a bonafide phytochrome. In contrast with cyanobacteria and plants, the chromophore of this bacterial phytochrome is biliverdin IX,, which is produced by the heme oxygenase BphO in P. aeruginosa. This chromophore was shown to be covalently attached via its A-ring endo-vinyl group to a cysteine residue outside the defined bilin lyase domain of plant and cyanobacterial phytochromes. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Cys12 and His247 as being important for chromophore binding and photoreversibility, respectively. PaBphP is synthesized in the dark in the red-light-absorbing Pr form and immediately converted into a far-red-light-absorbing Pfr-enriched form. It shows the characteristic red/far-red-light-induced photoreversibility of phytochromes. A chromophore analog that lacks the C15/16 double bond was used to show that this photoreversibility is due to a 15Z/15E isomerization of the biliverdin chromophore. Autophosphorylation of PaBphP was demonstrated, confirming its role as a sensor kinase of a bacterial two-component signaling system. [source]

    Conserved cytoplasmic motifs that distinguish sub-groups of the polyprenol phosphate:N -acetylhexosamine-1-phosphate transferase family

    Matt S. Anderson
    Abstract WecA, MraY and WbcO are conserved members of the polyprenol phosphate:N -acetylhexosamine-1-phosphate transferase family involved in the assembly of bacterial cell walls, and catalyze reactions involving a membrane-associated polyprenol phosphate acceptor substrate and a cytoplasmically located UDP- D -amino sugar donor. MraY, WbcO and WecA purportedly utilize different UDP-sugars, although the molecular basis of this specificity is largely unknown. However, domain variations involved in specificity are predicted to occur on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, adjacent to conserved domains involved in the mechanistic activity, and with access to the cytoplasmically located sugar nucleotides. Conserved C-terminal domains have been identified that satisfy these criteria. Topological analyses indicate that they form the highly basic, fifth cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane regions IX and X. Four diverse loops are apparent, for MraY, WecA, WbcO and RgpG, that uniquely characterize these sub-groups of the transferase family, and a correlation is evident with the known or implied UDP-sugar specificity. [source]

    Variability and divergence in Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre germplasm , a candidate tree for biodiesel

    GCB BIOENERGY, Issue 6 2009
    N. SUNIL
    Abstract Three explorations were undertaken in South East Coastal zone of India covering parts of Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Orissa states to collect Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre germplasm during March,June 2007. A total of 123 accessions were collected and seed data recorded were analyzed for morphometric traits viz., seed length, seed width, seed thickness, 100-seed weight and oil content. Variation in the collected germplasm was analyzed using anova, simple measures of variation and D2 statistics. Significant genetic variability between seed traits and oil content and association among the seed traits was recorded. Phenotypic variance was higher than genotypic variance for all the characters indicating dominant role of environment. High heritability (broad sense) for 100-seed weight (97.6%) and oil content (86.7%) indicated the reliability of these characters as selection criteria for plus trees. Genetic gain was maximum for 100-seed weight (62.6%) followed by oil content (30.5%). D2 analysis grouped the accessions into 12 clusters. Cluster XII and cluster IX were the most diverse based on the intercluster distance. Based on the observed diversity, Chittoor, Srikakulam and Adilabad districts of AP are most suitable for collecting diverse germplasm lines and also for in situ conservation. [source]

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: The Geopolitics of Climate Change

    Jon Barnett
    Author's Introduction Climate change is a security problem in as much as the kinds of environmental changes that may result pose risks to peace and development. However, responsibilities for the causes of climate change, vulnerability to its effects, and capacity to solve the problem, are not equally distributed between countries, classes and cultures. There is no uniformity in the geopolitics of climate change, and this impedes solutions. Author Recommends 1.,Adger, W. N., et al. (eds) (2006). Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. A comprehensive collection of articles on the justice dimensions of adaptation to climate change. Chapters discuss potential points at which climate change becomes ,dangerous', the issue of adaptation under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the unequal outcomes of adaptation within a society, the effects of violent conflict on adaptation, the costs of adaptation, and examples from Bangladesh, Tanzania, Botswana, and Hungary. 2.,Leichenko, R., and O'Brien, K. (2008). Environmental change and globalization: double exposures. New York: Oxford University Press. This book uses examples from around the world to show the way global economic and political processes interact with environmental changes to create unequal outcomes within and across societies. A very clear demonstration of the way vulnerability to environmental change is as much driven by social processes as environmental ones, and how solutions lie within the realm of decisions about ,development' and ,environment'. 3.,Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.06.003 An up-to-date, systematic and balanced review of research on the links between climate change and violent conflict. See also the other papers in this special issue of Political Geography. 4.,Parry, M., et al. (eds) (2007). Climate change 2007: impacts adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. The definitive review of all the peer-reviewed research on the way climate change may impact on places and sectors across the world. Includes chapters on ecosystems, health, human settlements, primary industries, water resources, and the major regions of the world. All chapters are available online at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg2.htm 5.,Salehyan, I. (2008). From climate change to conflict? No consensus yet. Journal of Peace Research 45 (3), pp. 315,326. doi:10.1177/0022343308088812 A balanced review of research on the links between climate change and conflict, with attention to existing evidence. 6.,Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. Gives insight into how the US security policy community is framing the problem of climate change. This needs to be read critically. Available at http://www.gbn.com/ArticleDisplayServlet.srv?aid=26231 7.,German Advisory Council on Global Change. (2007). World in transition: climate change as a security risk. Berlin, Germany: WBGU. A major report from the German Advisory Council on Global Change on the risks climate changes poses to peace and stability. Needs to be read with caution. Summary and background studies are available online at http://www.wbgu.de/wbgu_jg2007_engl.html 8.,Yamin, F., and Depedge, J. (2004). The International climate change regime: a guide to rules, institutions and procedures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. A clear and very detailed explanation of the UNFCCC's objectives, actors, history, and challenges. A must read for anyone seeking to understand the UNFCCC process, written by two scholars with practical experience in negotiations. Online Materials 1.,Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars http://www.wilsoncenter.org/ecsp The major website for information about environmental security. From here, you can download many reports and studies, including the Environmental Change and Security Project Report. 2.,Global Environmental Change and Human Security Project http://www.gechs.org This website is a clearing house for work and events on environmental change and human security. 3.,Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) http://www.ipcc.ch/ From this website, you can download all the chapters of all the IPCC's reports, including its comprehensive and highly influential assessment reports, the most recent of which was published in 2007. The IPCC were awarded of the Nobel Peace Prize ,for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made (sic) climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change'. 4.,Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research http://www.tyndall.ac.uk The website of a major centre for research on climate change, and probably the world's leading centre for social science based analysis of climate change. From this site, you can download many publications about mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, and about various issues in the UNFCCC. 5.,United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change http://unfccc.int/ The website contains every major document relation to the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, including the text of the agreements, national communications, country submissions, negotiated outcomes, and background documents about most key issues. Sample Syllabus: The Geopolitics of Climate Change topics for lecture and discussion Week I: Introduction Barnett, J. (2007). The geopolitics of climate change. Geography Compass 1 (6), pp. 1361,1375. United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, address to the 12th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Nairobi, 15 November 2006. Available online at http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=495&ArticleID=5424&l=en Week II: The History and Geography of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Topic: The drivers of climate change in space and time Reading Baer, P. (2006). Adaptation: who pays whom? In: Adger, N., et al. (eds) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 131,154. Boyden, S., and Dovers, S. (1992). Natural-resource consumption and its environmental impacts in the Western World: impacts of increasing per capita consumption. Ambio 21 (1), pp. 63,69. Week III: The Environmental Consequences of climate change Topic: The risks climate change poses to environmental systems Reading Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate change 2007: climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: summary for policymakers. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC Secretariat. Watch: Al Gore. The Inconvenient Truth. Weeks IV and V: The Social Consequences of Climate Change Topic: The risks climate change poses to social systems Reading Adger, W. N. (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Development 27, pp. 249,269. Comrie, A. (2007). Climate change and human health. Geography Compass 1 (3), pp. 325,339. Leary, N., et al. (2006). For whom the bell tolls: vulnerability in a changing climate. A Synthesis from the AIACC project, AIACC Working Paper No. 21, International START Secretariat, Florida. Stern, N. (2007). Economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Chapters 3,5). Week VI: Mitigation of Climate Change: The UNFCCC Topic: The UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol Reading Najam, A., Huq, S., and Sokona, Y. (2003). Climate negotiations beyond Kyoto: developing countries concerns and interests. Climate Policy 3 (3), pp. 221,231. UNFCCC Secretariat. (2005). Caring for climate: a guide to the climate change convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Bonn, Germany: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat. Weeks VII and VIII: Adaptation to Climate Change Topic: What can be done to allow societies to adapt to avoid climate impacts? Reading Adger, N., et al. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry, M., et al. (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 717,744. Burton, I., et al. (2002). From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy. Climate Policy 2 (2,3), pp. 145,159. Eakin, H., and Lemos, M. C. (2006). Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity-building under globalization. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions 16 (1), pp. 7,18. Ziervogel, G., Bharwani, S., and Downing, T. (2006). Adapting to climate variability: pumpkins, people and policy. Natural Resources Forum 30, pp. 294,305. Weeks IX and X: Climate Change and Migration Topic: Will climate change force migration? Readings Gaim, K. (1997). Environmental causes and impact of refugee movements: a critique of the current debate. Disasters 21 (1), pp. 20,38. McLeman, R., and Smit, B. (2006). Migration as adaptation to climate change. Climatic Change 76 (1), pp. 31,53. Myers, N. (2002). Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 357 (1420), pp. 609,613. Perch-Nielsen, S., Bättig, M., and Imboden, D. (2008). Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Climatic Change (online first, forthcoming); doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9416-y Weeks XI and XII: Climate Change and Violent Conflict Topic: Will Climate change cause violent conflict? Readings Barnett, J., and Adger, N. (2007). Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 639,655. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. (2007). The age of consequences: the foreign policy and national security implications of global climate change. Washington, DC: CSIS. Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. [online]. Retrieved on 8 April 2007 from http://www.gbn.com/ArticleDisplayServlet.srv?aid=26231 Focus Questions 1Who is most responsible for climate change? 2Who is most vulnerable to climate change? 3Does everyone have equal power in the UNFCCC process? 4Will climate change force people to migrate? Who? 5What is the relationship between adaptation to climate change and violent conflict? [source]

    Analysis of the 2002 May earthquake sequence in the central Pyrenees, consequences for the evaluation of the seismic risk at Lourdes, France

    Noalwenn Dubos
    SUMMARY Three earthquakes of magnitudes 4.6, 4.3 and 3.7 occurred in 2002 May at two locations 20 km from the pilgrimage city of Lourdes in the French Pyrenees. They were well recorded by the permanent Pyrenean seismic networks, by a temporary local network, as well as by accelerometric stations. In order to understand their tectonic contexts, and to come to a better evaluation of the seismic risk at Lourdes, a detailed analysis of these events is performed. The first two events are located south of Lourdes in an area where only a few earthquakes have occurred up to now. Their focal solutions derived from first-motion polarities indicate reverse faulting, with a N110°E strike consistent with the geological structures. 10 aftershocks were recorded and relocated with respect to the main events, benefiting from the waveform similarity of the various events. This analysis reveals that the two main events concern probably the same fault, the second rupture being in the prolongation of the first one, whereas the other small aftershocks are located on fault segments in the vicinity of the hypocentre of the second event. The third large event, located to the SE of Lourdes, involves a normal mechanism with a N120°E plane parallel to the main geological structures. It occurred in a region of intense activity, including in particular an event of maximum macroseismic intensity IX in 1660. The first two events are at the boundary of a large quiet zone. In order to understand the related structural context, a new crustal tomographic model has been computed. It reveals that this quiet zone coincides with a block of high P -velocity. In contrast, the seismicity appears to be stronger at the northern and eastern boundaries of this block. The accelerometric data of the three main events recorded at Lourdes have been used to estimate the maximum peak ground accelerations in this city if a large event occurred, similar to those which damaged the city in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Horizontal accelerations of 0.25 ± 0.07 g are predicted in the frequency domain 1,5 Hz at the location of the Sanctuary for a magnitude 6 event occurring 10 km away from the city. Taking into account the error bars, these values could in some cases exceed those specified by the building codes in this region. [source]

    Grifols' factor IX concentrates: new findings in biochemical characteristics and safety profiles

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Pregnancy and rare bleeding disorders

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2009
    R. KADIR
    Summary., Rare bleeding disorders include deficiency of fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V, factor VII, factor X, factor XI and factor XIII together with combined deficiency disorders, factor V+VIII deficiency, and deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent factors (factor II, VII, IX and X). They account for 3,5% of all inherited coagulation disorders. Due to their rarity, information about pregnancy complications and management is limited and mostly derived from case reports. Deficiency of fibrinogen and FXIII are both found to be strongly associated with increased risk of recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption. Factor replacement is used to reduce these risks. However, the risk of miscarriage and ante-partum complications is less clear in women with other bleeding disorders. Haemostatic abnormalities in women with rare bleeding disorders seem to persist throughout pregnancy especially if the defect is severe. Therefore women affected with these disorders are at risk of post-partum haemorrhage. The fetus can also be affected and potentially at risk of bleeding complications. Specialised multidisciplinary management is essential to minimise the potential maternal and neonatal complications and ensure an optimal outcome. This paper presents literature review for pregnancy complications in each of the rare bleeding disorders. In addition general principles for management of pregnancy, labour and delivery are discussed. [source]

    Recovery of recombinant factor IX determined in clinical practice

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 3 2009
    First page of article [source]

    Successful angiographic embolization of recurrent elbow and knee joint bleeds in seven patients with severe haemophilia

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2009
    Summary., In haemophilic joints with high-grade arthropathy, bleeds occur that do not respond to replacement therapy of the deficient coagulation factor. The reason may be pathologically reactive angiogenesis in chronic synovitis. Seven patients with severe haemophilia A or haemophilia B experienced recurrent massive bleeds of one elbow joint or knee joint in the absence of trauma. After initial application of factor VIII or IX (fVIII/fIX; 50 IU kg,1 bodyweight), there was only slow and never complete relief of symptoms. Despite intensive secondary prophylaxis maintaining the plasma level of factor concentrate at minimum 50%, new massive bleeds at the same location occurred. Vascular bleeding was suspected. Angiography of the arteries was performed via the femoral artery. Vessels identified as potential bleeding sources were embolized with embolization fluid (ONYX) in eight joints (six elbow and two knee joints). Under low-dose prophylactic treatment (15 IU fVIII or fIX per kg bodyweight for three times per week), no recurrent severe bleed unresponsive to coagulation factor replacement occurred after a mean observation time of 16 months after embolization. The consumption of factor concentrate decreased to one-third of the amount consumed before embolization. In conclusion, angiographic embolization with a non-adhesive liquid embolic agent might be considered as a promising therapeutic and coagulation factor saving option in joint bleeds not responding to replacement of coagulation factor to normal levels. [source]

    Influence of source of phospholipids for APTT-based factor IX assays and potential consequences for the diagnosis of mild haemophilia B

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2009
    First page of article [source]

    Safety update on the use of recombinant factor VIIa and the treatment of congenital and acquired deficiency of factor VIII or IX with inhibitors

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2008
    Summary., Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®) has been licensed for treatment of haemophilia with inhibitors in Europe since 1996 and in North America since 1999. Overall, approximately 1.5 million doses have since been administered. Safety data from licensure to April 2003 revealed 25 thromboembolic (TE) adverse events (AE) from over 700 000 doses given, a remarkably low incidence of TE events. Recent reports have cited a higher prevalence of TE events with rFVIIa use, especially when used off-label. This report reviews the TE and fatal events with use of rFVIIa for congenital and acquired haemophilia A or B from May 2003 to December 2006. Approximately 800 000 standard doses of rFVIIa have been administered during this time frame. All clinical trials, spontaneous and solicited reports, as well as a detailed literature review, were included in the data analysis. There were a total of 30 TE events and 6 TE-associated fatal events. Spontaneous reports captured 14/71 (20%) TE/AE and 2/34 TE-associated/total fatal events. From solicited reports, 5/40 (12.5%) were associated with a TE and 1/32 TE-associated fatal events. Literature review revealed 11/19 (58%) TE events and 3/6 TE-associated fatal events. Despite the use of high-dose rFVIIa (270 ,g kg,1) in some clinical trials and registries, rFVIIa appears safe, when used for congenital and acquired haemophilia. The prevalence of TE associated with rFVIIa use is less than 4/100 000 and a TE-associated fatal event is also extremely rare. However, use of rFVIIa for off-label indications should continue to be monitored closely via clinical trials and carefully designed registries. [source]

    Influence of factor IX on overall plasma coagulability and fibrinolytic potential as measured by global assay: monitoring in haemophilia B

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2008
    Summary., We sought to determine the influence of factor IX (FIX) deficiency upon overall coagulative and fibrinolytic capacities in plasma using the clot formation and lysis (CloFAL) assay, and to investigate the role of this global assay as an adjunctive monitoring tool in haemophilia B. CloFAL assay parameters were measured in vitro in platelet-poor plasma in relation to FIX activity and antigen (FIX:Ag), and were determined ex vivo among FIX-deficient patients (n = 41) in comparison to healthy individuals (n = 48). Supplementation of FIX-deficient plasma with FIX in vitro demonstrated a non-linear concentration dependence of FIX upon overall plasma coagulability. Ex vivo, coagulability was significantly decreased in FIX-deficient vs. healthy subjects among adults [median coagulation index (CI): 4% vs. 104% respectively; P < 0.001] and children (median CI: 9% vs. 63%; P < 0.001). Fibrinolytic capacity was increased in adult FIX-deficient vs. healthy subjects (median fibrinolytic index: 216% vs. 125%, respectively, P < 0.001), and was supported by a trend in shortened euglobulin lysis time (ELT). Severe haemophilia B patients showed heterogeneity in aberrant CloFAL assay waveforms, influenced partly by FIX:Ag levels. Patients with relatively preserved FIX:Ag (i.e. dysfunctional FIX) exhibited a shorter time to maximal amplitude in clot formation than those with type I deficiency. During patient treatment monitoring, markedly hypocoagulable CloFAL assay waveforms normalized following 100% correction with infused FIX. The CloFAL global assay detects FIX deficiency, demonstrates differences in coagulability between dysfunctional FIX and type I deficiency, and appears useful as an adjunctive test to routine FIX measurement in monitoring haemophilia B treatment. [source]