IV Acute GVHD (iv + acute_gvhd)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Graft rejection and hyperacute graft-versus-host disease in stem cell transplantation from non-inherited maternal antigen complementary HLA-mismatched siblings

Hirokazu Okumura
Abstract Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched stem cell transplantation from non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA)-complementary donors is known to produce stable engraftment without inducing severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We treated two patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and one patient with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) with HLA-mismatched stem cell transplantation (SCT) from NIMA-complementary donors (NIMA-mismatched SCT). The presence of donor and recipient-derived blood cells in the peripheral blood of recipient (donor microchimerism) and donor was documented respectively by amplifying NIMA-derived DNA in two of the three patients. Graft rejection occurred in the SAA patient who was conditioned with a fludarabine-based regimen. Grade III and grade IV acute GVHD developed in patients with AML on day 8 and day 11 respectively, and became a direct cause of death in one patient. The findings suggest that intensive conditioning and immunosuppression after stem cell transplantation are needed in NIMA-mismatched SCT even if donor and recipient microchimerisms is detectable in the donor and recipient before SCT. [source]

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Shwachman,Diamond disease: a study from the European Group for blood and marrow transplantation

Simone Cesaro
Summary This report assessed the results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in 26 patients with Shwachman,Diamond disease (SDS) and severe bone marrow abnormalities. The conditioning regimen was based on busulphan (54%), total body irradiation (23%), fludarabine (15%) or other chemotherapy combinations (8%). Standard prevention of graft versus host disease (GVHD) with ciclosporin methotrexate was adopted in 54% of the patients whilst in vivo or in vitro T-cell depletion was used in 17 and four patients respectively. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were achieved in 21 (81%) and 17 (65%) of 26 patients after a median time of 18 days and 29 days respectively. The incidence of grade III and IV acute GVHD was 24% and of chronic GVHD 29%. Nine patients died after a median time of 70 d, post-SCT. After a median follow-up of 11 years, the transplant-related mortality was 355% (95% CI 17,54) whilst the overall survival was 645% (95% CI 457,832). Allo-SCT was found to be successful in more than half of SDS patients with severe bone marrow dysfunction. Further improvements would be anticipated by a better definition of the optimum time in the course of disease to transplant and by the adoption of less toxic conditioning regimens. [source]

Allograft with unrelated donor accentuates the gastrointestinal toxicity associated with high-dose melphalan and total body irradiation preparative for bone marrow transplantation in children

K. Vettenranta
Abstract: The use of high-dose melphalan ( l -phenyalalanine mustard or l -PAM) has been shown to be associated with both hematological and non-hematological toxicity. It has been employed in the conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplants from related donors but experience on its use in the unrelated setting has not been reported. As an attempt to elucidate the role of high-dose l -PAM (210 mg/m2) and total body irradiation (TBI) as a preparative regimen for allogeneic marrow transplantation from matched unrelated donors, they were employed in an institutional pilot series of seven pediatric patients. When compared with recipients of unrelated marrow grafts conditioned using other regimens, those treated with high-dose l -PAM experienced a markedly more severe acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD). The overall incidence of grade III,IV acute GvHD was higher (86% vs. 14%) among those treated with l -PAM. As judged by gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, clinically significant (stages ++ to ++++) gut GvHD was strikingly more prevalent among those treated with l -PAM (86% vs. 9%, p<0.005). Toxic mortality prior to day +100 was 29% in the l -PAM group and 9% in the non- l -PAM group of patients. With a mean follow-up of 21 months no increase in the incidence of chronic GvHD has been encountered among those conditioned with l -PAM. We conclude that the use of preparative L -PAM for allogeneic transplants from unrelated donors is associated with considerable procedure-related toxicity. We strongly suggest its use in this setting to be viewed with caution. [source]

Disparity for the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 is associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but it does not affect chronic GvHD incidence, disease-free survival or overall survival after allogeneic human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling donor transplantation

David Gallardo
Disparity for the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 between patient and donor has been associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, no data concerning the impact of such disparity on chronic GvHD, relapse or overall survival are available. A retrospective multicentre study was performed on 215 HLA-A2-positive patients who received an HLA-identical sibling SCT, in order to determine the differences in acute and chronic GvHD incidence on the basis of the presence or absence of the HA-1 antigen mismatch. Disease-free survival and overall survival were also analysed. We detected 34 patient,donor pairs mismatched for HA-1 antigen (158%). Grades II,IV acute GvHD occurred in 516% of the HA-1-mismatched pairs compared with 371% of the non-mismatched. The multivariate logistic regression model showed statistical significance (P: 0035, OR: 296, 95% CI: 107,814). No differences were observed between the two groups for grades III,IV acute GvHD, chronic GvHD, disease-free survival or overall survival. These results confirmed the association between HA-1 mismatch and risk of mild acute GvHD, but HA-1 mismatch was not associated with an increased incidence of chronic GvHD and did not affect relapse or overall survival. [source]