IV Administration (iv + administration)

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Selected Abstracts

Mechanistic studies of blood pressure in rats treated with a series of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors,

Michael DePasquale
Abstract ILLUMINATE, the Phase 3 clinical trial of morbidity and mortality (M&M) with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi), torcetrapib (CP-529,414), was terminated in December 2006 due to an imbalance in all cause mortality. The underlying cause of the M&M remains undetermined. While torcetrapib produced dose-related increases in blood pressure in clinical trials, the mechanism of the increase in blood pressure is also undetermined. The pressor effects of torcetrapib and structurally related compounds were studied in several pathways involved in blood pressure control. Studies were conducted in rats treated with a series of structurally related molecules (CP-529,414, CP-532,623, PF-868,348, CP-746,281, CP-792,485, PF-868,343, and CE-308,958). CP-529,414, CP-532,623, CP-868,343, and CP-792,485 are potent CETP inhibitors; PF-868,348 is weakly potent and CP-746,281 and CE-308,958 are CETP-inactive. Changes in blood pressure were determined in conscious animals in conjunction with pharmacologic blockade of numerous pressor agents/pathways. Torcetrapib and CP-532,623 increased blood pressure following both chronic PO and acute IV administration. The CETP-inactive enantiomer of CP-532,623, CP-746,281 failed to raise blood pressure. PF-868,348, a structural analogue with ,50-fold lower CETPi activity also displayed pressor activity. Blockade of adrenergic, cholinergic, angiotensin, endothelin, NOS, Rho kinase, and thromboxane pathways failed to attenuate the pressor response. These data demonstrate that the blood pressure activity seen with torcetrapib can be dissociated from CETP inhibitor pharmacology and numerous pharmacology pathways can be discounted in the attempt to understand the molecular basis of the pressor pharmacology. Drug Dev Res 70:2009 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Characterization of mouse marrow stromal cells

S. S Liour
Neural transplantation is a promising therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzeheimer's, as well as mucopolysaccharidoses. However, neural transplantation is an invasive procedure in the early stages of research and development. In contrast, bone marrow transplantation has been used in medical treatment of immune and hematological disorders and genetic diseases. A increasing number of research reports suggest that cells derived from bone marrow, particularly mesenchymal stem cells, cannot only migrate into brains of recipient rodents after IV administration, but also differentiate into neurons and glia, to facilitate the functional recovery of rats after stroke or brain trauma. The lack of exclusive cell markers for mesenchymal stem cells makes them difficult to study. We isolated mouse marrow stromal cells and studied the expression of markers, particularly glycosphingolipids on their cell surface. Bone marrow was aspirated from femurs of two-month-old mice, and the stromal cells were propagated in attached cultures. Immuncytochemical analysis suggested that most stromal cells were immunopositive for antibodies against IGFR, flk-1, and CD44. Analysis of the glycosphingolipid composition by HPTLC revealed that GM3, GM2, GM1, and GD1a were the major gangliosides expressed in stromal cell in culture. Glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and paragloboside were the major neutral glycolipids expressed in these cells. Combinations of these cell surface markers may prove useful in the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Acknowledgements:, Supported by grants from NIH NS11853 and the Children's Medical Research Foundation. [source]

Disposition and pharmacokinetics of L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine-5-tetrazole-amide, a selective iNOS inhibitor, in rats

Ji Y. Zhang
Abstract The metabolism, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine-5-tetrazole-amide (L-NIL-TA), a selective inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, were investigated in rats. [14C]L-NIL-TA is extensively metabolized after either oral or IV administration with a minor amount (<1%) excreted as the prodrug. L-NIL-TA is metabolized via a single hydrolysis pathway to form the active drug, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). The oxidative deamination of 2-amino group of L-NIL forms a 2-keto metabolite (M5), which further loses carbon dioxide to yield a carboxylic acid metabolite (M6). Acetylation of L-NIL and M5 resulted in the formations of metabolites M7 and M4, respectively. Complete recovery of the radioactive dose was achieved after either oral (91.2% in urine and 4.66% in feces) and IV (99.3% in urine and 5.11% in feces) administration. L-NIL-TA-related material was extensively distributed to the tissues, with the highest concentration of radioactivity being found in muscle. Maximal concentration of radioactivity was reached between 0.5 and 1 h post-dose in the majority of tissues, with the exception of muscle and skin where the maximal concentrations were achieved at 8 h post-dose. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:1229,1240, 2004 [source]

Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics of Pantoprazole in Alpacas

G.W. Smith
Background: Despite frequent clinical use, information about the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of pantoprazole in camelids is not available. Objectives: To examine the pharmacokinetics of both IV and SC pantoprazole and to determine whether pantoprazole administration would increase 3rd compartment pH in alpacas. Animals: Six healthy adult alpacas. Methods: Alpacas were fitted with a 3rd compartment cannula for measuring gastric pH. After recovery, alpacas received 1 mg/kg pantoprazole IV, q24h for 3 days or 2 mg/kg SC q24h for 3 days. Alpacas received both IV and SC pantoprazole, with a minimum of 3 weeks between treatments. Third compartment pH was recorded and plasma samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. Results: Pantoprazole induced a slow but sustained increase in 3rd compartment pH when given by both the IV and SC routes. Third compartment pH was significantly increased as compared with baseline values (1.81 0.7; mean SD) at 24 (2.47 0.8), 48 (3.53 1.0) and 72 hours (4.03 1.3) after daily IV administration of pantoprazole. Third compartment pH increased from 1.73 0.6 at baseline to 3.05 1.1, 4.02 1.4, and 3.61 1.6 at 24, 48, and 72 hours after SC administration, respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that pantoprazole had a short elimination half-life (0.47 + 0.06 h) and a high clearance rate (12.2 2.9 mL/kg/min) after both IV and SC administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Based on the results of this study, pantoprazole represents a safe and effective drug for increasing 3rd compartment pH in camelids. Either IV or SC administration is likely to be an effective treatment for gastric ulcers. [source]

Evaluation of a Novel Real-Time Continuous Glucose-Monitoring System for Use in Cats

S. Moretti
Background: The Guardian REAL-Time is a continuous glucose-monitoring system (CGMS) recently developed to provide instantaneous interstitial glucose concentrations; the system does not require a monitor being fixed to the animal. Hypothesis: The CGMS provides accurate and reproducible real-time readings of glucose concentration in cats. Animals: Thirty-two diabetic cats, 2 cats with suspected insulinoma, and 5 healthy cats. Methods: Prospective, observational study. CGMS accuracy was compared with a reference glucose meter at normal, high, and low blood glucose concentrations using error grid analysis. Reading variability of 2 simultaneously used CGMS was determined in diabetic cats by calculating correlation and percentage of concordance of paired data at different glycemic ranges. The time interval between increasing glycemia and a rise in interstitial fluid glucose measured by the CGMS was assessed in healthy cats receiving glucose IV; the time point of maximal increase in interstitial glucose concentrations was calculated. Results: The CGMS was 100, 96.1, and 91.0% accurate at normal, high, and low blood glucose concentrations. Measurements deviated from reference by ,12.7 70.5 mg/dL at normal, ,12.1 141.5 mg/dL at high, and ,1.9 40.9 mg/dL at low glucose concentrations. Overall, paired CGMS readings correlated significantly (r= 0.95, P < .0001) and concordance was 95.7%. The median delay after IV administration of glucose to an increase in interstitial glucose was 11.4 minutes (range: 8.8,19.7 minutes). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Although some readings substantially deviated from reference values, the CGMS yields reproducible results, is clinically accurate in cats with hyperglycemia and euglycemia, and is slightly less accurate if blood glucose concentrations are low. Rapidly increasing interstitial glucose after a glycemic rise suggests that the CGMS is suitable for real-time measurement under clinical conditions. [source]

Replacement of intravenous administration of anti-D by subcutaneous administration in patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenia

O. Meyer
Abstract Intravenous (IV) administration of anti-D in patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP) may result in severe hemolysis and even death. Over a 3-year period, we gave anti-D only subcutaneously (SC), and none of our patients have developed any acute adverse reaction. Most importantly, SC delivery of anti-D produces largely the same beneficial effect as obtained by IV anti-D. We recommend replacement of IV administration of anti-D by SC administration in AITP. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006;47:721,722. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Neural precursors attenuate autoimmune encephalomyelitis by peripheral immunosuppression

Ofira Einstein MSc
Objective Intracerebroventricular or intravenous (IV) injection of neural precursor cells (NPCs) attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis. Although stem cell therapy was introduced initially for cell replacement, we examine here whether NPCs possess immunomodulatory effects. Methods We examined the effects of systemic administration of NPCs on central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in EAE and the interactions between NPCs and T cells in vitro and in vivo. Results IV NPC therapy decreased significantly CNS inflammation and tissue injury and attenuated the clinical severity of EAE. IV-injected NPCs could not be found in the CNS but were detected in lymphoid organs. Coculture experiments showed that NPCs inhibited the activation and proliferation of lymph node,derived T cells in response to CNS-derived antigens and to nonspecific polyclonal stimuli. The relevance of NPC/lymph node cell interactions in vivo was further demonstrated when lymph node cells obtained from IV NPC-treated mice exhibited poor encephalitogenicity on transfer to naive mice and caused a markedly milder EAE compared with those obtained from nontreated mice. Interpretation IV administration of neural precursors inhibits EAE by a peripheral immunosuppressive effect. Our findings suggest a profound bystander inhibitory effect of NPCs on T-cell activation and proliferation in the lymph nodes, leading to amelioration of EAE. Ann Neurol 2006 [source]

Pharmacokinetics and residues in milk of oxytetra-cyclines administered parenterally to dairy goats

Objective To determine for two commercial preparations of oxytetracycline (OTC) the pharmacokinetic behaviour, the presence of detectable milk residues and the penetration in milk of OTC administered by intravenous (IV) (conventional formulation [CF]) and intramuscular (IM) routes (CF and long-acting [LA] formulations) in goats producing milk. The effects of these formulations on plasma activity values of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also determined as indicators of tissue damage. Procedure Five healthy lactating goats producing 1.5 0.5 L/d milk and weighing 56.0 4.8 kg were used. Single doses of OTC chlorhydrate (CF) were administered (20 mg OTC/kg) by IV (Trial 1 IV) and IM (Trial 1 IM) routes and OTC dehydrate (LA) by the IM route. The same goats were first given IV CF, then IM CF followed by IM LA with 3 weeks between each treatment. Blood and milk samples were taken. The quantification of OTC was performed by HPLC and the plasma activities of CK and LDH enzymes were determined by spectrophotometry. The presence of OTC residues in milk was determined by a commercial reagent. The plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a two-compartment model. Results Estimates of kinetic variables following IV administration were: Vss= 400.0 120.0 mL/kg and CL= 110.0 14.0 (mL/h)/kg. The tfi for IV= 3.0 0.3 h; IM, CF = 10.5 2.1 h and IM, LA = 15.1 3.1 h. The concentration of OTC in milk at 48 h was: IV= 0.6 0.4; IM CF= 1.1 0.2 and at 72 h (IM LA)= 0.6 0.1 ,g/mL and the penetration in milk of OTC was: IV= 70.0 18.0; IM CF= 79.0 14.0 and IM LA= 66.0 6.0 %. The areas under the curve of CK and LDH activities in plasma were calculated by the trapezoidal method. Values of CK and LDH IM, LA were greater (P < 0.05) than those observed for IM, CF at 2 and 3 days after administration of the antibiotic. Finally, the bioavailability of OTC CF = 92.0 22.0 and LA= 78.0 23.0 % was suitable for its usage by the IM route in lactating goats. Conclusion Plasma concentration-time values of OTC administered parenterally in production dairy goats showed similar bioavailability for the two pharmaceutical preaprations. The presence of detectable residues in milk indicates that milk should not be used for human consumption for 2 and 3 days after administration of conventional and long-acting formulations, respectively. The increments in CK and LDH activities after the IM administration of LA are consistent with the presence of tissue damage provoked by the pharmaceutical preparations at the injection site. [source]

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral midazolam in plasma and saliva in humans: usefulness of saliva as matrix for CYP3A phenotyping

Bettina Link
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT , Midazolam is a frequently used probe drug for CYP3A phenotyping in plasma. Midazolam and its hydroxy-metabolites can be detected in saliva. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS , The concentrations of midazolam and its hydroxy-metabolites are much lower in saliva than in plasma, but the midazolam concentrations in both matrices show a significant linear correlation. , Saliva appears to be a suitable matrix for CYP3A phenotyping with midazolam, but very sensitive methods are required due to the low concentrations of midazolam and its hydroxy-metabolites. AIMS To compare midazolam kinetics between plasma and saliva and to find out whether saliva is suitable for CYP3A phenotyping. METHODS This was a two way cross-over study in eight subjects treated with 2 mg midazolam IV or 7.5 mg orally under basal conditions and after CYP3A induction with rifampicin. RESULTS Under basal conditions and IV administration, midazolam and 1,-hydroxymidazolam (plasma, saliva), 4-hydroxymidazolam and 1,-hydroxymidazolam-glucuronide (plasma) were detectable. After rifampicin, the AUC of midazolam [mean differences plasma 53.7 (95% CI 4.6, 102.9) and saliva 0.83 (95% CI 0.52, 1.14) ng ml,1 h] and 1,-hydroxymidazolam [mean difference plasma 11.8 (95% CI 7.9 , 15.7) ng ml,1 h] had decreased significantly. There was a significant correlation between the midazolam concentrations in plasma and saliva (basal conditions: r = 0.864, P < 0.0001; after rifampicin: r = 0.842, P < 0.0001). After oral administration and basal conditions, midazolam, 1,-hydroxymidazolam and 4-hydroxymidazolam were detectable in plasma and saliva. After treatment with rifampicin, the AUC of midazolam [mean difference plasma 104.5 (95% CI 74.1, 134.9) ng ml,1 h] and 1,-hydroxymidazolam [mean differences plasma 51.9 (95% CI 34.8, 69.1) and saliva 2.3 (95% CI 1.9, 2.7) ng ml,1 h] had decreased significantly. The parameters separating best between basal conditions and post-rifampicin were: (1,-hydroxymidazolam + 1,-hydroxymidazolam-glucuronide)/midazolam at 20,30 min (plasma) and the AUC of midazolam (saliva) after IV, and the AUC of midazolam (plasma) and of 1,-hydroxymidazolam (plasma and saliva) after oral administration. CONCLUSIONS Saliva appears to be a suitable matrix for non-invasive CYP3A phenotyping using midazolam as a probe drug, but sensitive analytical methods are required. [source]

Intramuscular hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleosides for prevention of recurrent hepatitis B following liver transplantation: comparison with other HBIG regimens

Robert D Anderson
Abstract:, High titer hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) has significantly reduced the recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after liver transplantation. We compared our experience with intramuscular (IM) HBIG prophylaxis to our earlier outcomes with intravenous (IV) HBIG and other regimens. Methods:, One hundred and twenty-three patients with acute or chronic hepatitis B underwent liver transplant at the Baylor Regional Transplant Center between July 1985 and July of 2005. Of these, 63 (43%) received long-term low-dose IM (n = 17) or high-dose IV (n = 46) HBIG. All patients in IM group also received a nucleoside before and after transplant. These patients were compared with those transplanted earlier who received either no prophylaxis (n = 16) or HBIG on day zero and one only (n = 44). Results:, HBV recurrence was significantly lower in patients who received long-term HBIG [9/38 (23.7%) for IV and 1/17 (5.9%) for IM] compared with patients who received no treatment (8/11; 72.7%) or only two doses of HBIG (32/40; 80.0%). Two-yr actuarial survivals were 89%, 88%, 54%, and 64%, respectively. Patients on long-term HBIG by either parenteral route survived as well as patients transplanted for other indications. Post-transplant recurrence of hepatitis B in the long-term HBIG groups was usually controlled by intensifying antiviral therapy. Conclusion:, Long-term low-dose IM and high-dose IV HBIG are equally efficacious with similar survival and early hepatitis recurrence rates. Graft loss is usually avoidable when recurrence is discovered early and aggressively treated. The IM route is preferable to IV administration due to its ease of administration and lower cost. [source]

Application of pharmacokinetic,pharmacodynamic modeling to predict the kinetic and dynamic effects of anti-methotrexate antibodies in mice

Evelyn D. Lobo
Abstract We have shown that intravenous (iv) administration of anti-methotrexate (MTX) antibodies (AMAb) reduces the systemic exposure of intraperitoneal (ip) MTX therapy, and we have proposed that AMAb effects on MTX systemic exposure would allow a reduction in MTX-induced systemic toxicity (i.e., producing a desirable antagonistic effect). However, many literature reports have shown that anti-toxin antibodies occasionally demonstrate unexpected agonist-like activity, increasing the extent of toxicity induced by their ligand. In this report, we have utilized a pharmacokinetic,pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model to predict the potential of AMAb to increase or decrease the magnitude of MTX-induced body weight loss in mice. Simulations predicted that both anti-MTX immunoglobulin G (AMI) and anti-MTX Fab fragments (AMF) would lead to increases or decreases in MTX toxicity, with effects dependent on the dosing protocol used. Based on the computer simulations, two protocols were selected for in vivo evaluation of predicted agonistic or antagonistic effects. Murine monoclonal AMI and AMF were produced, purified, and characterized. Agonistic effects were tested after 24-h infusion of ip MTX (10 mg/kg) and iv administration of an equimolar dose of AMI. Antagonistic effects were tested after 72-h infusion of ip MTX (5 mg/kg) and iv infusion of an equimolar dose of AMF. Consistent with model predictions of agonist-like activity, the 24-h AMI protocol led to significantly increased animal mortality (all animals died, p,<,0.005) and mean nadir weight loss (p,<,0.005). Also consistent with the predictions of the PKPD model, the 72-h AMF protocol significantly decreased animal mortality and mean nadir body weight loss (p,<,0.01). Thus, these studies demonstrate that agonistic and antagonistic effects of anti-toxin antibodies may be predicted through the use of an integrated PKPD model. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 92:1665,1676, 2003 [source]

Pharmacokinetics and protein binding of the selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole

Mark A. Bush
Abstract Utilization of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitors to probe the role of NO in various central nervous system processes requires use of an inhibitor selective for neuronal NOS, and is facilitated by knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the inhibitor. The present project was undertaken to elucidate the disposition of the selective neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI). A simple, specific HPLC assay was developed with requisite sensitivity to quantitate 7-NI in serum after administration of pharmacologically relevant doses. Further experiments were performed to assess the effects of administered dose on 7-NI disposition. 7-NI displayed marked nonlinearity, consistent with saturable elimination, when administered by ip injection in peanut oil. The nonlinearity was related to total dose, but not to the concentration of 7-NI in the vehicle. Binding of 7-NI in rat serum was concentration-independent and does not contribute to the nonlinearity. Various formulations for iv administration of this water-insoluble compound were evaluated; the optimal vehicle, from the standpoint of 7-NI solubility, appeared to inhibit the clearance of 7-NI from the systemic circulation. Considering the nonlinear disposition of 7-NI, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of this inhibitor is requisite to designing administration protocols to achieve the desired magnitude and duration of NOS inhibition. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]