I.v. Catheter (i.v + catheter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Application of a constant blood withdrawal method in equine exercise physiology studies

Summary The aim of the present study was to test a constant blood withdrawal method (CBWM) to collect blood samples from horses during treadmill exercise. CBWM was performed in 4 Standardbreds and 5 Haflinger horses. A peristaltic pump was used to control blood aspiration from an i.v. catheter via an extension line. Blood was collected using an automatic fractions collector, with a constant delay time between the drawing of blood and sample collection. Blood withdrawal using CBWM was made during a treadmill standardised exercise test (SET). A blood flow of 12 ml/min was used and samples collected every 60 s during the entire period of exercise. The volume of blood collected in each sample tube was 12.1 ▒ 0.2 ml, with a delay time of mean ▒ s.d. 25.3 ▒ 0.8 s. Plasma lactate kinetics based on measurement of lactate in each fraction showed an exponential increase during the first 13 min of exercise (10.5 min of SET and 2.5 min recovery). The peak plasma lactate concentration was observed between 2.5 and 5.5 min after the end of SET. CBWM permits the kinetics of lactate and other blood-borne variables to be studied over time. This method could be a valuable aid for use in studying equine exercise physiology. [source]

Analysis of factors affecting pain in intravenous catheter placement: a survey of 925 patients

S. Soysal
Summary The aim of the study was to determine some factors affecting pain during intravenous (i.v.) catheter placement in an emergency department (ED). A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at an academic ED. Nine hundred and twenty five adult patients who had a 20 gauge i.v. catheter placed were enrolled the study. Patients were excluded for the following conditions: more than one i.v. attempt, altered mental status, head trauma, lack of contact due to visual impairment, hearing or speech disorder, intoxication, distracting injury or physical abnormality at the i.v. site. The magnitude of pain of i.v. catheter placement was not related to age, sex, experience of the individual placing the i.v. catheter, site of i.v. catheter insertion and use of analgesic or antidepressive drugs (p > 0.05). Patients with a history of depression reported significantly higher pain than non-depressive patients (p = 0.001). Depressive patients reported higher severity of pain during i.v. catheter placement than nondepressed ones. This may influence the decision on whether or not to use local anaesthesia for catheter insertion. [source]

Operant Behavior and Alcohol Levels in Blood and Brain of Alcohol-Dependent Rats

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2009
Nicholas W. Gilpin
Background:, The purpose of the present investigation was to more clearly define blood-alcohol parameters associated with alcohol dependence produced by alcohol vapor inhalation and alcohol-containing liquid diet. Methods:, Alcohol levels in blood and brain were compared during and after 4 hours of acute alcohol vapor exposure; also, brain-alcohol levels were assessed in alcohol-exposed (14-day alcohol vapor) and alcohol-na´ve rats during and after 4 hours of acute alcohol vapor exposure. A separate group of rats were implanted with i.v. catheters, made dependent on alcohol via vapor inhalation, and tested for operant alcohol responding; blood-alcohol levels (BALs) were measured throughout operant alcohol drinking sessions during alcohol withdrawal. A final group of rats consumed an alcohol-liquid diet until they were dependent, and those rats were then tested for operant behavior at various withdrawal time points; BALs were measured at different withdrawal time points and after operant sessions. Results:, Blood- and brain-alcohol levels responded similarly to vapor, but brain-alcohol levels peaked at a higher point and more slowly returned to zero in alcohol-na´ve rats relative to alcohol-exposed rats. Alcohol vapor exposure also produced an upward shift in subsequent operant alcohol responding and resultant BALs. Rats consumed large quantities of alcohol-liquid diet, most of it during the dark cycle, sufficient to produce high blood-alcohol levels and elevated operant alcohol responding when tested during withdrawal from liquid diet. Conclusions:, These results emphasize that the key determinants of excessive alcohol drinking behavior are the BAL range and pattern of chronic high-dose alcohol exposure. [source]