IV Injections (iv + injection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Plasma Clearance of Exogenous Creatinine, Exo-Iohexol, and Endo-Iohexol in Hyperthyroid Cats before and after Treatment with Radioiodine

I. Van Hoek
Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be measured by clearance methods of different markers showing discrepancies and different reproducibility in healthy cats. Studies comparing different methods of GFR measurement in hyperthyroid cats have not yet been performed. Hypothesis: Plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine (PECCT), exo-iohexol (PexICT), and endo-iohexol (PenICT) could lead to differences in GFR measurement and the need to use the same clearance method when comparing GFR before and after radioiodine treatment in hyperthyroid cats. Animals: Fifteen client-owned hyperthyroid cats. Methods: GFR was measured 1 day before and 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after treatment. Intravenous injection of iohexol was followed immediately by IV injection of creatinine. Plasma creatinine was measured by an enzymatic method. Plasma endo- and exo-iohexol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet detection. Results: Globally, the 3 GFR methods resulted in significantly different (P < .001) GFR results. GFR results among the different methods were the same (P= .999) at all time points. All 3 techniques indicated decreasing GFR after 131I treatment. For each GFR technique, a significant decrease in GFR was observed between time point 0 and all other time points. This decrease stabilized 4 weeks after treatment, with very little decline afterward. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: It is mandatory to use the same GFR technique in follow-up studies. GFR testing at 4 weeks posttreatment could allow assessment of the final renal functional loss after treatment in hyperthyroid cats. [source]

Longitudinal mapping of mouse cerebral blood volume with MRI

Herman Moreno
Abstract MRI estimations of cerebral blood volume (CBV), useful in mapping brain dysfunction, typically require intravenous (IV) injections of contrast agents. Transgenically engineered mice have emerged as the dominant animal model with which to investigate disorders of the brain and novel therapeutic agents. The difficulty in gaining IV access in mice prohibits repeated administration of contrast in the same animal, limiting the ability to map CBV changes over time. Here we address this limitation by first optimizing an approach for estimating CBV that relies on intraperitoneal (IP) rather than IV injections of the contrast agent gadodiamide. Next, we show that CBV maps generated with IP or IV injections are quantitatively comparable. Finally, we show that CBV maps generated with IP gadodiamide can be acquired repeatedly, reliably and safely over time. Although this approach has certain limitations, estimating CBV with IP injections is well-suited for mapping the spatiotemporal pattern of brain dysfunction in mice models of disease, and for testing pharmacological agents. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

FDA report: Ferumoxytol for intravenous iron therapy in adult patients with chronic kidney disease,,§

Min Lu
On June 30, 2009, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ferumoxytol (FerahemeÔ injection, AMAG Pharmaceuticals), an iron-containing product for intravenous (IV) administration, for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The safety and efficacy of ferumoxytol were assessed in three randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trials. Two trials evaluated patients with nondialysis dependent CKD and a third trial assessed patients undergoing hemodialysis. Randomization was either to ferumoxytol or oral iron. Ferumoxytol was administered as two 510 mg IV injections, separated by 3,8 days. Oral iron, Ferro-Sequels®, was administered at a dose of 100 mg twice daily for 21 days. In all three clinical trials, ferumoxytol administration increased the mean blood hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations by ,1.0 g/dL over the 35 day period, a mean increase that was greater than what was observed in patients receiving oral iron. Patients receiving ferumoxytol also had increases in blood transferrin saturation (TSAT) and ferritin values. For the proposed ferumoxytol dosing regimen, 4.9% of patients had serum ferritin ,800 ng/mL and TSAT ,50% post-treatment. The most important ferumoxytol safety concerns were hypersensitivity reactions and/or hypotension. Anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions were reported in 0.2% of subjects, and other adverse reactions potentially associated with hypersensitivity (e.g., pruritus, rash, urticaria, or wheezing) were reported in 3.7%. Hypotension was observed in 1.9%, including three patients with serious hypotensive reactions. Ferumoxytol administration may transiently affect the diagnostic ability of magnetic resonance imaging and the drug label provides further information regarding this effect. Am. J. Hematol. 2010. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Lornoxicam pharmacokinetics in the vitreous humor of albino rabbits

Purpose To assess the elimination half-life of intravitreal lornoxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Methods Both eyes of 15 rabbits were intravitreally injected with 250 ,g of commercially available lornoxicam (for intravenous/intramuscular use, Xefo® 8 IV/IM Injection, Nycomed Hellas S.A.). Six eyes were enucleated at time points 0, 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours after the injection was performed. The eyes were immediately frozen at -80°C. The vitreous was eviscerated from the eye and the drug was liquid-liquid extracted from a 0.4 ml sample. Lornoxicam was isolated by a reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method at retention time 10.7 min and detected at 372 nm. The data were statistically analyzed in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug. Results The recovery of lornoxicam after liquid-liquid extraction was calculated at 69.6% and the limit of determination was 0.1 ,g/ml. Statistical analysis revealed that lornoxicam concentrations followed first-order kinetics with an elimination rate constant of 0.235h-1 and a half-life of 3.0 h. Conclusion The determination of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of intravitreal lornoxicam allows the possibility for further investigation of the drug's intraocular behaviour and therapeutic potential. [source]