IV Secretion System (iv + secretion_system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of IV Secretion System

  • type iv secretion system

  • Selected Abstracts

    Helicobacter pylori activates protein kinase C delta to control Raf in MAP kinase signalling: Role in AGS epithelial cell scattering and elongation

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2009
    Sabine Brandt
    Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a major etiological agent in the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma in humans. Virulent H. pylori strains harbor a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. This T4SS injects the CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells leading to actin-cytoskeletal rearrangements followed by cell elongation and scattering. Here we report that PMA (4,-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate), a well-known cell-permeable activator of protein kinase C (PKC), induces a remarkably similar cellular phenotype as compared to infection with H. pylori. PKCs comprise a large family of serine/threonine kinases which are important for multiple physiological processes of host cells. We therefore investigated the role of individual PKC members and the signalling pathways involved in phenotypical outcome. Using isoform-specific silencing RNAs and pharmacological inhibitors we found that two isoforms, PKC-, and PKC-,, were essential for both PMA- and H. pylori -induced elongation phenotype. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PKC-, activity is profoundly stimulated during the course of infection using activation-specific antibodies against PKC phosphorylated at threonine residue 505 or serine residue 660. Infection with H. pylori wild-type and mutants showed that at least two bacterial factors activate PKC-, in a time-dependent manner, one of which is CagA. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies further demonstrated that phosphorylated PKC-, is accumulated and recruited to dynamic actin-structures at the cell membrane. Finally, we show that PKC-, specifically targets Raf kinase to stimulate the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, which is also crucial for phenotypical outcome. Thus, PKC-, is another important mediator of H. pylori -induced pathogenesis. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Conjugative DNA metabolism in Gram-negative bacteria

    Fernando De La Cruz
    Abstract Bacterial conjugation in Gram-negative bacteria is triggered by a signal that connects the relaxosome to the coupling protein (T4CP) and transferosome, a type IV secretion system. The relaxosome, a nucleoprotein complex formed at the origin of transfer (oriT), consists of a relaxase, directed to the nic site by auxiliary DNA-binding proteins. The nic site undergoes cleavage and religation during vegetative growth, but this is converted to a cleavage and unwinding reaction when a competent mating pair has formed. Here, we review the biochemistry of relaxosomes and ponder some of the remaining questions about the nature of the signal that begins the process. [source]

    Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2006
    Masanori Hatakeyama
    Abstract Much interest has been shown in the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis. It is becoming clearer that H. pylori strains carrying a functional cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), which encodes the type IV secretion system (TFSS) and its effector CagA, play an important role in the development of gastric carcinoma. Furthermore, genetic polymorphism present in the cagA gene appears to influence the degree of an individual cagPAI-positive H. pylori to elicit gastric mucosal lesions, and this process is significantly affected by host genetic polymorphisms such as proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms. Pathomechanism of gastric carcinogenesis associated with H. pylori includes bacteria,host interaction leading to morphologic alterations such as atrophic gastritis and gastrointestinal metaplasia mediated by COX-2 overexpression, cancer cell invasion, and neo-angiogenesis via TLR2/TLR9 system and transcription factors (e.g., NF-,B) activation. In addition, H. pylori infection triggers adhesion molecule expression and activity and produces an enhancement in oxidative stress interacting with gastric production of appetite hormone ghrelin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. [source]

    Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2004
    Paul Hofman
    ABSTRACT Research in the last year has provided new insights into the function of the the cag -associated type IV secretion system and the vacuolating toxin VacA. A quite new aspect was disclosed by the finding that Helicobacter pylori in Mongolian gerbils colonizes a very distinct topology in the gastric mucous layer, obviously providing optimal conditions for long-term survival. Further research activities focused on H. pylori ammonia and metal metabolism as well as on bacterial stress defence mechanisms. Differential expression of approximately 7% of the bacterial genome was found at low pH suggesting that H. pylori has evolved a multitude of acid-adaptive mechanisms. VacA was shown to interrupt phagosome maturation in macrophage cell lines as well as to modulate and interfere with T lymphocyte immunological functions. Gastric mucosa as well as the H. pylori -infected epithelial cell line AGS strongly express IL-8 receptor A and B, which might contribute to the augmentation of the inflammatory response. Accumulating evidence implicates genetic variation in the inflammatory response to H. pylori in the etiology of the increased risk of gastric cancer after H. pylori infection. The chronic imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation is the first step of gastric carcinogenesis. In this regard, it was demonstrated that coexpression of two H. pylori proteins, CagA and HspB, in AGS cells, caused an increase in E2F transcription factor, cyclin D3, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein. Taken together, we now have a better understanding of the role of different virulence factors of H. pylori. There is still a lot to be learned, but the promising discoveries summarized here, demonstrate that the investigation of the bacterial survival strategies will give novel insights into pathogenesis and disease development. [source]

    VirE2, a Type IV secretion substrate, interacts with the VirD4 transfer protein at cell poles of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Krishnamohan Atmakuri
    Summary Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers oncogenic DNA and effector proteins to plant cells during the course of infection. Substrate translocation across the bacterial cell envelope is mediated by a type IV secretion (TFS) system composed of the VirB proteins, as well as VirD4, a member of a large family of inner membrane proteins implicated in the coupling of DNA transfer intermediates to the secretion machine. In this study, we demonstrate with novel cytological screens , a two-hybrid (C2H) assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) , and by immunoprecipitation of chemically cross-linked protein complexes that the VirE2 effector protein interacts directly with the VirD4 coupling protein at cell poles of A. tumefaciens. Analyses of truncation derivatives showed that VirE2 interacts via its C terminus with VirD4, and, further, an NH2 -terminal membrane-spanning domain of VirD4 is dispensable for complex formation. VirE2 interacts with VirD4 independently of the virB -encoded transfer machine and T pilus, the putative periplasmic chaperones AcvB and VirJ, and the T-DNA transfer intermediate. Finally, VirE2 is recruited to polar-localized VirD4 as a complex with its stabilizing secretion chaperone VirE1, yet the effector,coupling protein interaction is not dependent on chaperone binding. Together, our findings establish for the first time that a protein substrate of a type IV secretion system is recruited to a member of the coupling protein superfamily. [source]

    Modulation of caspases and their non-apoptotic functions by Legionella pneumophila

    Amal O. Amer
    Summary Legionella pneumophila has become a model system to decipher the non-apoptotic functions of caspases and their role in immunity. In permissive cells, the L. pneumophila -containing vacuole evades endosomal traffic and is remodelled by the endoplasmic reticulum. Evasion of the endosomes is mediated by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Upon L. pneumophila infection of genetically restrictive cells such as wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6J murine macrophages, flagellin is sensed by the NOD-like receptor Nlrc4 leading to caspase-1 activation by the inflammasome complex. Then, caspase-7 is activated downstream of the Nlrc4 inflammasome, promoting non-apoptotic functions such as L. pneumophila -containing phagosome maturation and bacterial degradation. Interestingly, caspase-3 is activated in permissive cells during early stages of infection. However, caspase-3 activation does not lead to apoptosis until late stages of infection because it is associated with potent Dot/Icm-mediated anti-apoptotic stimuli that render the infected cells resistant to external apoptotic inducers. Therefore, the role of caspase-1 and non-apoptotic functions of executioner caspases are temporally and spatially modulated during infection by L. pneumophila, which determine permissiveness to intracellular bacterial proliferation. This review will examine the novel activation pathways of caspases by L. pneumophila and discuss their role in genetic restriction and permissiveness to infection. [source]

    Importance of EGF receptor, HER2/Neu and Erk1/2 kinase signalling for host cell elongation and scattering induced by the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein: antagonistic effects of the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA

    Nicole Tegtmeyer
    Summary Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of gastric pathologies ranging from chronic gastritis to peptic ulcers and even cancer. Virulent strains carrying both the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA are key players in disease development. The cagPAI encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) which forms a pilus for injection of the CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells. Injected CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and induces actin-cytoskeletal rearrangements involved in host cell scattering and elongation. We show here that the CagA-induced responses can be inhibited in strains expressing highly active VacA. Further investigations revealed that VacA does not interfere with known activities of phosphorylated CagA such as inactivation of Src kinase and cortactin dephosphorylation. Instead, we demonstrate that VacA exhibits inactivating activities on the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and HER2/Neu, and subsequently Erk1/2 MAP kinase which are important for cell scattering and elongation. Inactivation of vacA gene, downregulation of the VacA receptor RPTP-,, addition of EGF or expression of constitutive-active MEK1 kinase restored the capability of H. pylori to induce the latter phenotypes. These data demonstrate that VacA can downregulate CagA's effects on epithelial cells, a novel molecular mechanism showing how H. pylori can avoid excessive cellular damage. [source]

    Brucella requires a functional Type IV secretion system to elicit innate immune responses in mice

    Christelle M. Roux
    Summary The virB operon, encoding a Type IV secretion system (T4SS), is essential for intracellular survival and persistent infection by Brucella spp. To better understand the role of the T4SS in evading host defence mechanisms and establishing chronic infection, we compared transcriptional profiles of the host response to infection with wild-type and virB mutant Brucella strains. Analysis of gene expression profiles in murine splenocytes 3 days after inoculation with wild-type Brucella strains revealed an inflammatory response, with a prominent upregulation of genes induced by both type I and type II interferons. Real-time RT-PCR showed that a group of genes from these pathways were induced by day 3 post infection and declined to baseline levels by day 7. In contrast, neither of the two virB mutant strains elicited a proinflammatory gene expression profile, demonstrating that the T4SS was required to trigger this response. Infection studies using type I interferon receptor knockout mice showed that a lack of type I interferon signalling did not affect Brucella replication during the first 4 weeks of infection. Thus, induction of type I interferons does not appear to be an essential mechanism by which the T4SS promotes persistent infection by Brucella. [source]

    Lounging in a lysosome: the intracellular lifestyle of Coxiella burnetii

    Daniel E. Voth
    Summary Most intracellular parasites employ sophisticated mechanisms to direct biogenesis of a vacuolar replicative niche that circumvents default maturation through the endolysosomal cascade. However, this is not the case of the Q fever bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. This hardy, obligate intracellular pathogen has evolved to not only survive, but to thrive, in the harshest of intracellular compartments: the phagolysosome. Following internalization, the nascent Coxiella phagosome ultimately develops into a large and spacious parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that acquires lysosomal characteristics such as acidic pH, acid hydrolases and cationic peptides, defences designed to rid the host of intruders. However, transit of Coxiella to this environment is initially stalled, a process that is apparently modulated by interactions with the autophagic pathway. Coxiella actively participates in biogenesis of its PV by synthesizing proteins that mediate phagosome stalling, autophagic interactions, and development and maintenance of the mature vacuole. Among the potential mechanisms mediating these processes is deployment of a type IV secretion system to deliver effector proteins to the host cytosol. Here we summarize our current understanding of the cellular events that occur during parasitism of host cells by Coxiella. [source]

    A quorum-sensing regulator controls expression of both the type IV secretion system and the flagellar apparatus of Brucella melitensis

    Rose-May Delrue
    Summary Both a type IV secretion system and a flagellum have been described in Brucella melitensis. These two multimolecular surface appendages share several features. Their expression in bacteriological medium is growth curve dependent, both are induced intracellularly and are required for full virulence in a mouse model of infection. Here we report the identification of VjbR, a quorum sensing-related transcriptional regulator. A vjbR mutant has a downregulated expression of both virB operon and flagellar genes either during vegetative growth or during intracellular infection. In a cellular model, the vacuoles containing the vjbR mutant or a virB mutant are decorated with the same markers at similar times post infection. The vjbR mutant is also strongly attenuated in a mouse model of infection. As C12 -homoserine lactone pheromone is known to be involved in virB repression, we postulated that VjbR is mediating this effect. In agreement with this hypothesis, we observed that, as virB operon, flagellar genes are controlled by the pheromone. All together these data support a model in which VjbR acts as a major regulator of virulence factors in Brucella. [source]

    Helicobacter pylori,host cell interactions mediated by type IV secretion

    Kevin M. Bourzac
    Summary Helicobacter pylori is a human-specific gastric pathogen that colonizes over half the world's population. Infection with this bacterium is associated with a spectrum of gastric pathologies ranging from mild gastritis to peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. A strong predictor of severe disease outcome is infection with a bacterial strain harbouring the cag (cytotoxin associated gene) pathogenicity island (PAI), a 40 kb stretch of DNA that encodes homologues of several components of a type IV secretion system (TFSS). One gene within the cag PAI, cagA, has been shown to encode a substrate for the TFSS which is translocated into host cells and causes multiple changes in host cell signalling. Here we review recent advances in the characterization of type IV secretion, the activities of CagA and CagA-independent effects of the TFSS, which are contributing to our understanding of H. pylori pathogenesis. [source]

    MicroReview: Envelope stress responses and Gram-negative bacterial pathogenesis

    Tracy L. Raivio
    Summary The ,E, Cpx and Bae envelope stress responses of Escherichia coli are involved in the maintenance, adaptation and protection of the bacterial envelope in response to a variety of stressors. Recent studies indicate that the Cpx and ,E stress responses exist in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The envelope is of particular importance to these organisms because most virulence determinants reside in, or must transit through, this cellular compartment. The Cpx system has been implicated in expression of pili, type IV secretion systems and key virulence regulators, while the ,E pathway has been shown to be critical for protection from oxidative stress and intracellular survival. Homologues of the ,E, and Cpx-regulated protease DegP are essential for full virulence in numerous pathogens, and, like ,E, DegP appears to confer resistance to oxidative stress and intracellular survival capacity. Some pathogens contain multiple homologues of the Cpx-regulated, disulphide bond catalyst DsbA protein, which has been demonstrated to play roles in the expression of secreted virulence determinants, type III secretion systems and pili. This review highlights recent studies that indicate roles for the ,E, Cpx and Bae envelope stress responses in Gram-negative bacterial pathogenesis. [source]

    A bacterial conjugation machinery recruited for pathogenesis

    Anja Seubert
    Summary Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are multicomponent transporters of Gram-negative bacteria adapted to functions as diverse as DNA transfer in bacterial conjugation or the delivery of effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells in pathogenesis. The generally modest sequence conservation between T4SS may reflect their evolutionary distance and/or functional divergence. Here, we show that the establishment of intraerythrocytic parasitism by Bartonella tribocorum requires a putative T4SS, which shares an unprecedented level of sequence identity with the Trw conjugation machinery of the broad-host-range antibiotic resistance plasmid R388 (up to 80% amino acid identity for individual T4SS components). The highly conserved T4SS loci are collinear except for the presence of numerous tandem gene duplications in B. tribocorum, which mostly encode variant forms of presumed surface-exposed pilus subunits. Conservation is not only structural, but also functional: R388 mutated in either trwD or trwH encoding essential T4SS components could be trans -complemented for conjugation by the homologues of the B. tribocorum system. Conservation also includes the transcription regulatory circuit: both T4SS loci encode a highly homologous and interchangeable KorA/KorB repressor system that negatively regulates the expression of all T4SS components. This striking example of adaptive evolution reveals the capacity of T4SS to assume dedicated functions in either DNA transfer or pathogenesis over rather short evolutionary distance and implies a novel role for the conjugation systems of widespread broad-host-range plasmids in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. [source]

    Agrobacterium type IV secretion is a two-step process in which export substrates associate with the virulence protein VirJ in the periplasm

    Mario Pantoja
    Summary Type IV secretion systems are virulence determinants in many bacteria and share extensive homology with many conjugal transfer systems. Although type IV systems and their homologues have been studied widely, the mechanism by which substrates are secreted remains unclear. In Agrobacterium, we show that type IV secretion substrates that lack signal peptides form a soluble complex in the periplasm with the virulence protein VirJ. Additionally, these proteins co-precipitate with constituents of the type IV transporter: the VirB pilus and the VirD4 protein. Our findings suggest that the substrate proteins localized to the periplasm may associate with the pilus in a manner that is mediated by VirJ, and suggest a two-step process for type IV secretion in Agrobacterium. Our analyses of protein,protein interactions in a variety of mutant backgrounds indicate that substrates are probably secreted independently of one another. [source]

    Microreview: Type IV secretion systems: versatility and diversity in function

    Karin Wallden
    Summary Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are large protein complexes which traverse the cell envelope of many bacteria. They contain a channel through which proteins or protein,DNA complexes can be translocated. This translocation is driven by a number of cytoplasmic ATPases which might energize large conformational changes in the translocation complex. The family of T4SSs is very versatile, shown by the great variety of functions among family members. Some T4SSs are used by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria to translocate a wide variety of virulence factors into the host cell. Other T4SSs are utilized to mediate horizontal gene transfer, an event that greatly facilitates the adaptation to environmental changes and is the basis for the spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Here we review the recent advances in the characterization of the architecture and mechanism of substrate transfer in a few representative T4SSs with a particular focus on their diversity of structure and function. [source]

    Infection-associated type IV secretion systems of Bartonella and their diverse roles in host cell interaction

    Christoph Dehio
    Summary Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are transporters of Gram-negative bacteria that mediate interbacterial DNA transfer, and translocation of virulence factors into eukaryotic host cells. The ,-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that colonize endothelial cells and erythrocytes of their mammalian reservoir hosts, thereby causing long-lasting intraerythrocytic infections. The deadly human pathogen Bartonella bacilliformis holds an isolated position in the Bartonella phylogeny as a sole representative of an ancestral lineage. All other species evolved in a separate ,modern' lineage by radial speciation and represent highly host-adapted pathogens of limited virulence potential. Unlike B. bacilliformis, the species of the modern lineage encode at least one of the closely related T4SSs, VirB/VirD4 or Vbh. These VirB-like T4SSs represent major host adaptability factors that contributed to the remarkable evolutionary success of the modern lineage. At the molecular level, the VirB/VirD4 T4SS was shown to translocate several effector proteins into endothelial cells that subvert cellular functions critical for establishing chronic infection. A third T4SS, Trw, is present in a sub-branch of the modern lineage. Trw does not translocate any known effectors, but produces multiple variant pilus subunits critically involved in the invasion of erythrocytes. The T4SSs laterally acquired by the bartonellae have thus adopted highly diverse functions during infection, highlighting their versatility as pathogenicity factors. [source]

    Show me the substrates: modulation of host cell function by type IV secretion systems

    Hiroki Nagai
    Summary Evidence for the involvement of type IV protein secretion systems in bacterial virulence is accumulating. Many of the substrate proteins secreted by type IV systems either hijack or interfere with specific host cell pathways. These substrates can be injected directly into host cells via the type IV apparatus or are secreted by the type IV machinery in a state that allows them to gain access to cellular targets without the further assistance of the type IV system. Arguably, the protein substrates of most type IV secretion systems remain undiscovered. Here, we review the activities of known type IV substrates and discuss the putative roles of unidentified substrates. [source]