IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma (iv + squamous_cell_carcinoma)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Poor radiotherapy compliance predicts persistent regional disease in advanced head/neck cancer,

Urjeet A. Patel MD
Abstract Objective: To determine if poor compliance to chemoradiation results in an increased rate of persistent neck disease. Study Design: Retrospective, cohort study in an urban, tertiary-care medical center. Methods: The study included patients with N+ stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with curative-intent chemoradiation, who underwent subsequent planned neck dissection. Main outcome measure was persistent regional disease evidenced by identifiable carcinoma in neck dissection specimens. Variables including age, gender, race, primary site, initial T, N staging, imaging results, and treatment compliance were assessed and correlated to positive neck dissection pathology. Results: Of 40 patients, 18 (45%) had persistent carcinoma in neck dissection specimens while 22 (55%) demonstrated complete response in the neck. There were 14 patients (35%) who were poorly compliant to radiotherapy (,14 days treatment interruption) and the remaining 26 patients (65%) were considered compliant (<14 missed days). Only 23% of compliant patients had positive pathology while 79% of noncompliant patients had positive pathology (hazard ratio: 9.9). Noncompliance was the only variable that had a statistically significant correlation to positive pathology results (P = .002). Multivariate logistic regression showed all other variables to be insignificant in predicting pathology. Conclusions: This study found that poorly compliant patients are at significantly higher risk of persistent neck disease. Poor compliance may help identify patients who will most benefit from neck dissection after chemoradiation. This variable was more predictive than pretreatment variables and posttreatment CT scan. Further studies investigating patterns of failure after chemoradiotherapy in the poorly compliant patient population are warranted. Laryngoscope, 2009 [source]

Disease control, survival, and functional outcome after multimodal treatment for advanced-stage tongue base cancer

James P. Malone MD
Abstract Background. Surgical resection and postoperative radiation for advanced-stage malignancies of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx result in a dismal overall survival of 38%. Patients with carcinoma of the tongue base frequently have advanced disease at the time of presentation, and combined-modality therapy is usually required to achieve cure. Because of the poor survival rates with advanced malignancies with standard therapy, new and innovative approaches continue to be developed in an attempt to have a greater impact on disease control, patient survival, and functional outcome after therapy. This study examines functional outcome, survival, and disease control in patients receiving an intensified treatment regimen with concomitant chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and intraoperative radiotherapy for previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue base. Methods. Forty patients with previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were treated in one of three sequential phase II intensification regimens (IRs). Treatment consisted of perioperative, hyperfractionated radiotherapy (9.1 Gy) with concurrent cisplatin followed by surgical resection with intraoperative radiotherapy boost (7.5 Gy). Postoperative treatment involved concurrent chemoradiotherapy (40 Gy to the primary site and upper neck and 45 Gy to the supraclavicular areas) with cisplatin with or without paclitaxel. Locoregional and distant disease control, 2-year overall, and disease-specific survival rates were calculated. The Performance Status Scale (PSS) for Head and Neck Cancer Patients was administered to 25 of the surviving patients. The effects of the method of surgical reconstruction, surgery involving the mandible and/or larynx, and early versus advanced T stage on PSS score were evaluated with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results. Median follow-up in months for IR1, IR2, and IR3 were 83.6, 75.2, and 26.8. The locoregional control rate was 100%, and the rate of distant metastases was 7.5% for all patients. Two-year overall and disease-specific survival rates for the entire study population were 74.7% and 93.6%, respectively. Mean PSS scores by subscales Eating in Public, Understandability of Speech, and Normalcy of Diet were 55 (range, 0,100), 73 (range, 25,100), and 49 (range, 0,100), respectively. PSS scores were significantly higher in patients with primary closure of the surgical defect, no mandibular surgery, and early T-stage lesions. Conclusions. Although functional outcome may be decreased by certain surgical interventions and advanced T stage, the high rate of locoregional and distant disease control and excellent 2-year disease-specific survival supports an aggressive treatment regimen for advanced tongue base cancer. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 561,572, 2004 [source]

An audit designed to assess the need for planned pretreatment PEG placement in patients with stage III & stage IV oral cancer

F.R. Dawson
Background:, Nutritional support is a crucial and challenging part of treatment for patients with oral cancer. The aim of this audit was to assess the need for planned pretreatment percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement in this group of patients and to assess diet consistency as a predictor of poor outcomes. Method:, This was a retrospective study of 77 consecutive patients with stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated by radical surgery and post-operative radiotherapy between January 1999 and December 2001. Information was taken from dietitians' records. Patients were divided into two groups according to survival: group 1 (40 patients) comprised nonsurvivors and group 2 (37 patients), survivors. All patients were enterally fed post-operatively. After approximately 10 days, swallowing was assessed and, if deemed competent, patients progressed to a fluid diet. Tube feeding was gradually reduced and then stopped when oral nutrition was sufficient to maintain weight. Patients progressed to soft diet as they were able. During radiotherapy, liquid diet or tube feeding was instigated as required. Results:, In group 1, 65% required tube feeding for less than 30 days (mean 17 days), 20% for 31,100 days (mean 51 days) and 15% for over 100 days (mean 231 days). The overall mean length of tube feeding was 97 days. Thirty-eight per cent of nonsurvivors developed recurrence and went on to subsequent operations necessitating further tube feeding for an average of 129 days. In group 2, 70% were tube fed for less than 30 days (mean 11 days), 14% for between 31,100 days (mean 43 days), and 17% for more than 100 days. The overall mean length of tube feeding was 72 days. The dietary consistency of nonsurvivors was worse than survivors throughout treatment. At first presentation, only 37% of nonsurvivors managed a normal diet, 8% managed a near normal diet and 3% required tube feeding, whereas 48% of survivors managed a normal diet and 16% a near normal diet. At 1 year, there was a significant difference between the two groups' diets. No patients in group 1 managed a normal or near normal diet, whilst 62% required tube feeding. In group 2, 12 and 32% managed a normal and near normal diet, respectively and only 9% required or wished to remain on tube feeding to supplement their diet. Five per cent of patients in this group remained nil by mouth due to fistula. Conclusion:, Deciding whether a patient has a naso-gastric tube, PEG or radiologically inserted gastrostomy tube placed can be a difficult decision. However, a gastrostomy should be considered prior to treatment in patients whose diet is of poor consistency at presentation or who have an inadequate oral intake to maintain or increase weight and in those with a fistula, expected slow recovery of swallowing function, for example, pharyngeal tumour or undergoing brachytherapy or chemoradiotherapy. [source]

Effect of Radiation Techniques in Treatment of Oropharynx Cancer

Kyle E. Rusthoven MD
Abstract Objectives: To compare the toxicity and outcomes of three radiotherapy techniques,three-dimensional conformal (3D-RT), accelerated fractionation with concomitant boost (AFxCB), and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT),in the combined modality treatment of stage III,IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. Study Design: Retrospective review. Methods: Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 87 patients were treated; 23 were treated with 3D-RT, 32 with AFxCB, and 32 with IMRT. Systemic therapy consisted of platinum-based chemotherapy in 81 and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR)-targeted therapy in 6 cases. Median radiotherapy doses were 70Gy with 3D-RT, 72Gy with AFxCB, and 69.3Gy with IMRT. Locoregional control, survival outcomes, and feeding tube (PEG) dependence were compared using log-rank method. The incidence of acute mucositis and skin reaction, and grade ,2 xerostomia at 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy was compared using Fisher's exact test. Results: Median follow-up was 24 months (range 3 to 103 months) for living patients. Two-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and locoregional control (LRC) were 77.3%, 69.5%, and 86.4%, respectively. There was a trend toward improvement in LRC in patients treated with IMRT. Acute grade ,3 skin and mucosal toxicity were significantly lower with IMRT compared to AFxCB (P < .001). Grade ,2 xerostomia was significantly reduced with IMRT compared to AFxCB and 3D-RT (P < .001). There was no difference in the actuarial rate of PEG dependence (P = .96). Conclusions: Compared to AFxCB and 3D-RT, IMRT confers an improvement in toxicity and appears to have similar efficacy in patients with SCC of the oropharynx. [source]