I.e. Number (i.e + number)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


A minimum sample size required from Schmidt hammer measurements

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 13 2009
Tomasz Niedzielski
Abstract The Schmidt hammer is a useful tool applied by geomorphologists to measure rock strength in field conditions. The essence of field application is to obtain a sufficiently large dataset of individual rebound values, which yields a meaningful numerical value of mean strength. Although there is general agreement that a certain minimum sample size is required to proceed with the statistics, the choice of size (i.e. number of individual impacts) was usually intuitive and arbitrary. In this paper we show a simple statistical method, based on the two-sample Student's t -test, to objectively estimate the minimum number of rebound measurements. We present the results as (1) the ,mean' and ,median' solutions, each providing a single estimate value, and (2) the empirical probability distribution of such estimates based on many field samples. Schmidt hammer data for 14 lithologies, 13,81 samples for each, with each sample consisting of 40 individual readings, have been evaluated, assuming different significance levels. The principal recommendations are: (1) the recommended minimum sample size for weak and moderately strong rock is 25; (2) a sample size of 15 is sufficient for sandstones and shales; (3) strong and coarse rocks require 30 readings at a site; (4) the minimum sample size may be reduced by one-third if the context of research allows for higher significance level for test statistics. Interpretations based on less than 10 readings from a site should definitely be avoided. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Strophe Length in Spontaneous Songs Predicts Male Response to Playback in the Hoopoe Upupa epops

ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
Manuel Martín-Vivaldi
Hoopoe (Upupa epops, Coraciformes) males produce a very simple song during the breeding season in order to attract females and repel intruders. Strophes vary in length (i.e. number of elements) both within and between males, and previous studies have shown that this song cue is positively correlated with male condition and breeding success. In the present study we tested whether strophe length of males influences male behaviour during intra-sexual contests, in a colour-ringed population in southeast Spain. Paired males were presented with a recorded song with long strophes during the pre-laying period, while they were near their mates, in order to provoke male mate-defence behaviour. Most males responded to the playback, but the strategy of defence adopted depended on their own strophe length in spontaneous songs recorded before the experiments. While singing responses were common to most of the males, only those using long strophes adopted the most risky strategy of approaching the loudspeaker. However, the males that approached produced abnormal songs during playback, that were shorter and with fewer strophes than those of males that did not approach, and used shorter strophes in comparison with spontaneous songs before the experiment. These differences in quality of the song produced in response to the playback suggest that long-strophe males were basing their response mainly on attacking rather than singing, while short-strophe males tried to resolve the contest at a distance by means of their song. These results show that strophe length reflects some component of the competitive ability of males (either physical strength or aggressiveness) in the hoopoe, which together with previous results regarding its role for female choice, show that it is a sexual signal with dual function. [source]


Family and work predictors of parenting role stress among two-earner families of children with disabilities

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2005
Marji Erickson Warfield
Abstract Family resources (i.e. household income and spouse support), parenting challenges (i.e. number of children, difficulty finding reliable child care, and child characteristics), work rewards (i.e. work interest) and work demands (i.e. hours and work overload) were tested as predictors of parenting role stress among mothers and fathers in two-earner families of five-year old children with disabilities. The two-level hierarchical model was adapted to assess mothers and fathers as nested within married couples. Both common and unique predictors of maternal and paternal parenting role stress were found. Having fewer children in the family predicted less stress for both parents. Household income and an interaction between child behaviour problems and work interest were significant predictors of maternal parenting role stress. In contrast, greater difficulty in finding reliable child care predicted higher levels of parenting role stress for fathers but not mothers. The policy and research implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Long-term dynamics of winter and summer annual communities in the Chihuahuan Desert

JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 4 2002
Qinfeng Guo
Kearney & Peebles (1960) Abstract. Winter and summer annuals in the Chihuahuan Desert have been intensively studied in recent years but little is known about the similarities and differences in the dynamics between these two communities. Using 15 yr of census data from permanent quadrats, this paper compared the characteristics and temporal dynamics of these two distinct, spatially co-existent but temporally segregated communities. Although the total number of summer annual species recorded during our 15 yr of observation was higher than winter annuals, the mean number of species observed each year was higher in the winter community. The winter community exhibited lower temporal variation in total plant abundance and populations of individual species, lower species turnover rate and higher evenness than the summer community. The rank abundances of species in winter were significantly positively correlated for a period of up to 7 yr while in summer significant positive correlations in rank abundance disappeared after 2 to 3 yr. The higher seasonal species diversity (i.e. number of species observed in each season) in winter rather than the overall special pool (over 15 yr) may be responsible for the greater community stability of winter annuals. The difference in long-term community dynamics between the two communities of annual plants are likely due to the differences in total species pool, life history traits (e.g. seed size), and seasonal climatic regimes. [source]


A re-examination of the expected effects of disturbance on diversity

OIKOS, Issue 3 2000
Robin L. Mackey
Disturbance is often cited as one of the main factors determining patterns of species diversity. Several models have predicted qualitatively that species richness should be highest at intermediate intensities and/or frequencies of disturbances, but none indicate whether this effect should be strong (statistically accounting for much variability in diversity) or only subtle. Empirical evidence on the point is very mixed. This study examines Markov models of the dynamics of six real communities. We derive the predicted changes in species richness and evenness when these communities are subjected to quantified disturbance frequency and intensity gradients. We also use several different sampling intensities (i.e. numbers of individuals counted) to determine how this affects richness-disturbance relationships. Our models predict that peaked responses of diversity to disturbance should be less common than monotonic ones. Species richness should vary, on average, by only 3% over gradients of no disturbance to complete disturbance. In the most extreme case, richness varied two-fold over this gradient. Moreover, richness may increase monotonically, decrease monotonically, or be a peaked function of disturbance, interacting in a non-intuitive fashion with both the sampling intensity and the community in question. These results are broadly consistent with a review of published richness-disturbance relationships. Evenness varies somewhat more strongly along disturbance gradients, but the effect is still small. We conclude that extant models provide little reason to believe that disturbance should play more than a subtle role in determining patterns of diversity in nature, contrary to most contemporary literature. [source]