I.v. Route (i.v + route)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Percutaneous toxicokinetic and repeated cutaneous contact studies with ethylene glycol monohexyl ether

Bryan Ballantyne
Abstract Ethylene glycol monohexyl ether (EGHE; CAS no. 112-54-4) is a liquid industrial chemical with a potential for skin contact. The toxicokinetics of EGHE was investigated in Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand White rabbits by intravenous (i.v.) and 48-h occluded epicutaneous dosing. Given i.v. to male rats (2.5,25 mg kg,1) [14C]EGHE demonstrated ,rst-order kinetics. Carbon-14 was eliminated mainly in urine (68,74%) as metabolites, with no free EGHE. The plasma free EGHE concentration declined rapidly post-dosing and was not detectable by 8 h. Similar results were obtained for [14C]EGHE given i.v. to male rabbits in the dosage range 1,10 mg kg,1, except that the metabolism of EGHE was more rapid, with no free EGHE being detectable in plasma by 1 h post-dosing. After cutaneous dosing of male and female rats with 25 mg kg,1, there was rapid percutaneous absorption, with >95% of the radiochemical dose being recovered. Percutaneous bioavailability was >75%. Carbon-14 was excreted in urine (21,33%) to a lesser extent than by the i.v. route, and 14CO2 and volatiles accounted for 15,18%. Carbon-14 recovery was low from tissues and organs (0.39,0.46%), with no preferential accumulation. Extensive metabolism was indicated by the rapid decline in plasma free EGHE, with none being detectable by 48 h. Free EGHE was not present in urine, and urinary radioactivity was associated with up to seven metabolites. After cutaneous dosing of male and female rabbits (10 mg kg,1) ca. 75% of the dose was recovered, most 14C being in urine (58,60%). Urine radioactivity was associated with up to nine metabolite peaks, but no free EGHE. The toxicokinetic ,ndings indicate a signi,cant percutaneous absorption of EGHE across both rat and rabbit skin, which is rapidly and extensively metabolized, with renal excretion being the principal route of elimination of metabolites. A 9-day repeated skin contact study in the male and female New Zealand White rabbit, using a dosage range of 44,444 mg kg,1 day,1, did not show any evidence for percutaneous systemic toxicity. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Overview of total intravenous anesthesia in children

Summary Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) can be defined as a technique, in which general anesthesia is induced and maintained using purely i.v. agents. TIVA has become more popular and possible in recent times because of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic properties of propofol and the availability of short-acting synthetic opioids. Also, new concepts in PK modeling and advances in computer technology have allowed the development of sophisticated delivery systems, which make control of anesthesia given by the i.v. route as straightforward and user friendly as conventional, inhalational techniques. Monitoring of depth of anesthesia is being validated for these techniques, and in the future, measurements of expired propofol may be possible to guide administration. TIVA is being used increasingly in children. [source]

Intravenous cyclophosphamide is the drug of choice for steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome

AbstractBackground: Steroid dependency is a major problem seen after therapy for idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood. Although there is consensus about the usage of cyclophosphamide (CYC) in frequent relapsers, there is still a controversy concerning its usage in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). Methods: In the present study, nineteen children with SDNS were treated with CYC: ten via the intravenous (i.v.) route, and nine via the oral route. Remission was then maintained with prednisolone. Oral CYC therapy consisted of CYC at a dose of 2 mg/kg per day for 12 weeks. Intravenous (i.v.) CYC therapy consisted of CYC 500 mg/m2 per month (with intravenous 3500 cc/m2 per 24 h one-third saline hydration) for 6 months. Results: The cumulative dose of CYC was 168 mg/kg in the oral group and 132 mg/kg in the IV group. Daily oral CYC dose was 1.96~0.31 mg/kg, whereas i.v. CYC dose was 0.73~0.03 mg/kg. Long-term complications and side-effects such as alopecia, infection and hemorrhagic cystitis were not observed in the i.v. CYC treated group. In the long term, the dosage of prednisolone that held remission after CYC, the annualized relapse rates and the subsequent relapse time were significantly better in the i.v. CYC group, and the number of patients in remission for 2 years was significantly higher in the i.v. treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: In SDNS, i.v. CYC has a long lasting effect with lower annualized relapse rates and longer subsequent relapse time with a lower steroid dosage required to maintain remission than oral CYC. The results of the present study showed the safety of the i.v. route, and it is the preferable treatment in noncompliant patients for its long lasting remission and simple and inexpensive follow up. [source]

A double-blind, randomized trial of intravenous versus intramuscular antivenom for Red-back spider envenoming

Rodney M Ellis
Abstract Objective:, To compare the efficacy of intravenous versus intramuscular antivenom (AV) in the treatment of Red-back spider (RBS) envenoming. Methods:, Randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, multicentre trial of patients with red-back spider envenoming requiring AV treatment recruited from five hospital EDs in Western Australia. Results:, Thirty-five patients were recruited; two were excluded; 33 were available for initial analysis, but two who were unblinded after one ampoule of trial AV and given i.v. AV had limited data; 31 remained in the study and had more complete data. After AV, pain scores for both i.m. and i.v. groups improved rapidly. At 24 h, the i.v. group was better with a 55% absolute difference (76% vs. 21%; 95% CI 25,85% difference) in the proportion pain-free. There were no safety issues. Conclusions:, Red-back spider antivenom was initially effective by both i.m. and i.v. routes. The study generates the hypothesis that at 24 h, significantly more patients are pain-free with i.v. administration. Definitive recommendations on the optimal route of administration of RBS AV await the results of further studies. [source]